Published on March 20, 2014
NIDHI C. SHETTY 4SF10EC063 EC ‘B’
Contents Introduction History Biochip implant Components of Biochips Working Applications Advantages Disadvantages Conclusions References 2
Introduction “Biochips”-The most exciting future technology is an outcome of the fields of Electronics and Biology. A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites arranged on a solid substrate. It permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions. It’s no more required with biochips the good old idea of remembering PINs, Passwords, and Social security numbers 3
History Biochip started with early work on the sensor technology. One of the first portable, chemistry-based sensors was the glass ph electrode, invented in 1922 by Hughes. The biochip technology was originally developed in 1983. It was used for monitoring fisheries. Now it includes over 300 zoos, over 80 government agencies in at least 20 countries. 4
BIOCHIP IMPLANT • Injected by a hypodermic syringe beneath the skin. • Injection is safe and simple. • Anesthesia is not required. • Usually injected behind the neck.
Size of Biochip The size of Biochip is of a size of an uncooked rice grain size. 6
Components of Biochip The biochip implant system consists of mainly two components. 7 The transponder The reader
The biochip transponder consists of four parts: 8 Computer Microchip Tuning Capacitor Antenna Coil Glass Capsule
Transponder The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder The passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out. It has a very long life, up to 99 years and no maintenance 9
Microchip It stores unique identification number 10 to 15 digits long. ID number is encoded onto the surface of the microchip. Not possible to alter the number. It contains electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the signals to the reader. 10
Antenna coil A simple coil of copper wire around ferrite core This tiny radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader 11
Tuning capacitor The capacitor stores the small electrical charge sent by the reader, which activates the transponder. This activation allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. The radio waves are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader The capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader NMAM Institute of Technology 12
Glass capsule The glass capsule houses the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter.(about the size of an uncooked grain of rice). The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is air-tight sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. 13
Insertion The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor recommended. In dogs and cats, the biochip is usually injected behind the neck between the shoulder blades. 14
Reader The reader consists of an exciter coil and receiver coil. Exciter coil creates an electromagnetic field. Through the radio signals it provides the necessary energy to excite or activate the implanted biochip. 15
Working The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system. Uses low frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, in this case via radio signals , which activates the implanted biochip. This activation enables the biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals. The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader's LCD display. 16
Applications With a biochip tracing of a person or animal, anywhere in the world is possible. A biochip can store and update financial, medical, basically everything about a person. A biochip leads to a secured E-Commerce systems. Medical implementations such as Glucose detector, Oxygen sensor and Blood pressure sensor. Infectious diseases like HIV , TB and malaria can be detected. Biochip is used to detect Cancer Symptoms. 17
Advantages Small in size-Portable. Saves energy so it can be used for long term usage. Rescues the sick. Helps in finding lost people. Identifies each person uniquely. Increases the speed of diagnosis. 18
Disadvantages Cost is high. Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. Standardization is required. 19
Conclusions Biochips are likely to have a significant business in future. A chip implanted somewhere in human bodies might serve as a combination of credit card, passport, driver's license, etc No longer would it be needed to worry about losing the credit cards while traveling. A chip inserted into human bodies might also give us extra mental power. The day in which we have chips embedded in our skins is not too far from now. 20
References “Biochips-The IC of Biology” DTU Infomatics , Technical University of Denmark , IEEE Journal-January 2012 “Advanced Biochip”G.D.Griffin.A.L.Winterberg,Oak Ridge National Laboratory, IEEE Journal-May 2003 International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250 2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012) www.ijetae.com/files/Volume2Issue3/IJETAE_0312_22 Biochips History-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochips Users/HP/downloads/biochips/RadioFrequencyIdentification/Implants.html National Centre for Biotechnology Information,Microarrays: Chipping away at the Mysteries of medicine (mar.30,2004) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/about/primer/microarrays Users/HP/downloads/biochips/BiochipImplant/html 21
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