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nichomachean ethics book three courage and temperance

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Published on February 3, 2009

Author: shivrajsinghnegi

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ETHICS PRESENTED BY RINJU R SARANYA KAPUR SHIVRAJ SINGH NEGI “ If it is in our power to act nobly, it is also in our power to do evil”

Book 1: The study of the good Goal-directed ethics Character-centered ethics The essence and function of being human ("The Function Argument") Eudaimonia Criticism of Plato's theory of forms Virtue (Arete): traditional Greek virtues Book 2: Moral virtue The Golden Mean Epikairekakia, phthonos and nemesis. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Book 1: The study of the good

Goal-directed ethics

Character-centered ethics

The essence and function of being human ("The Function Argument")

Eudaimonia

Criticism of Plato's theory of forms

Virtue (Arete): traditional Greek virtues

Book 2: Moral virtue

The Golden Mean

Epikairekakia, phthonos and nemesis.

Chapter I: Voluntary and Involuntary Action Chapter II: Definition of Choice Chapter III: Definition of Deliberation Chapter IV: Definition of Wish Chapter V: Man's Moral Responsibility as an Agent Chapter VI: Courage (i) Chapter VII: Courage (ii) Chapter VIII: Courage (iii) Chapter IX: Courage (iv) Chapter X: Self-Control (i) Chapter XI: Self-Control (ii) Chapter XII: Self-Control (iii) 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Chapter I: Voluntary and Involuntary Action

Chapter II: Definition of Choice

Chapter III: Definition of Deliberation

Chapter IV: Definition of Wish

Chapter V: Man's Moral Responsibility as an Agent

Chapter VI: Courage (i)

Chapter VII: Courage (ii)

Chapter VIII: Courage (iii)

Chapter IX: Courage (iv)

Chapter X: Self-Control (i)

Chapter XI: Self-Control (ii)

Chapter XII: Self-Control (iii)

The need to differentiate between voluntary and involuntary actions. Involuntary act = Act done through ignorance + Regret by the agent. Non- voluntary act = Act done through ignorance + No Regret. Distinction between an act due to ignorance and an act done in ignorance. Particular and Universal ignorance. Particular ignorance results in involuntary acts. A voluntary action is one in which the agent of the action knows the particulars on which the action depends. An action performed through temper or desire is still voluntary. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

The need to differentiate between voluntary and involuntary actions.

Involuntary act = Act done through ignorance + Regret by the agent.

Non- voluntary act = Act done through ignorance + No Regret.

Distinction between an act due to ignorance and an act done in ignorance.

Particular and Universal ignorance.

Particular ignorance results in involuntary acts.

A voluntary action is one in which the agent of the action knows the particulars on which the action depends.

An action performed through temper or desire is still voluntary.

We must discuss choice, for it shows up character better than actions do. Both children and animals share voluntary action, as they share appetite and anger, but they cannot be said to make rational choices. A choice is not merely a wish or an opinion, for one might wish for immortality, or for a particular athlete to win in the stadium. Wishes relate to the ends, choice to the means, and opinion precedes them both. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

We must discuss choice, for it shows up character better than actions do.

Both children and animals share voluntary action, as they share appetite and anger, but they cannot be said to make rational choices.

A choice is not merely a wish or an opinion, for one might wish for immortality, or for a particular athlete to win in the stadium.

Wishes relate to the ends, choice to the means, and opinion precedes them both.

We do not always deliberate about things. No one makes decisions about the reality of the material universe, or about chance events like the weather, for none of these can be caused by our efforts. The doctor does not deliberate whether he shall heal. Object of choice is determined on the basis of deliberation. Deliberation is concerned with things attainable by human action. One cannot deliberate about ends nor about particular facts but only about means to an end. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

We do not always deliberate about things.

No one makes decisions about the reality of the material universe, or about chance events like the weather, for none of these can be caused by our efforts.

The doctor does not deliberate whether he shall heal.

Object of choice is determined on the basis of deliberation.

Deliberation is concerned with things attainable by human action.

One cannot deliberate about ends nor about particular facts but only about means to an end.

A wish is for an end, either for the good, or the apparent good. Those who say that a wish is always for the good must admit that this cannot be so, for many will wish for bad things. Those who hold that a wish is for the apparent good will admit that there is thus no good but what each man chooses. So it seems that each type of character has its own ideas of the noble and the pleasant. Before general principles are applied in the evaluation of moral purpose, one must always consider the particular situation 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

A wish is for an end, either for the good, or the apparent good.

Those who say that a wish is always for the good must admit that this cannot be so, for many will wish for bad things.

Those who hold that a wish is for the apparent good will admit that there is thus no good but what each man chooses.

So it seems that each type of character has its own ideas of the noble and the pleasant.

Before general principles are applied in the evaluation of moral purpose, one must always consider the particular situation

If the end is what we wish for, the means must be what we deliberate about. Our virtue is of means, so if it is in our power to act nobly, it is also in our power to do evil. To say 'no-one is voluntarily wicked or unhappy' seems unsure, for no one is voluntarily unhappy, but wickedness is voluntary. And this is accepted by both the magistrates and the people when they punish voluntary wickedness, they pardon involuntary mistakes and they honour noble acts. We do not punish ignorance, unless the man is the cause of his own ignorance, as when we double the penalty for crimes committed while drunk, since man has the power not to get drunk. Yet, some men voluntarily make their own ignorance, by being unjust or self-indulgent. Likewise, we do not reproach, but rather pity, vices of the body such as being blind or disabled. But every one would blame a man who was blind from drunkenness. In all cases, the vices that are blamed must be in our own power. Let us consider the several virtues, beginning with courage. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

If the end is what we wish for, the means must be what we deliberate about.

Our virtue is of means, so if it is in our power to act nobly, it is also in our power to do evil.

To say 'no-one is voluntarily wicked or unhappy' seems unsure, for no one is voluntarily unhappy, but wickedness is voluntary.

And this is accepted by both the magistrates and the people when they punish voluntary wickedness, they pardon involuntary mistakes and they honour noble acts.

We do not punish ignorance, unless the man is the cause of his own ignorance, as when we double the penalty for crimes committed while drunk, since man has the power not to get drunk.

Yet, some men voluntarily make their own ignorance, by being unjust or self-indulgent.

Likewise, we do not reproach, but rather pity, vices of the body such as being blind or disabled.

But every one would blame a man who was blind from drunkenness.

In all cases, the vices that are blamed must be in our own power. Let us consider the several virtues, beginning with courage.

Courage is a mean. Does not mean complete fearlessness. Brave man concerned only with the greatest of terrors, i.e. Death. Not all kinds of Death, only in certain circumstances like war. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Courage is a mean.

Does not mean complete fearlessness.

Brave man concerned only with the greatest of terrors, i.e. Death.

Not all kinds of Death, only in certain circumstances like war.

Things terrible ‘beyond human strength’ are terrible to everyone. Human fault lies in fearing wrongly. Brave man acts according to the situation- importance of a noble end. Brave man is the mean between rashness and cowardice. Death as an escape is a kind of cowardice. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Things terrible ‘beyond human strength’ are terrible to everyone.

Human fault lies in fearing wrongly.

Brave man acts according to the situation- importance of a noble end.

Brave man is the mean between rashness and cowardice.

Death as an escape is a kind of cowardice.

Describes ‘brave’ men and those who are merely thought to be brave and discriminates between the two. 1. Courage of citizen soldiers- nearest to true courage. 2. Courage that comes of experience and knowledge, eg. of professional soldiers- may not be true courage. 3. Passion- is an ingredient of true courage, but by itself is not. 4. Sanguine people are not brave- confidence comes from their nature and not deliberation. 5. Ignorance is not braver y. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Describes ‘brave’ men and those who are merely thought to be brave and discriminates between the two.

1. Courage of citizen soldiers- nearest to true courage.

2. Courage that comes of experience and knowledge, eg. of professional soldiers- may not be true courage.

3. Passion- is an ingredient of true courage, but by itself is not.

4. Sanguine people are not brave- confidence comes from their nature and not deliberation.

5. Ignorance is not braver y.

Courage :- Concerned with feelings of confidence and fear Concept of a Brave man Boxer example The best soldier 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Courage :-

Concerned with feelings of confidence and fear

Concept of a Brave man

Boxer example

The best soldier

Temperance - a mean with regard to pleasures. Pleasures – bodily and soul. Self Indulgence- reminds of objects of appetite. Conclusion - more concerned with touch than taste. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Temperance - a mean with regard to pleasures.

Pleasures – bodily and soul.

Self Indulgence- reminds of objects of appetite.

Conclusion - more concerned with touch than taste.

Appetite:- Common; acquired; peculiar belly-gods :– fill their belly beyond what is right The Temperate Man:- The sort of man that the right rules prescribe 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Appetite:-

Common; acquired; peculiar

belly-gods :– fill their belly beyond what is right

The Temperate Man:-

The sort of man that the right rules prescribe

Self-indulgence :- A voluntary State than cowardice Rational Principle :- Refers to an obedient state Appetitive element :- Should harmonize with rational principle in a temperate man. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Self-indulgence :-

A voluntary State than cowardice

Rational Principle :-

Refers to an obedient state

Appetitive element :-

Should harmonize with rational principle in a temperate man.

Our evaluation of a person's actions depends to some extent on whether those actions are voluntary, involuntary, or nonvoluntary. An action is involuntary when it is performed under compulsion and causes pain to the person acting. There are borderline cases, as when someone is compelled to do something dishonorable under threat, but we should generally consider such cases voluntary, since the person is still in control of his or her actions. Something done in ignorance may be called involuntary if the person later recognizes that ignorance, but it is nonvoluntary if the person does not recognize or suffer for such ignorance. However, ignorance can excuse only particular cases, and not general behavior, since general ignorance of what is good is precisely what makes a person bad. It seems the best measure of moral goodness is choice, because unlike actions, choices are always made voluntarily. We make choices about the means we use to achieve a desired end. Deliberation, which precedes choice, is directed only toward those means over which we have some control and only when the correct manner of proceeding is not immediately obvious.  Deliberation proceeds according to the analytical method. We consider first what end we wish to achieve, and then reason backward to the means we might implement to bring about this end.  In choosing, those of good character will always aim for the good. However, those who are not of good character may understand things incorrectly and may wish for only the apparent good. Both virtue and vice, therefore, lie within human power, because they are related to choices that we make voluntarily and deliberately. This conclusion is borne out by the fact that rewards and punishments are only conferred on those actions that we are thought to have done voluntarily. People who behave badly form bad habits that are difficult to change, but their lack of self-control is hardly an excuse for their badness. 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

Our evaluation of a person's actions depends to some extent on whether those actions are voluntary, involuntary, or nonvoluntary. An action is involuntary when it is performed under compulsion and causes pain to the person acting. There are borderline cases, as when someone is compelled to do something dishonorable under threat, but we should generally consider such cases voluntary, since the person is still in control of his or her actions. Something done in ignorance may be called involuntary if the person later recognizes that ignorance, but it is nonvoluntary if the person does not recognize or suffer for such ignorance. However, ignorance can excuse only particular cases, and not general behavior, since general ignorance of what is good is precisely what makes a person bad.

It seems the best measure of moral goodness is choice, because unlike actions, choices are always made voluntarily. We make choices about the means we use to achieve a desired end. Deliberation, which precedes choice, is directed only toward those means over which we have some control and only when the correct manner of proceeding is not immediately obvious. 

Deliberation proceeds according to the analytical method. We consider first what end we wish to achieve, and then reason backward to the means we might implement to bring about this end. 

In choosing, those of good character will always aim for the good. However, those who are not of good character may understand things incorrectly and may wish for only the apparent good. Both virtue and vice, therefore, lie within human power, because they are related to choices that we make voluntarily and deliberately. This conclusion is borne out by the fact that rewards and punishments are only conferred on those actions that we are thought to have done voluntarily. People who behave badly form bad habits that are difficult to change, but their lack of self-control is hardly an excuse for their badness.

ARISTOTLE NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS published by WORDSWORTH EDITIONS. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/ http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/introser/aristot.htm www.virtuescience.com 06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

ARISTOTLE NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS published by WORDSWORTH EDITIONS.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html

http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/introser/aristot.htm

www.virtuescience.com

06/07/09 NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS BOOK THREE COURAGE AND TEMPERANCE

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