Nimbus TOMS 3

50 %
50 %
Information about Nimbus TOMS 3
Education

Published on February 20, 2008

Author: Calogera

Source: authorstream.com

Nimbus BUV and TOMS Data Substantiate the Atmospheric Ozone Depletion Concerns:  Nimbus BUV and TOMS Data Substantiate the Atmospheric Ozone Depletion Concerns Arlin Krueger Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology University of Maryland, Baltimore County Nimbus BUV and TOMS Data Substantiate the Atmospheric Ozone Depletion Concerns:  Nimbus BUV and TOMS Data Substantiate the Atmospheric Ozone Depletion Concerns By S Ahmad, Z Ahmad, P Anderson, E Beach, D. Becker, A Belmont, PK Bhartia, L Bowlin, R Browning, D. Burchfield, W. Byerly, E Canevari, B Cano, S Carn, R Casey, G Chalef, S Chandra, P Collins, M Comberiate, C Cote, S Cox, D Cunold, JV Dave, C Davis, M Deland, S Doiron, J. Dowser, J Elliot, R Farquhar, A.J. Fleig, D. Flittner, L Flynn, M Foreman, J Frederick, J Gatlin, P Ginoux, J Gleason, C Gordon, D Gordon, A.E. Green, X Gu, B Guenther, S. Guenther, R. Hering, D Harrison, U Hartmann, DF Heath, BD Henderson, B Herman, J Herman, R. Hertel, C Hestor, M Hinman, R Hudson, J Hurley, R Ignasiak, W.L. Imhof, G Jaross, T Jennings, A Kaveeshwar, K Klenk, R. Kobiachi, G. Kobiachi, M. Kobiachi, N Koep-Baker, N Krotkov, *A Krueger, G Labow, D Larko, K Lee, J Leithch, J Leithch, J Lienesch, B Lowry, CL Mateer, C McKenzie, R McPeters, D. Merrill, T Miles, A J Miller, P. Mitzen, B Monosmith, G. Montwell, R Nagatoni, P Newman, W Nickum, A Oakes, R Ormsby, N Oslik, B Palmer, H Park, V Pavanasaisam, S Plageman, N. Preketes, H Press, J Purcell, B Raines, S Ray, H Reed, S Reed, H Reid, HB Roeder, M. Ruecker, E Rutkowski, R Salikov, S Schaefer, B Schlesinger, J Schneider, C Schnetzler, M Schoeberl, D Schuster, C Seftor, M Shapiro, R Shapiro, R Sipes, J Sisala, P Smith, I Sprod, R Stevenson, J Stokes, R Stolarski, T Swissler, S Taylor, O Torres, S Truong, K Venkatakrishna, L Walters, S Weiland, R White, C Wong, J Ziemke * speaker What did we know about ozone before Nimbus BUV and TOMS?:  What did we know about ozone before Nimbus BUV and TOMS? Theory: Chapman proposed photochemistry of oxygen could explain ozone. Observations: Total ozone - Dobson measured latitude and seasonal variations; suspected meteorology produced variability. Vertical ozone distribution - balloons showed effects of weather; rockets supported photochemical model. Laboratory: Chemists said nitrogen radicals could destroy ozone in catalytic cycle. Chemical rate coefficients too poorly known to decide if nitrogen cycle worked in the atmosphere. Halogens were even better catalysts than nitrogen or hydrogen. Backscatter UV Origins 1970: The Nimbus-4 BUV:  Backscatter UV Origins 1970: The Nimbus-4 BUV Ozone profile First satellite experiments had measured ozone profile Instrument calibration established from coincident rocket soundings Total ozone Sparse Dobson spectrophotometer network Inter-instrument calibration errors large CP Cuddapah used Nimbus 3 IRIS data for first total ozone from space BUV Instrument NCAR proposal (1965) Dave and Mateer Instrument: Goddard Space Flight Center: Heath (Tech. Officer - Krueger) Beckman Instruments Henderson, Roeder, Meloy, Reid Solar diffuser plate for calibration Optimized wavelengths Total ozone sounding method G.P. Anderson, et al., Proceedings, Symposium sur l’Ozone Atmospherique, 1-7 Sept. 1968, Monaoco, pp239-243. A.J. Krueger, Proceedings, Symposium sur l’Ozone Atmospherique, 1-7 Sept. 1968, Monaoco, pp225-229. BUV data confirmed catalytic cycle in ozone chemistry:  BUV data confirmed catalytic cycle in ozone chemistry August 1972 solar proton event. High energy protons produce nitric oxide in upper stratosphere. Paul Crutzen predicted decrease of ozone. BUV data show 20% decrease. Ozone depletion in auroral oval proved catalytic cycle was controlling ozone. Opened the possibility of catalytic loss of ozone by halogens. Ozone above 4 mb (37 km) vs day number Heath, Krueger & Crutzen, Science, 1977 Total ozone from space: Dave and Mateer :  Total ozone from space: Dave and Mateer Forward model: Dave’s UV multiple-scattering radiative transfer model Inverse model: Mateer Total ozone mapping origins 1978: The Nimbus-7 TOMS :  Total ozone mapping origins 1978: The Nimbus-7 TOMS Coverage: Daily global survey Avoid missed event issues by observing: every location every day Ground resolution: Limited by 1970’s data rate, data storage Resolve jet streams Identify local ozone perturbations Heritage: Use BUV monochromator Use BUV total ozone wavelengths Share SBUV diffuser plate for common calibration Concept - GSFC proposal (1972) Krueger Merge with SBUV Heath Instrument - Beckman/ Perkin Elmer/Orbital Sciences Roeder, Lu, Macenka Algorithm - STX Mateer, Kaveeshwar, Bhartia TOMS & BUV Global Coverage Survey vs. Sample:  TOMS & BUV Global Coverage Survey vs. Sample TOMS SBUV Global total ozone maps :  Global total ozone maps TOMS Missions Nimbus-7: 11/1/ 1978 - 5/6/1993 Meteor 3: 8/22/1991 - 11/24/1994 ADEOS: 8/17/1996 - 6/28/1997 Earth Probe: 7/15/1996 - present Formation of a Kona Low:  Formation of a Kona Low Polar ozone depletion:  Polar ozone depletion Environmental concerns overwhelmed meteorological research. British Antarctic Survey (Farman, et al.,1985) pointed out steep decline in 25-year ozone record over Halley Bay Dobson station; attributed it to chlorine from CFC’s. TOMS found large ozone loss in Antarctic-size hole (Bhartia et al, 1986; Stolarski, et al., 1986). Dynamic vs chemical cause disputed. In-situ data from NASA DC-8 and ER2 aircraft found enhanced ClO from heterogeneous reactions of ClONO2 and HCl on polar stratospheric clouds. Similar ozone losses found in Arctic. The Antarctic Ozone Hole:  The Antarctic Ozone Hole R. McPeters and Scientific Visualization Studio Polar ozone depletion Antarctic ozone hole and the Montreal Protocol:  Polar ozone depletion Antarctic ozone hole and the Montreal Protocol Images of rapid springtime ozone loss over Antarctica each year lent credibility to environmental concerns Progressive annual deepening produced urgency Newman, Stolarski, Schoeberl, Krueger…. Antarctic Ozone Hole:  Antarctic Ozone Hole http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Depth and Area of Ozone Hole measured daily Global Ozone Trends Ozone depletion and the SBUV/TOMS calibrations:  Global Ozone Trends Ozone depletion and the SBUV/TOMS calibrations Nimbus-7 TOMS shared SBUV diffuser plate Diffuser reflectance and BRDF change with solar exposure Model-based relative calibrations developed (Pair justification, spectral discrimination) New TOMS instruments used triple diffuser carousel with different exposure times to infer degradation GSFC: McPeters, Hollandsworth-Frith, Herman, Stolarski, Jaross, Seftor Impact of BUV & TOMS:  Impact of BUV & TOMS Catalytic ozone destruction accepted by scientific community (1977). Ozone hole images and ozone trends convince public of danger of CFC’s (1986). Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer signed (1987). Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded to Crutzen, Rowland, and Molina (1995). CFC production phased out. Beyond total ozone…..:  Beyond total ozone….. TOMS data products Total ozone Ground/cloud reflectivity Total sulfur dioxide Aerosols optical depth effective radius or single scattering albedo Tropospheric ozone UVB fluxes Applications: Air chemistry Volcanology Eruption processes Aviation hazards Climate change dust, smoke volcanic ash & sulfate Weather forecasting Model initialization Upper air winds Biosphere Surface UV radiation Air quality Tracking volcanic sulfur dioxide clouds:  Tracking volcanic sulfur dioxide clouds Rapid drift of volcanic clouds: Difficult air traffic problem Difficult validation problem Krueger, Walters, Schnetzler, Bluth, Carn, Schaefer, Doiron, Sprod 25 years of SO2 mass from volcanic eruptions:  25 years of SO2 mass from volcanic eruptions Carn, et al., Volcanic eruption detection by the TOMS instruments, Geol. Soc. Special Publ., 213, 177-202, 2004 Absorbing aerosols Smoke, mineral dust, and volcanic ash:  Absorbing aerosols Smoke, mineral dust, and volcanic ash Aerosols change the wavelength dependence of scattered light Compare observed and model Rayleigh spectra to get aerosol signal Low UV reflectivity of soil and water makes detection easy over land and ocean Herman, Torres, Bhartia, Krotkov, Prospero Tropospheric column ozone:  Tropospheric column ozone Residual between TOMS total ozone and MLS stratospheric column High Atlantic values due to biomass burning, lightning, and Walker circulation Fishman, Chandra, Ziemke … The success of TOMS led in unexpected directions.:  The success of TOMS led in unexpected directions. Conclusions:  Conclusions BUV and TOMS surpassed all expectations Long life missions due to excellent engineering by Beckman Instruments and dedication of GSFC satellite operations teams Algorithm development, instrument calibration, and data processing successful due to GSFC Ozone Processing Team Broad use of data due to high quality daily global census, yet compact datasets Impacts on geosciences and environmental controls are far reaching Ozone Theory:  Ozone Theory Sydney Chapman proposed oxygen photochemistry driven by solar UV. O2 + hn --> O + O (1) O + O2 + M --> O3 + M (2) O3 + hn --> O + O2 (3) O3 + O --> 2 O2 (4) Chemists knew that nitrogen and hydrogen radicals could catalytically destroy ozone in the lab. For example, NO can destroy ozone: NO + O3 --> NO2 + O2 NO2 + O --> NO + O2 Other radicals are H, OH, Cl, or Br.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Nimbus program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nimbus 3: April 13, 1969: January 22, 1972: Nimbus 4: April 8, 1970: September 30, 1980: Nimbus 5: December 11, 1972 ...
Read more

Meteor-3 TOMS Data Products User's Guide - Rutgers University

NASA Reference Publication 1996 Meteor–3 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide Jay R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, Arlin J ...
Read more

Final Report on Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration

Final Report on Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 Calibration C. G. Wellemeyer, S. L. Taylor, G. Jaross, M. T. DeLand, ... 3.2 Spectral Discrimination Method ...
Read more

Nimbus-7 - eoPortal Directory - Satellite Missions

Nimbus-7. Overview Spacecraft Launch Mission Status Sensor Complement References. Nimbus is a NASA meteorological research-and-development satellite ...
Read more

NIMBUS - Tom`s Oldtimer Seite

Getriebe: 3 Gang - Fußschaltung Kraftübertragung: Kardan V max: 120 Km/h NIMBUS - nie gehört - was ist denn das ? So reagieren viele, wenn man von einem ...
Read more

Nimbus 7 - NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details

The Nimbus 7 research-and-development satellite served as a stabilized, ... Nimbus 7 was nearly 3.04 m tall, ... (SBUV/TOMS), and (8) temperature ...
Read more

Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7^MReflectivity Data^M Nov 1978 ...

Day: 359 Dec 25, 1979 Production V70 NIMBUS-7/TOMS REFLECT ... Lview 3.1 is a freeware imaging program for Windows which can easily view GIF and JPG ...
Read more

Missions - TOMS-EP - NASA Science

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, launched in July 1996 onboard an Earth Probe Satellite (TOMS/EP), continues NASA's long-term daily mapping of the ...
Read more

Missions - Nimbus - NASA Science

Nimbus-3 was a replacement for Nimbus B which was destroyed in a launch ... Operational through 1994, although the TOMS instrument failed in May of 1993
Read more

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Overview ...

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ... aboard the Nimbus-7 (Nov. 1978 - May 1993), Meteor-3 (Aug. 1991 - Dec. 1994), Earth Probe (July ...
Read more