Nidhi ppt

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Published on March 20, 2014

Author: naveengouda



Contents  Introduction  History  Biochip implant  Components of Biochips  Working  Applications  Advantages  Disadvantages  Conclusions  References 2

Introduction  “Biochips”-The most exciting future technology is an outcome of the fields of Electronics and Biology.  A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites arranged on a solid substrate.  It permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput speed.  Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions.  It’s no more required with biochips the good old idea of remembering PINs, Passwords, and Social security numbers 3

History  Biochip started with early work on the sensor technology.  One of the first portable, chemistry-based sensors was the glass ph electrode, invented in 1922 by Hughes.  The biochip technology was originally developed in 1983.  It was used for monitoring fisheries.  Now it includes over 300 zoos, over 80 government agencies in at least 20 countries. 4

BIOCHIP IMPLANT • Injected by a hypodermic syringe beneath the skin. • Injection is safe and simple. • Anesthesia is not required. • Usually injected behind the neck.

Size of Biochip  The size of Biochip is of a size of an uncooked rice grain size. 6

Components of Biochip  The biochip implant system consists of mainly two components. 7 The transponder The reader

 The biochip transponder consists of four parts: 8 Computer Microchip Tuning Capacitor Antenna Coil Glass Capsule

Transponder  The transponder is the actual biochip implant.  It is a passive transponder  The passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out.  It has a very long life, up to 99 years and no maintenance 9

Microchip  It stores unique identification number 10 to 15 digits long.  ID number is encoded onto the surface of the microchip.  Not possible to alter the number.  It contains electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the signals to the reader. 10

Antenna coil  A simple coil of copper wire around ferrite core  This tiny radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader 11

Tuning capacitor  The capacitor stores the small electrical charge sent by the reader, which activates the transponder.  This activation allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip.  The radio waves are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader  The capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader NMAM Institute of Technology 12

Glass capsule  The glass capsule houses the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor.  It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter.(about the size of an uncooked grain of rice).  The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass.  After assembly, the capsule is air-tight sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. 13

Insertion  The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe.  Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines.  Anesthesia is not required nor recommended.  In dogs and cats, the biochip is usually injected behind the neck between the shoulder blades. 14

Reader  The reader consists of an exciter coil and receiver coil. Exciter coil creates an electromagnetic field.  Through the radio signals it provides the necessary energy to excite or activate the implanted biochip. 15

Working  The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system.  Uses low frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader.  The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, in this case via radio signals , which activates the implanted biochip.  This activation enables the biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals.  The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader's LCD display. 16

Applications  With a biochip tracing of a person or animal, anywhere in the world is possible.  A biochip can store and update financial, medical, basically everything about a person.  A biochip leads to a secured E-Commerce systems.  Medical implementations such as Glucose detector, Oxygen sensor and Blood pressure sensor.  Infectious diseases like HIV , TB and malaria can be detected.  Biochip is used to detect Cancer Symptoms. 17

Advantages  Small in size-Portable.  Saves energy so it can be used for long term usage.  Rescues the sick.  Helps in finding lost people.  Identifies each person uniquely.  Increases the speed of diagnosis. 18

Disadvantages  Cost is high.  Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter.  Standardization is required. 19

Conclusions  Biochips are likely to have a significant business in future.  A chip implanted somewhere in human bodies might serve as a combination of credit card, passport, driver's license, etc  No longer would it be needed to worry about losing the credit cards while traveling.  A chip inserted into human bodies might also give us extra mental power.  The day in which we have chips embedded in our skins is not too far from now. 20

References  “Biochips-The IC of Biology” DTU Infomatics , Technical University of Denmark , IEEE Journal-January 2012  “Advanced Biochip”G.D.Griffin.A.L.Winterberg,Oak Ridge National Laboratory, IEEE Journal-May 2003  International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250 2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)   Biochips History- Users/HP/downloads/biochips/RadioFrequencyIdentification/Implants.html  National Centre for Biotechnology Information,Microarrays: Chipping away at the Mysteries of medicine (mar.30,2004)  Users/HP/downloads/biochips/BiochipImplant/html 21


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