# Newch6www

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Education

Published on February 29, 2008

Author: Javier

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 6 :  Chapter 6 Momentum 1. MOMENTUM:  1. MOMENTUM Momentum - inertia in motion Momentum = mass times velocity 2. IMPULSE:  2. IMPULSE Collisions involve forces (there is a Dv). Impulse = force times time. 3. IMPULSE CHANGES MOMENTUM:  3. IMPULSE CHANGES MOMENTUM Impulse = change in momentum Case 1 Increasing Momentum:  Case 1 Increasing Momentum Follow through Examples: Long Cannons Driving a golf ball Can you think of others? Video Clip:  Video Clip Tennis racquet and ball Case 2 Decreasing Momentum over a Long Time:  Case 2 Decreasing Momentum over a Long Time Examples: Rolling with the Punch Bungee Jumping Can you think of others? Warning – May be dangerous Case 3 Decreasing Momentum over a Short Time:  Case 3 Decreasing Momentum over a Short Time Examples: Boxing (leaning into punch) Head-on collisions Can you think of others? 4. BOUNCING:  4. BOUNCING There is a greater impulse with bouncing. Example: Pelton Wheel Demo – Impulse Pendulum Slide12:  Consider a hard ball and a clay ball that have +10 units of momentum each just before hitting a wall. The clay ball sticks to the wall and the hard ball bounces off with -5 units of momentum. Which delivered the most “punch” to the wall? Slide13:  Initial momentum of the clay ball is 10. Final momentum of clay ball is 0. The change is 0 - 10 = - 10. It received - 10 impulse so it applied + 10 to the wall. Slide14:  Initial momentum of the hard ball is 10. Final momentum of hard ball is - 5. The change is - 5 - 10 = - 15. It received - 15 impulse so it applied + 15 to the wall. 5. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM:  5. CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM Example: Rifle and bullet Demo - Rocket balloon Demo - Clackers Video - Cannon recoil Video - Rocket scooter Consider two objects, 1 and 2, and assume that no external forces are acting on the system composed of these two particles.:  Consider two objects, 1 and 2, and assume that no external forces are acting on the system composed of these two particles. Impulse applied to object 1 Impulse applied to object 2 Total impulse applied to system or Apply Newton’s Third Law Slide17:  Internal forces cannot cause a change in momentum of the system. For conservation of momentum, the external forces must be zero. 6. COLLISIONS:  6. COLLISIONS Collisions involve forces internal to colliding bodies. Elastic collisions - conserve energy and momentum Inelastic collisions - conserve momentum Totally inelastic collisions - conserve momentum and objects stick together Demos and Videos:  Demos and Videos Demo – Air track collisions (momentum & energy) Demo - Momentum balls (momentum & energy) Demo - Hovering disks (momentum & energy) Demo - Small ball/large ball drop Demo - Funny Balls Video - Two Colliding Autos (momentum) Terms in parentheses represent what is conserved. Slide20:  Collision between two objects of the same mass. One mass is at rest. Collision between two objects. One not at rest initially has twice the mass. Collision between two objects. One at rest initially has twice the mass. Simple Examples of Head-On Collisions (Energy and Momentum are Both Conserved) Head-On Totally Inelastic Collision Example:  Head-On Totally Inelastic Collision Example Let the mass of the truck be 20 times the mass of the car. Using conservation of momentum, we get Slide22:  initial momentum of system = final momentum of system Slide23:  Remember that the car and the truck exert equal but oppositely directed forces upon each other. What about the drivers? The truck driver undergoes the same acceleration as the truck, that is Slide24:  The car driver undergoes the same acceleration as the car, that is The ratio of the magnitudes of these two accelerations is Remember to use Newton’s Second Law to see the forces involved.:  Remember to use Newton’s Second Law to see the forces involved. For the truck driver his mass times his acceleration gives For the car driver his mass times his greater acceleration gives Slide26:  , big trucks that is. Your danger is of the order of twenty times greater than that of the truck driver. TRUCKS Don’t mess with T 7. More Complicated Collisions:  7. More Complicated Collisions Vector Addition of Momentum Slide28:  Collision between two objects of the same mass. One mass is at rest. Example of Non-Head-On Collisions (Energy and Momentum are Both Conserved) If you vector add the total momentum after collision, you get the total momentum before collision. Slide29:  Examples: Colliding cars Exploding bombs Video - Collisions in 2-D Chapter 6 Review Questions:  Chapter 6 Review Questions Slide31:  The product of mass times velocity is most appropriately called (a) impulse (b) change in momentum (c) momentum (d) change in impulse (c) momentum You jump off a table. When you land on the floor you bend your knees during the landing in order to:  You jump off a table. When you land on the floor you bend your knees during the landing in order to (a) make smaller the impulse applied to you by the floor (b) make smaller the force applied to you by the floor (c) both (a) and (b) (b) make smaller the force applied to you by the floor An egg dropped on carpet has a better chance of surviving than an egg dropped on concrete. The reason why is because on carpet the time of impact is longer than for concrete and thus the force applied to the egg will be smaller. :  An egg dropped on carpet has a better chance of surviving than an egg dropped on concrete. The reason why is because on carpet the time of impact is longer than for concrete and thus the force applied to the egg will be smaller. (a) True (b) False (a) True In which type of collision is energy conserved? :  In which type of collision is energy conserved? (a) elastic (b) inelastic (c) totally inelastic (d) All of the above (e) None of the above (a) elastic A Mack truck and a Volkswagen have a collision head-on. Which driver experiences the greater force?:  A Mack truck and a Volkswagen have a collision head-on. Which driver experiences the greater force? (a) Mack truck driver (b) Volkswagen driver (c) both experience the same force (b) Volkswagen driver

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