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NISO Two-Part Webinar: The Infrastructure of Open Access, Part 1: Knowing What is Open

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Education

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: BaltimoreNISO

Source: slideshare.net

Description

About the Webinar

Open Access (OA) has become a widely accepted and rapidly growing method of publishing scholarly content. As OA distribution gains traction, a high priority for the community is establishing and building the infrastructure needed to efficiently manage this content. This infrastructure includes such elements as OA publication charge management by third parties, fee structures and payments, visual and machine-readable identification of OA availability and reuse rights, and discovery layer functions. In 2013, NISO launched a project on Open Access Metadata to develop recommendations for the availability and reuse rights issues, but that addresses only a piece of the total infrastructure issue.

In the first part of NISO’s two-part series, the focus is on Knowing What is Open. When content is published by a strictly Open Access publisher or in a completely open access online journal, knowing what is freely available to read by the user can be fairly obvious. This is less clear for hybrid titles, where open access is set at an article-by-article level. Even when a journal is fully open access, mechanisms are necessary for conveying the OA status of articles and their reuse rights to other systems, such as discovery platforms. This webinar will discuss just what it means to say content is "open access," what the various flavors of OA are,and how people and other systems can determine how open something is and both discover and access such content. Issues around license rights, the scale of openness, and the application of this data in discovery contexts will also be covered.
Introduction

Speakers:

The Lifecycle of Open Access Content
Susan Dunavan, Senior Product Manager, SIPX
Franny Lee, Co-Founder & VP Business Development, SIPX

How Open is Open Access?
Darlene Yaplee, Chief Marketing Officer, PLOS

Untangling Open Access Issues in Scholarly Communication
Greg Tananbaum, Consultant; NISO Open Access Metadata and Indicators Working Group Co-Chair
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http://www.niso.org/news/events/2014/webinars/what_is_open/ NISO Webinar: The Infrastructure of Open Access, Part 1: Knowing What is Open March 5, 2014 Speakers: Susan Dunavan, Senior Product Manager, SIPX Franny Lee, Co-Founder & VP Business Development, SIPX Darlene Yaplee, Chief Marketing Officer, PLOS Greg Tananbaum, Consultant; NISO Open Access Metadata and Indicators Working Group Co-Chair

The Infrastructure of Open Access: Knowing What is Open The Lifecycle of Open Access Content March 05, 2014 Susan Dunavan Franny Lee •Senior Product Manager Co-Founder, Vice President Business Development sdunavan@sipx.com franny@sipx.com © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 2

Open Access Content: Part of Larger Ecosystem Copyright Agents Open Sources (Open Access, HathiTrust, Creative Commons) Schools Publishers and Creators Innovative, comprehensive web service to manage and share course materials • • Automated and leverages technology to solve copyright frustrations • MOOC Providers Transparent and accurate Easy; blends into existing campus systems • Beneficial – lower cost and increase quality of education Educators © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential Students 3 Librarians and subscribed resources

Open Access – What Is It? • Open educational resources are an increasingly important initiative for schools – Cost of education – Institutional Open Access policies • Many different flavors – green, gold… © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 4

SIPX’s Context: Instructors and Students • LMS and course reserves © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 5

SIPX’s Context: Instructors and Students • Online learning and MOOCs • Continuing and distance education © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 6

Our Users Want to Know: • Is it free to read? – will it always be? – if not, will it be soon? • Can I share it with my students? – for free? if there’s a cost, what is it? – digitally or in print? share a PDF, or link out? – any additional restrictions? (only a percentage of a work, etc.) • Can I reuse portions in my own work, or create derivative works? © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 7

Is it free to read? © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 8

The challenge (to third parties): © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 9

Ways to be free: • OA Journals • OA content in hybrid journals – Born OA – Embargoed • • • • • • Rolling pay-walls/open back-archive Free sponsored content Free content types (book reviews, front matter) Temporarily free (popular, sample, special offer, etc.) Subscribed Identity-based (free to regions, registered users, etc.) • Condition-based, dynamic © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 10

Publisher Platform Sophistication: ‘All the top-100-accessed articles about Radiation Biochemistry are free if older than 1 week, except for those by author John Smith that were published in the last 10 years’ © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 11

…how can third parties know something is free? © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 12

Publisher provides metadata. Problems: – Vocab not standardized (‘open access’, ‘free’, ‘public access’, ‘sponsored content’) – Not machine-readable – Error-prone (with free-text license statements) – How? In file metadata, via API © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 13

Publisher provides metadata (in content files). Problems: – Just not there • • • • Costly to deal with back content In publisher’s own content, but not in metadata feeds ‘use the statement in the PDF watermark’ excludes conditional/dynamic and identity-based models – Markup not standardized (many different formats: XML DTDs, ONIX, RDF, HTML Meta, OAI-PMH, Dublin Core) © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 14

XML examples <cpyrt> <year>2009</year> <collab>Hamdi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.</collab> <note> This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<url>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0</url>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. </note> </cpyrt> ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<oa:openAccessInformation xmlns:oa="http://vtw.elsevier.com/data/ns/properties/OpenAccess-1/"> <oa:openAccessEffective>2013-11-27T17:10:55Z</oa:openAccessEffective> <oa:openAccessStatus>http://vtw.elsevier.com/data/voc/oa/OpenAccessStatus#Full</oa:openAc cessStatus> <oa:sponsor> <oa:sponsorType>http://vtw.elsevier.com/data/voc/oa/SponsorType#Author</oa:sponsorType> </oa:sponsor> </oa:openAccessInformation> © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 15

XML examples <license license-type="open-access” xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/"> <license-p> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. </license-p> </license> ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<license xlink:type="simple"> <license-p> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" xlink:type="simple">Creative Commons Attribution License</ext-link> , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. </license-p> </license> © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 16

XML examples <license license-type="open-access"> <license-p> This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attr0ibution 3.0 License (bync 3.0). </license-p> <license-p>Licensee PAGE Press, Italy</license-p> </license> ------------------------------------------------------------------<license license-type="open-access” xlink:href=“http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5> <license-p> Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation. </license-p> </license> © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 17

Publisher provides metadata via API. Problems: – All the same as providing in content, except better handles conditional/dynamic and identity-based – Rarely supported by publisher’s platform – No standardization in APIs, third party costs – Increased risk of failure © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 18

Use institutional holdings files. Problems: – Not very granular (journal-year range) – Lots of variety (not everyone uses KBART): embargo/days_available: 90 embargo/days_not_available:1060 545 days 18 months P90D R6M – ‘30 days’ may be 30 days, or 1 month © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 19

Publisher provides rules. (lists of OA/Free journal titles and articles) Problems: – Handling new journals – Handling journal changes – Keeping up with new articles, syncing © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 20

Third party crawls sites. Problems: – Can’t tell if it will soon be free – …or soon won’t be free – Overhead © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 21

…lots of opportunities… © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 22

Opportunities • Assist with emerging standards • Be part of exploring and creating a sustainable and useable model • Support school needs and initiatives • Strengthen school relationships © 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 23

© 2014 SIPX, Inc. Confidential 24

How Open is Open Access? Darlene Yaplee Chief Marketing Officer, PLOS (Public Library of Science) NISO Webinar March 5, 2014

Now speaking… Darlene Yaplee Chief Marketing Officer PLOS (Public Library of Science) dyaplee@plos.org 26

Outline • • • • Common Misconceptions and Clarifications HowOpenIsIt? Tool Real-world Examples of Open Access Reuse Open Access and the Future of Publishing 27

Let’s keep in mind the goal… the advancement of scientific knowledge Source: Toshiaki Tameshige. PLOS Genetics. 2013. 9(7) 28

Common Misconceptions and Clarifications 29

Open Access Tells You About • Method of dissemination • Whether you can reuse the information • Whether the article is archived 30

It Does NOT Tell You About • • • • The scope of the journal The quality of the journal The language of the journal The review process of the journal 31

Open Access is Sustainable 32 32

Open Access Momentum – Growing Percentage of STM Articles Published Open Access 12% Source: Web of Science and Scopus databases, Mikael Laakso and Bo-Christer Björk 33 33

The HowOpenIsIt? Tool 34

Open Access Definition Varying and Unclear Definitions of Open Access 35

100% Open Access • • • • Free, immediate access online Unrestricted distribution and reuse Author retains rights to attribution Papers are immediately deposited in a public online archive such as PubMed Central Bethesda Principles, April 2003 36

HowOpenIsIt? Open Access Spectrum Standardized Measurement of Openness • Recognizes 6 components that define Open Access publications • Defines what makes a journal more open vs. less open • Invites informed decisions about where to publish A collaboration among: 37

Moving from “Is it OA?”  “HowOpenIsIt?” A collaboration among: www.plos.org/open-access/howopenisit/ 38 3 8

The HowOpenIsIt? Tool  Free readership immediately upon publication No reuse rights beyond fair use/ limitations & exceptions to copyright (all rights reserved ©) Publisher holds copyright. No author reuse of published version beyond fair use Author may not post any versions to repositories or websites  Generous reuse and remixing rights (e.g., CC BY license)  Author holds copyright No restrictions  Author may post any version to any repository or website No automatic posting in third-party repositories  Journals make articles automatically available in trusted third-party repositories immediately upon publication Reader Rights Fees to read all articles Subscription, membership, etc. Reuse Rights Copyrights Author Posting Rights Automatic Posting (e.g., PubMed . Central) Machine Readability Not available in machine-readable format: article full text /metadata  Community machine-readable standard formats for article full text, metadata, citations, & data (community standard API or protocol) 39

Real-world Examples of Open Access Reuse 40

Benefits of Open Access – Machine Readability Visualizing Complex Science Daniel Mietchen, PhD, Raphael Wimmer and Nils Dagsson Moskopp http://blog.wikimedia.org/c/technology/features/multimedia/ 41

Global Collaboration to Fight Malaria Open Source Malaria Consortium Matthew Todd, PhD http://opensourcemalaria.org/ http://asap.plos.org 42

Benefits of Open Access – Access to Anyone Smartphone Becomes Microscope Saber Iftekhar Khan, MA Eva Schmid, PhD Oliver Hoeller, PhD http://asap.plos.org 43

Accelerating Science Award Program (ASAP) Global Collaboration to Fight Malaria Matthew Todd, PhD HIV Self-Test Empowers Patients Nitika Pant Pai, MD, MPH, PhD, Caroline Vadnais, Roni Deli-Houssein and Sushmita Shivkumar Visualizing Complex Science Daniel Mietchen, PhD, Raphael Wimmer and Nils Dagsson Moskopp http://asap.plos.org 44

Open Access and the Future of Publishing 45

Next Generation Publishing Open Access is a Prerequisite Research Article Construct • Abstract Increased Article Content Types and Utility New Ways of Research Assessment • Introduction - Component types • Methods • Results - Component granularity • Discussion • Supporting Information • Acknowledgments - Functionality • Author Contributions • References - Living versus static Greater Community Building and Collaboration - Merit of the research - Article-Level Metrics - Commenting - Pre-publication to continuous review - Shared repositories - Participation/ crowd sourcing - Network effect, gets better the more people contribute 46

Thank You! 47

Untangling Open Access Issues in Scholarly Communication Greg Tananbaum ScholarNext Consulting greg@scholarnext.com March 5, 2014

A Man Walks into a Bar… Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

A Man Walks into a Bar… Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Open Access SPARC: “Open Access is the free, immediate, online availability of research articles, coupled with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment.” Free Immediate Full Reuse Articles Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Public Access OSTP: “Ensure that the public can read, download, and analyze in digital form final peer reviewed manuscripts or final published documents within a timeframe that is appropriate for each type of research conducted or sponsored by the agency.” Free Immediate Free Embargo Full Reuse Some Reuse Articles Penultimate Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Open Data NIH: “Recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research findings…data sharing should occur in a timely fashion. NIH expects the timely release and sharing of data to be no later than the acceptance for publication of the main findings from the final dataset…Data should be made as widely and freely available as possible.” Free Immediate Full Reuse Free Embargo Some Reuse Free Embargo Some Reuse Articles Penultimate Data Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Open Science Michael Nielson: “The idea that scientific knowledge of all kinds should be openly shared as early as is practical in the discovery process.” Free Immediate Free Embargo Some Reuse Free Embargo Some Reuse Data Free Embargo Some Reuse Stuff Full Reuse Articles Penultimate Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

NISO Open Access Metadata & Indicators: Background • Working group launched by NISO in late 2012 • Co-chaired by Cameron Neylon (PLOS), Ed Pentz (CrossRef), Greg Tananbaum (representing SPARC) • Goal is to develop standardized set of metadata elements tying accessibility permissions to an object in a manner useful to humans and machines Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Why is This Necessary? • Growth of OA – Fasting growing segment of the journal market [Outsell] • Proliferation of funder and government public access mandates – 111 worldwide as of 3/14 – See http://www.biomedcentral.com/funding/funderpolicies • Hybrid publishing options – Offered by ~250 publishers as of 3/14 – See http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/PaidOA.php Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Why is This Necessary? Growth of OA + More Funder Mandates + Hybrids = Lots of OA papers with different associated rights and responsibilities = Confusion WRT who can do what when Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Audience Segments • Readers seeking to understand what rights they have for a given article. • Authors aiming to determine what rights they will retain and whether they are compliant with a given funder policy. • Publishers hoping to clearly convey what its audience can and cannot do with the articles they disseminate. • Research funders looking to promote the openness of the work they sponsor, and to verify their policies are being followed. • Search engines, A&I databases, and other discovery services aiming to help guide their audience toward resources to which they have access and other rights. • Academic libraries seeking to more efficiently direct their patrons to resources that are freely accessible and/or reusable. Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Who’s Involved: Working Group • American Chemical Society (ACS): John Ochs • Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC): Ben Showers • Copyright Clearance Center: Heather Reid • Kennisland: Paul Keller • Creative Commons: Timothy Vollmer • EDItEUR: Tim Devenport • Ex Libris, Inc.: Christine Stohn • Indiana University Bloomington Libraries: Julie Hardesty • Reed Elsevier: Chris Shillum • Social Science Research Network: Gregg Gordon • The Wellcome Library: Cecy Marden • University of Birmingham: Jill Russell • International Association of STM Publishers: Eefke Smit Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Current Status and Roadmap Approval of Proposal January 2013 Appointment of Working Group February 2013 Approval of Initial Work Plan March 2013 Completion of Information Gathering June-July 2013 Completion of Initial Draft 2013 November Public Comment Period January 2014 <<WE ARE HERE>> Completion of Final Draft March 2014 Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

NISO OAMI Recommendations • <free_to_read> • <license_ref> Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

<free_to_read> Tag • Indicates content can be read or viewed by any user without payment or authentication • Simple attribute of “yes” or “no” • Optional start and end dates to accommodate embargoes, special offers, etc. For example, the following records indicate that the content is under an one-year embargo from its date of publication on February 3, 2014. At the expiration of the embargo, it becomes freely available to all readers: <free_to_read="no" start_date="2014-02-3” end_date=”2015-02-03"/> <free_to_read="yes" start_date="2015-02-3”/> Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

<license_ref> Tag • Content of this tag would include a stable identifier expressed as an HTTP URI • URI would point to license terms that are human and/or machine readable • Multiple URIs can be listed if article exists under specific license for certain period of time and then changes <license_ref start_date="2014-0203">http://www.psychoceramics.org/license_v1.html</license_ref> <license_ref start_date="2015-0203">http://www.psychoceramics.org/open_license.html</license_ref> The <license_ref> approach will enable community norms to develop around recognized licenses. This could be done by an organization, or a group of organizations, establishing a whitelist of recognized licenses. This gives flexibility for “openness” to be defined differently for different communities. Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Benefits of Successful Implementation Growth of OA + More Funder Mandates + Hybrids = Lots of OA papers with different associated rights and responsibilities = Confusion WRT who can do what when + OA Metadata Indicator = Transmittal of an article’s openness in a manner that makes discovery, tracking, readership, and (hopefully) reuse straightforward Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

Thank You Greg Tananbaum www.scholarnext.com greg@scholarnext.com Greg Tananbaum, ScholarNext Consulting

NISO Two-Part Webinar, Part 1: The Infrastructure of Open Access: Knowing What is Open Questions? All questions will be posted with presenter answers on the NISO website following the webinar: http://www.niso.org/news/events/2014/webinars/what_is_open/ NISO Webinar • March 5, 2014

THANK YOU Thank you for joining us today. Please take a moment to fill out the brief online survey. We look forward to hearing from you!

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