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Information about noble

Published on December 12, 2007

Author: Cinderella


Slide1:  Summary of the NUSL Workshop at LEAD Tony Noble Nov 9, 2001 Outline Introduction Physics Program Experimental Program Underground Sites Status of NUSL Slide2:  Introduction ~ 200 Scientists and educators discussing: Physics Programme Geophysics Biology in extreme environments Outreach Purpose: To explore the physics reach of a facility like NUSL, and in particular, to define the requirements in terms of: Physical: space, material transport, access…. Utilities: power, water, air, cooling…. Radioactivity: muons, neutrons, sheilding…. Special: safety, calibration sources, …. Input to technical design of facility Slide3:  Pre-History of Homestake NUSL Proposal Homestake: A 125 year old Gold mine in Lead, South Dakota Slide4:  Pre-History of Homestake NUSL Proposal 1965 Ray Davis’s Chlorine Expt. in active Homestake Gold Mine. Slide5:  Pre-History of Homestake NUSL Proposal 1965 Ray Davis’s Chlorine Expt. in active Homestake Gold Mine. 1980’s First effort to create a US underground lab unsuccessful. Not enough interest in Scientific community. Accelerator program takes precedence. Slide6:  Physics community now interested. Solar neutrino results Atmospheric neutrino oscillations LSND results Clearer picture of missing mass in the universe from CMB anisotropy, type 1a supernovae, …. Pre-History of Homestake NUSL Proposal 1965 Ray Davis’s Chlorine Expt. in active Homestake Gold Mine. 1980’s First effort to create a US underground lab unsuccessful. 2000 Widespread interest in creating an underground Lab in the US. Slide7:  News Release Homestake Mining Company 1600 Riviera Avenue, Suite 200 Walnut Creek, CA 94596 HOMESTAKE ANNOUNCES CLOSURE OF THE HOMESTAKE MINE; WALNUT CREEK, CA, SEPTEMBER 11, 2000 Pre-History of Homestake NUSL Proposal 1965 Ray Davis’s Chlorine Expt. in active Homestake Gold Mine. 1980’s First effort to create a US underground lab unsuccessful. 2000 Widespread interest in creating an underground Lab in the US. 2000 Homestake announces closure of the mine on December 31, 2001. Unique opportunity presents itself. Limited time. Slide8:  Pre-History of Homestake NUSL Proposal 1965 Ray Davis’s Chlorine Expt. in active Homestake Gold Mine. Highly recommended for immediate construction in the US Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics (NSAC) 1980’s First effort to create a US underground lab unsuccessful. 2000 Widespread interest in creating an underground Lab in the US. 2000 Homestake announces closure of the mine on December 31, 2001. Unique opportunity presents itself. Limited time. Bahcall Committee struck Calls for the creation of a deep National Underground Science Lab, Two excellent possibilities, Homestake and San Jacinto, It favors Homestake. Slide9:  NUSL at Homestake Generic Layout Several large halls: ~20m x 20m x 100m UG Office. Multilevel, ~20m x 20m x 36m Surface facilities…. Slide10:  Deep. > 5000 mwe required.  7400' level Dedicated facility. 24/7/365 Cage system converted to large freight cage and personel cage. Redundancy and construction in || with science. Slide11:  Issues to Consider during the Workshop For each research area/experiment, need to quantify requirements - Space - Special labs (wet labs, clean rooms…) - Special materials or considerations - Noise constraints - Radioactivity constraints ( Rn, n’s, ’s, ’s, ’s …) - Cleanliness - Transport - Telecommunications - Access frequency In fact there was more discussion about the physics reach of the experiments than input to the technical design. Slide12:  Physics Program at NUSL Plenary & Parallel sessions: - Science in the Homestake Mine - - The Homestake Proposal - Double Beta Decay Supernova Solar Atmospheric/Proton Decay Long Base Line Dark Matter Other Labs Nuclear Astrophysics - General Purpose Detectors - - Low Background Counting Facility - - Conference Summaries - Slide13:  Physics Questions Determination of neutrino parameters. (mixing angles, masses) Solar neutrino experiments Long base line oscillation experiments Atmospheric neutrino experiments Determination of neutrino masses Direct mass measurements (eg Tritium decay) neutrinoless double beta decay (0) Nature of Dark Matter Dark matter searches Evidence for particles & interactions from theories beyond the Standard Model Proton decay, cold dark matter Supernova neutrinos SN development Alert to astronomy community Slide14:  Neutrinoless Double  Decay Is the neutrino its own anti-particle? Rate is sensitive to neutrino mass. Experimental goals are to reach sensitivity of M  0.05 eV Probes CP violation in neutrino sector Typical half lives 1026 to 1027 years Event rates: a few events /year/ tonne active material ! 2 “Standard Process” - After 30 years effort, it was observed in late 1980’s - Calibrates nuclear matrix element calculations 0 - Requires m  0 since helicity has to flip -  =  Majorana neutrino - background is 2 !! Slide15:  Double Beta Decay Session Majorana: H. Miley EXO: A Piepke Cuore: F. Avignone Moon: R. Hazama NEMO-4: S. Sutton CAMEO: M Giammarchi ELEGANT VI: T. Kishimoto 210 76Ge crystal. 400Kg 136Xe TPC. 10,000Kg 1000 TeO2 Bolometer. 750Kg 100Mo Foils 3300Kg Foils 100Kg 116CdWO4 in CTF 20Kg 48CaF2 Scint General Requirements: Depth Good Energy Resolution Ultralow activity Materials Masses ~ 1000 Kg Low 222Rn Different Nuclei Goals: < meff>  0.05 eV T1/2  1026 years Location not decided. * * * * * Slide16:  Example 0 Decay Experiment: Majorana Requirements: Deep underground location $30M enriched 85% 76Ge 210 2kg crystals, 12 segments $30M Instrumentation Specialized materials (lo bkg) 10 year operation  coincidence <m>  .02 to .07 eV Phase in over 7 years Current scale: 1 crystal, not enriched Isotope enrichment possible in Russia ? Grow crystals underground ? Features Slide17:  Solar Neutrino Session Mass Technique pp 7Be (Tons) (events/year) Moon: R. Hazama 3.3 100Mo Scint/foils 400 130 Lens: T. Bowles 5 176Yb Scint 570 400 Heron: B. Lanou 5 He Scint/phonon 3000 1500 Clean: D. McKinsey 12 Ne Scint 9000 TPC: V. Paolone 7 He TPC 4000 Hybrid: K. Lande 2200 37Cl Hybrid 230 1200 General Requirements: Depth Good energy resolution Ultralow activity Materials Masses ~ 103 - 106 Kg Low 222Rn Low energy threshold Goals: Precise measurement of low energy pp flux Measurement of CC, and ES (NC) fluxes to 1% Some will need 10 Mci calibration sources !! Slide19:  With many experiments  Disentangle CC and ES CC rate to be measured at Lens, Moon, Hybrid ES rate to be measured at Heron, TPC, Clean Slide20:  Cold Dark Matter WIMP Searchs CDM in Cosmology: M. Tegmark Drift: J. Martoff Gas Drift Chamber Zeplin: H. Wang 2 -phase Xe detector Majorana: J. Collar 76Ge detectors CDMS/CryoArray: R. Gaitskell Ge Bolometer total = /c = baryonic + dark matter + dark energy  1 .05 + .30 + .65  1 A consistent picture of the constituents of the universe is forming. In this picture: Favoured dark matter candidate is the lightest supersymmetric particle LSP. In most theories, this is the neutralino Neutralino  may be seen by  annihilation into standard fermions WIMPs should have a small, but finite, coupling to quarks  WIMP-Nucleus elastic scattering. Slide21:  General Requirements: Depth Low energy threshold Ultralow activity Materials Masses ~ 1000 Kg Low 222Rn No neutrons Cryogenics Goal: Distinguish from background the tiny (10’s of KeV) energy deposits from nuclear recoil of occasional WIMP-nucleus interactions. Annual signal modulation of ~3% due to earth's motion Event rates are low! 1 event/Kg/day optomistic 1 event/100Kg/year hard! Slide22:  And Many Many More…. Supernova program: UNO: M. Vagins Hybrid: K. Lande LAr Detectors: D. Cline OMNIS: D. Boyd Pb Perchlorate: S. Elliott Long Baseline: P Spentzouris Atmospheric/Proton-decay program: BUST: S. Mikheev Soudan II: M. Goodman MACRO: A. Habig Super-Kamiokande: M. Messier Monolith: C. Hagner KamLAND: Y. Kamyshkov LLAND: K. McDonald UNO: C. McGrew Long Baseline program: Minos and NUMI: Bernstein Soudan II and MACRO: Longley Super-Kamiokande: M. Messier Monolith: C. Hagner LANNDD: Cline/McDonald UNO: Vagins Intense proton beams: Roser Slide23:  Summary of Experimental “Proposals” (Discussed during meeting) Solar & Atmospheric Neutrino MOON, LENS, HERON, CLEAN, TPC, HYBRID, UNO, LANNDD, MONOLITH, H-K Proton Decay Hyper-Kamiokande, UNO, LANNDD, 3M Long Baseline MINOS, ICARUS, OPERA, NOE, LANNDD, JHFnu, K2K, MONOLITH, UNO, H-K Dark Matter Searches PICASSO, DRIFT, GENIUS, CDMS-Array, Zeplin, Majorana Double Beta Decay Majorana, EXO, CUORE, GENIUS, MOON, CAMEO, ELEGANT Slide24:  Deep Underground Laboratories Existing Gran Sasso: 3 Main Halls. Fully Occupied. SNO: 1 Large Cavern. Occupied. Soudan: MINOS being setup. No other space. Some will come available after MINOS staging SuperKamiokande: 1 Large Cavern. Occupied Baksan: Russia. Fully Occupied Proposals or New Facilities NUSL in US (in existing Homestake mine) NUSL in US (in SanJacinto, with horiz access) Gran Sasso Upgrade? Environmental Problems WIPP in NM. Salt Mine/Waste Facility. Shallow Boulby in UK: Salt Mine. Shallow. Space available. SNO: Plan to expand to build new hall, several smaller rooms, and provide infrastructure support. Slide25:   General Detector Requirements Sensitivity: Requires detectors 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than current generation. Typical sizes will range from 1000 Kg in crystals to Megatonnes of liquid detectors. Cosmic Rays: Backgrounds to be suppressed by working deep underground. >5000 mwe RadioPurity: Enormous effort required to develop techniques to purify to ultra low levels of radioactivity. Material selection, purification, radon abatement... Calibration: Will likely require 5-10 MCi sources! Multipurpose: Large costly experiments should address many astro-particle physics questions. To support a reasonable cross-section of experiments: This program will need to be international in nature with infrastructure support at several dedicated underground labs with large experimental halls, computing facilities, lab space, underground low background counting systems, offices... Slide26:  Status of NUSL Proposal Bachall Report: March 2001 NSAC Recommends Immediate Construction Proposal to NSF: May 2001 Interim Proposal to Maintain Mine: June 2001 NUSL Workshop/White Papers: October 2001 Interim Funding Awarded: $10M October 2001 Legal Indemnity Issue Resolved October 2001 Full Steam Ahead for NUSL @ Homestake 2002 - Interim Period. Develop complete baseline plan Start some experiments, R&D. Continue Cl 2003/2004 - Begin Construction Phase Slide27:  Conclusions The number of experiments currently being considered far exceeds the space available in existing and proposed facilities. The prognosis looks very good for a major facility in the Homestake mine. NUSL would be an enormous international resource, and would be a compliment to other initiatives. One would hope that other international facilities also expand to form a network of deep underground laboratories. The astro-particle physics community is very supportive of this initiative. There is a rich variety of physics topics that need to be addressed at deep underground laboratories. An enormous effort still required to define the physics program. Make detailed Technical Design Report.

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