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Education

Published on January 11, 2008

Author: Carla

Source: authorstream.com

What About the Boys? Providing Academic Support to African American Males:  What About the Boys? Providing Academic Support to African American Males Pedro A. Noguera, Ph.D. New York University Understanding the Nature of the Risks:  Understanding the Nature of the Risks Facts about Black males in school More likely to be suspended or expelled More likely to drop-out More likely to be placed in special education More likely to be missing from honors, gifted and advanced placement More likely to be under-represented among school personnel (except as custodians, security guards and disciplinarians) Correspondence with societal patterns:  Correspondence with societal patterns Black males are the only segment of the US population with a declining life expectancy Adult Black males are more likely to: Be arrested, convicted, incarcerated, and executed Be unemployed and discriminated against in labor market To suffer from colon cancer, heart disease, HIV/AIDS To be murdered or to become a victim of violence To be denied the right to vote To be under represented in professional careers, over represented in military, sports and entertainment Key Question: What is there about being Black and male in American society that causes disproportionate rates of failure?:  Key Question: What is there about being Black and male in American society that causes disproportionate rates of failure? Most Black males are not at risk:  Most Black males are not at risk Successful Black men: Colin Powell, Michael Jordan, Clarence Thomas, Cornell West, Robert Johnson, Bill Cosby, Michael Jackson Is it a race and gender issue or class issue? Most Black men are not in prison and do not have HIV Young Black men is the answer, but what is the question? Structural Factors: Circumstances beyond individual control that profoundly shape life chances:  Structural Factors: Circumstances beyond individual control that profoundly shape life chances Political economy - access to jobs, housing and educational opportunities De-industrialization Suburbanization globalization Environmental conditions - health and safety Racial segregation and concentrated poverty Red lining, public housing, “no zones” Political and social marginalization Cultural factors: Values, norms and beliefs that shape behavior:  Cultural factors: Values, norms and beliefs that shape behavior Media images - sports, entertainment, propagating racial stereotypes Weakening of cultural institutions Declining influence of churches and other institutions on youth Family influences: Child rearing practices - treating boys and girls differently Peer influences - to be popular or smart Societal expectations - racial stereotypes (criminalization) Teacher expectations Employer bias Internalization of labels and stereotypes Agency: The power of choice and free will:  Agency: The power of choice and free will Friere - Humans vs. animals, nature vs. culture Empowerment through critical consciousness - reading the world, recognizing human capacity to intervene Developing resilience - mentoring, expanding opportunities, recognizing assets and talents Social Construction of Black Masculinity:  Social Construction of Black Masculinity Gender Socialization and identity formation Subjective: Physical - sports and violence Sexual prowess - player for life Cool pose - Majors Objectification: Bhaba: Phobia and fetish Oppositional Stances Rooted in resistance to oppression Fanon - fratricidal tendencies Peer approval Individual survivial Black Male Success:  Black Male Success Contingent Upon: Adoption of social skills that make whites feel at ease Clarence Thomas’ smile Learning to code switch Speech, dress, demeanor Code of the streets vs. the code of the school or board room School Factors:  School Factors Teacher-student relationships - Cemetery method of instruction - Boykin: teaching with verve Empowering or disabling - Cummins Bryke - the importance of caring The ways in which discipline is used Punitive vs. educational Tracking and academic advancement Sorting to deny opportunity or pushing for excellence Counseling and Mentoring Emotional and psychological support What do Black males tell us about their experiences in school?:  What do Black males tell us about their experiences in school? MSAN and Pathways research: It’s boring, they aren’t challenged and stimulated Their teachers don’t like them, don’t encourage them, and some fear them They are unfairly targeted for discipline They think it is more important to be popular, cool or tough, than smart What schools can do to support Black males:  What schools can do to support Black males Provide high quality early childhood education Develop early intervention systems Develop partnerships with churches and community based organizations Academic counseling for students and parents Hire Black males in professional roles Use extra-curricular activities to keep kids engaged Interventions that work:  Interventions that work Community support - Young Black Scholars, Omega Boys Club, peer support discipline based on values emotional and spiritual development adult role models with moral authority broadened exposure to world and opportunity Accelerated learning opportunities - MESA, Upward Bound, Break-the-Cycle, Arch Bishop Malloy’s Leadership Council Schools with high expectations Malcolm X Academy - Detroit St. Hope Academy - Sacramento Cultivating Agency: Influencing the choices that are made by Black males:  Cultivating Agency: Influencing the choices that are made by Black males Educate them about their history and culture - Paul Robeson Institute Provide opportunities for community service, activism and leadership development - Urban Arts Utilize community-centered problem-posing curriculum Channel the energy, don’t crush it Sports, music, art Deal constructively with the anger Emotional intelligence

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