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Published on March 8, 2012

Author: shyam038


NON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH : NON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONTENTS : CONTENTS Nonexperimental Research Definition : Nonexperimental Research Definition Defined by exclusion (i.e., research that is not experimental) and is often first step in addressing theoretical questions by empirical methods . EXAMPLE Experimental research on physiological and behavioural factors in alcoholism Non-experimental observation that alcoholism tends to run in families. Slide 4: First Characteristic of Nonexperimental Research – degree of control that the researcher has over the subjects and the conditions compared to those in experimental research. EXAMPLE: Learning in students who studied a textbook and students who only attended lectures. If you only observe students learning in existing classes under the same two conditions, one does not have a true experimental study Second Characteristic of Nonexperimental Research – data collection procedure must often forfeit some degree of control in return for obtaining the data EG: Study of public records that requires a short questionnaire to help gain the cooperation of subjects Observational research : Observational research Research in which the researcher simply observes ongoing behaviour field observation of ducks from a blind. television monitoring of people in a store. Types of observational research : Types of observational research Naturalistic Observation Participant Observer Research Case Study Archival Research Naturalistic Observation : Naturalistic Observation Naturalistic observation, also known as nonparticipant observation or non reactive research. It has no intervention by a researcher It is simply studying behaviors that occur naturally in natural contexts, unlike the artificial environment of a controlled laboratory setting. Importantly, in naturalistic observation, there is no attempt to manipulate variables example:Naturalists observing birds or other animals from a blind Naturalistic Observation : Naturalistic Observation Strength: We can measure what behavior is really like. After all, the researcher is observing real-life. This type of research, then, has high ecological validity Weakness: We don't know the cause of behaviors, nor do we know if any observation is representative of what normally occurs Criteria for Naturalistic Observation : Criteria for Naturalistic Observation There are three specific criteria for an observational research study to be considered 'naturalistic.‘ 1) The setting must be natural 2) The event must be natural 3) The behavior must be natural Naturalistic Observation – a few rules : Naturalistic Observation – a few rules 1. Careful Record Keeping Observer should keep a record of all behaviours of interest and the times at which they occur. 2. Use of a Variety of Measures. Using a variety of measures helps ensure that the observations are representative and not dependent on one measure only. 3. Care for Privacy of the Participants Participant Observation : Participant Observation unlike naturalistic observation, the researcher intervenes in the environment this refers to inserting yourself as a member of a group in order to observe behaviour famous examples of participant observation: : famous examples of participant observation: Example 1: David Rosenhan (On Being Sane in Insane Places, 1973) He was interested in how diagnoses of mental illness were made. He and seven associates went to different mental institutions and simply said they were hearing voices. They were all admitted to the hospitals, despite the fact that they all acted normally. The range of stays in the hospitals was from a low of 9 days to a high of 52 days . It seems the people who knew the researchers weren't real patients were the real patients themselves! When the eight were discharged, it wasn't on the basis of misdiagnosis but "schizophrenia in remission." Rosenhan would have never been able to have the insight into how labels, diagnoses, and treatments were given without acting as a participant in the observation Participant-Observer Research – few rules : Participant-Observer Research – few rules A. Investigator(s) participate in groups and record their observations. B. Investigator(s) must be able to gain access to the group C. Problems of objectivity. Investigator(s) must strike balance between taking viewpoint of group members and maintaining scientific objectivity. D. Methodology must be: 1. open-ended, 2. flexible, and 3. opportunistic. ARCHIVAL RESEARCH : ARCHIVAL RESEARCH Archival research involves an analysis of already-existing data An hypothesis is generated and then tested by analyzing data that have already been collected This is a useful approach when one has access to large amounts of information collected over long periods of time. Archival Research – Limitations : Archival Research – Limitations 1. Most archival data are collected for non-scientific reasons EG: Governments and private agencies collect the data for their own purposes, and such data often do not suit the purposes of the scientist 2. Because archival research is carried out after the fact Case Study : Case Study Contents : Contents What is a Case Study? Characteristics of a Case Study How to Conduct Case Studies. What is a Case Study? : What is a Case Study? Case study means conducting an em-pirical investigation of a contempo-rary phenomenon within its natural context using multiple sources of evidence The topics of case study can be about programs, events, persons, processes, institutions, social groups, and other contemporary phenomenon. Characteristics of a Case Study : Characteristics of a Case Study “thick” description, grounded, holistic and lifelike, conversation-style format, illuminates meaning, builds on tacit knowledge can be used to remedy or improve practice, results are hypotheses, design is flexible, can be applied to troubled situations particularistic, longitudinal, qualitative inductive, multiplicity of data, descriptive, specific How to conduct a Case Study : How to conduct a Case Study 1. Identify research question 2. Determine types of case study (single or multi-model approach) 3. Select participants or groups 4. Collect data 5. Analyze data 6. Compose the report 7. Evaluate the validity and reliability References : References Colorado State University. (2007). Writing Guides Case Study. Retrieved November 2nd, 2007 from research/casestudy/pop4a.cfm Hancock, D.R. and Algozzine, B. (2006). Doing Case Study Research. New York: Teacher College Columbia University. Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case Study Research in Education. London: Jossey- Bass Publishers Research Reports and Case Study. Retrieved November 2nd, 2007 from

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