Newcastle disease

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Information about Newcastle disease

Published on February 15, 2014

Author: VetAbdulrhmanSubhi


-The disease is caused by a virus called Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) -Virus classification : + Negative single strand RNA virus + Order : Mononegaveralis + Famiy : Paramyxoviridae + Genus: Avulavirus + Species : Newcastle disease virus (NDV)

- Virus strains : + Lentogenic NDV + Mesogenic NDV + Velogenic NDV (The strongest strain ) - It is a pantropic virus which has more than one tropism ( Nervous system and respiratory system )

Transmission occurs by exposure to faecal and other excretions from infected birds, and through contact with contaminated food, water, equipment and clothing. High concentrations of the NDV are found in birds' bodily discharges; therefore, the disease can be spread easily by mechanical means. Virus-bearing material can be picked up on shoes and clothing and carried from an infected flock to a healthy one.

-Newcastle disease is a contagious bird disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species; it is transmissible to humans. Its effects are most notable in domestic poultry due to their high susceptibility and the potential for severe impacts of an epizootic on the poultry industries. It is endemic to many countries. Exposure of humans to infected birds (for example in poultry processing plants) can cause mild conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms, but the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) otherwise poses no hazard to human health. Interest in the use of NDV as an anticancer agent has arisen from the ability of NDV to selectively kill human tumour cells with limited toxicity to normal cells.

Field diagnosis Clinical symptoms Laboratory diagnosis Post-mortem symptoms

+ It depend on the strain of the NDV , health , age and species of the poultry + It includes respiratory and nervous symptoms +The incubation period for the disease ranges from two to 15 days

1-Gasping 2-Coughing

swelling of the tissues around the eyes and neck

Watery greenish diarrhea Normal Feaces in case of diarrhea

-Reduce in egg production -Thin egg shell

-Sudden death

-Multifocal petechial hemorrhage in The trachea (mild hemorrhage)

-Pulmonary congestion and edema

-Edema and petechial hemorrhage in proventriculus proventriculus Gizzard

-Hemorrhage in the whole intestine

-Hemorrhage in liver Normal liver

1-Serological tests: ELISA- FAT – HI 2-Detection of virus nucleic acid: PCR-Hybridization 3-Isolation of the virus: Tissue culture –Embryonic Chicken Egg

samples are obtained by swabbing the trachea and the cloaca. Cotton swabs can be used. The virus can also be isolated from the lungs, brain, spleen, liver, and kidneys.

Any animals showing symptoms of Newcastle disease should be quarantined immediately. New birds should also be vaccinated before being introduced to a flock. An inactivated viral vaccine is available, as well as various combination vaccines. Antibiotic can be given to prevent bacterial infection.

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