NLBIF final

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Published on October 19, 2007

Author: Natalia

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GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY:  GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION FACILITY Larry Speers Global Biodiversity Information Facility LSPEERS@GBIF.ORG WWW.GBIF.ORG Biodiversiteitsinformatie in Nederland woensdag 14 januari 2004 Slide2:  “..there will be winners and there will be losers… The next century will be the ‘Age of Biology’, just as this one has been the age of physics and astronomy. Specifically, those countries who best know how to correlate, analyze, and communicate biological information will be in the leading position to achieve economic and scientific advances” Sir Robert May, Chief Scientist, U.K., July 1998 What is GBIF ?:  What is GBIF ? A distributed megascience facility aimed at Making the world’s biodiversity data freely and universally available via the Internet Sharing primary scientific biodiversity data to benefit society, science and a sustainable future MEGASCIENCE FORUM of the OECD (became Global Science Forum after the GBIF recommendation was adopted):  MEGASCIENCE FORUM of the OECD (became Global Science Forum after the GBIF recommendation was adopted) Examples of Working Groups: Neutron Sources Nuclear Physics Radio Astronomy Biological Informatics (1996–1999) Subgroup : Biodiversity Informatics Subgroup : Neuroinformatics Recommended that the Megascience Forum endorse development of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility When was GBIF started ?:  When was GBIF started ? The MoU resulted from the recommendations of an international working group / steering committee The group met several times between June 1996 and December 2000, when the MoU was opened for signature GBIF came into existence on 1 March 2001, when the first 10 countries signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and pledged a total of US$2M GBIF Mission:  GBIF Mission ...making the world’s biodiversity data freely and universally available via the Internet. GBIF Voting Participants 24 :  GBIF Voting Participants 24 Australia Belgium Canada Costa Rica Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Iceland Japan Republic of Korea Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Portugal Peru Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden UK USA GBIF Associate Participants 14 + 18:  GBIF Associate Participants 14 + 18 Argentina Austria Bulgaria Czech Republic Ghana Madagascar Morocco Pakistan Poland Slovak Republic Switzerland Taiwan Tanzania European Commission ALL Species Foundation ASEANET BioNET BIOSIS CABI Bioscience EASIANET Expert Centre for Taxonomic Identification Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network Integrated Taxonomic Information System NatureServe Ocean Biogeographic Information System Société de Bactériologie Systématique et Vétérinaire Species 2000 Taxonomic Databases Working Group UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program UNEP (World Conservation Monitoring Centre) World Federation for Culture Collections Wildscreen Trust Why was GBIF established ?:  Demand for Biological Information: Biotechnology, biodiversity, climate change, environmental problems, invasive species, human health, sustainable development Why was GBIF established ? Slide10:  Nature is so complex We know so little Why was GBIF established ?:  Demand for Biological Information: Biotechnology, biodiversity, climate change, environmental problems, invasive species, human health, sustainable development Bioinformatics Computing Power: Moore’s Law Why was GBIF established ? Slide12:  “With $2500 desktop PCs now delivering more raw computing power than the first Cray, bioinformatics is rapidly becoming the critical technology for the 21st century biology” R. Robbins, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Slide13:  Biodiversity informatics is the application of information technology to biodiversity with the emphasis on persistent data stores. Modified from R. Robbins, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Definition Slide14:  DNA Phenotypes Proteins Populations Species Ecosystems Abiotic Factors Fundamental Dogma Adapted from R. Robbins Slide15:  DNA Phenotypes Proteins Populations Species Ecosystems Abiotic Factors Bioinformatics Adapted from R. Robbins Slide16:  Abiotic Factors Bioinformatics Persistent Primary Data Stores DNA Phenotypes Proteins Populations Species Ecosystems Adapted from R. Robbins Map Databases GenBank EMBL DDBJ PDB SwissPROT PIR Slide17:  DNA Phenotypes Proteins Populations Species Ecosystems Abiotic Factors Biodiversity Informatics Adapted from R. Robbins Slide18:  Abiotic Factors Persistent Primary Data Stores DNA Phenotypes Proteins Populations Species Ecosystems Adapted from R. Robbins Literature Observational Databases Biodiversity Informatics as a Megascience Activity:  Biodiversity Informatics as a Megascience Activity Why was GBIF established ?:  Demand for Biological Information: Biotechnology, biodiversity, climate change, environmental problems, invasive species, human health, sustainable development Bioinformatics Computing Power: Moore’s Law Electronic Connectivity Internet Distributed Information Systems Why was GBIF established ? Where is GBIF located ?:  Where is GBIF located ? Unlike CERN, the megascience instrumentation facility for particle physics that is located in Switzerland, GBIF is a megascience facility that is distributed all over the world, with its many parts connected by the Internet The small, non-bureaucratic GBIF Secretariat is hosted by the Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark What does GBIF do ? :  What does GBIF do ? In order to promote the sharing and use of scientific biodiversity data by everyone, it focuses on four areas of activity: Data Access and Database Interoperability (DADI) Electronic Catalog of Names of Known Organisms (ECAT) Outreach and Capacity Building (OCB) Digitisation of Natural History Collections (DIGIT) How does GBIF work ? :  How does GBIF work ? NODES Committee Comprises the managers of the Participant nodes Works with the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) staff of the Secretariat to develop the network of nodes Participant nodes share software and ideas with each other and with data providers Secretariat ICT staff advise, coordinate and provide software toolkits Network Structure:  Network Structure GBIF Principles:  GBIF Principles Equitable sharing of data Data providers retain control Protection of intellectual property rights Distributed network architecture Common standards and protocols Partnership with other networks Avoidance of duplication of effort Promotion of technical developments to deal with complexity of biodiversity data The following is a simple classification of the biodiversity data for which GBIF is responsible::  The following is a simple classification of the biodiversity data for which GBIF is responsible: Taxonomic data, including: Scientific names, including data on synonymy Vernacular names Taxonomic descriptions, including diagnostic keys Taxon occurrence information (primarily species-level, but including data for taxa at different ranks where appropriate): Specimen records (from natural history collections) Observation records Links to other taxon-level information, including: Information on taxon biology and life history Ecological interactions Genetic data Sound and image resources Characteristics of the Species Level Biodiversity Data Domain-:  Characteristics of the Species Level Biodiversity Data Domain- Data developers are numerous, specialized and widely distributed Government labs Universities Museums Private individuals Quality data critical to environmental decision making Legacy data extremely valuable Data are dynamic Legacy data continually being updated and enhanced New data continually being added Primary data has common core attributes Primary species occurrence core data includes but is not limited to the following essential details::  Primary species occurrence core data includes but is not limited to the following essential details: Name of the taxon to which the organism has been assigned Location where the specimen was collected or the observation made Date on which the specimen was collected or the observation made Where the specimen or record is held and how to access more information GBIF-DIGIT: Mission:  GBIF-DIGIT: Mission To facilitate the expansion of biodiversity knowledge by having legacy and newly acquired primary species occurrence data digitised and dynamically accessible. What are GBIF’s primary data ?:  What are GBIF’s primary data ? Associated notes, recordings, metadata, etc. These data must be digitised in order to be shared and fully utilised GBIF-DIGIT Label data on ~ 1.5 - 3.0 billion specimens in natural history collections Species level observational data sets Slide33:  > 2 billion specimens worldwide Natural History Collections Data:  Natural History Collections Data Strengths Identification of specimens auditable Potential for DNA analysis Often long time series Broad taxonomic coverage Type specimens Weakness Presence only data Often poorly curated Locality data often lacks precision Seldom collected in a systematic way Often not in digital format Any one collection has limited taxonomic, spatial and temporal coverage Observational Data Sets:  Observational Data Sets Strengths Often presence-absence data Often collected in a systematic way Usually precise locality information Usually in digital format Weakness Individual identifications NOT auditable Generally short time series Limited taxonomic coverage Any one data set has limited taxonomic, spatial and temporal coverage Slide50:  TEX (University of Texas at Austin) UADY (University of Yucatan) ARIZ (University of Arizona) CIDIIR (Center of Scientific Research of Durango) Slide51:  XAL (Institute of Ecology, Xalapa) CAS (California Academy of Sciences) MEXU (National University of Mexico) CICY (Center of Scientific Research of Yucatan) Slide52:  The Virtual Herbarium of Mexico 700,000 registers from 25 Herbaria In Mexico and the United States. Slide53:  “Taken collectively, the plant and animal specimens in the U.S. museum collections provide our most complete picture of the biological diversity of the entire nation.” U.S Dept. of the Interior Electronic National Museum Proposal Characteristics of a Megascience Effort:  Characteristics of a Megascience Effort Something that cannot be undertaken by only one country expense no one country has access to all the data Some components of the research can be done at the national or regional levels, but some must be truly global Usually infrastructural in nature (e.g. CERN) Involves collaboration among many scientists and others The topic is hugely inclusive and affects many disciplines Slide55:  “Interoperability must be perceived as the sharing of information.” Eliminating Legal and Policy Barriers to Interoperable Government Systems - Electronic Commerce, Law, and Information Policy Strategies Report June 1999 Slide56:  “The value of data lies in their use.” Bits of Power – Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data National Academy Press 1997 Points to Distributions:  Points to Distributions Server Server Information Retrieval API Desktop Applications Specimen Databases Prediction Tools:  Prediction Tools Point Data Distribution Predicted for Native Region Distribution After Climate Change Distribution Predicted In Non-native Region Prediction Algorithm (GARP) Why share data?:  Why share data? Advantages of sharing core collection data for individual curators Increased use of collections Increased justification for funding, collection development, staffing etc. (Use it or lose it) Advantages of sharing core collection data for individual biodiversity scientists Making available high quality data for use by others Helps improve quality of data by making it visible Increased visibility and relevance of biodiversity community will result in increased funding Advantages of sharing data for individual institutions Increase value of collections by increasing access and use Increased use will increase relavance and result in increased funding Decrease of staff time answering queries Slide61:  “Interoperability must be perceived as the sharing of information.” Eliminating Legal and Policy Barriers to Interoperable Government Systems - Electronic Commerce, Law, and Information Policy Strategies Report June 1999 Slide62:  “The most profound barriers to interoperability are the soft “human technologies” implied in fundamental policy and organizational design.” Eliminating Legal and Policy Barriers to Interoperable Government Systems - Electronic Commerce, Law, and Information Policy Strategies Report June 1999

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