newborn screening

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Information about newborn screening
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Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

What’s New in Newborn Screening:  What’s New in Newborn Screening Kathy Tomashitis, MNS, RD Pediatric Screening Coordinator Division of Women and Children’s Services, SC DHEC Newborn Screening Expansion:  Newborn Screening Expansion Newborn screening began in South Carolina in the mid-1960’s with testing for phenylketonuria (PKU) Over the years, the test panel has expanded as improvements in technology occurred and as research indicated benefit of pre-symptomatic detection for specific disorders Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel:  Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel Several factors have lead to the current expansion Technological advances: increased use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in newborn screening applications and improvement in the screening protocol for cystic fibrosis NO ADDITIONAL BLOOD NEEDED! Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel:  Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel Improved morbidity/mortality: research supports improved outcomes for pre-symptomatic identification of cystic fibrosis as well as disorders found through MS/MS; research has long recognized benefit of screening for biotinidase deficiency Cost benefit: research supports pre-symptomatic identification of fatty acid, amino acid and organic acid disorders found through MS/MS Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel:  Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel SC health care providers support expanded screening Survey of all newborn health care providers in SC conducted in 11/00: top three conditions recommended for expansion include cystic fibrosis, LCHADD ( a fatty acid oxidation disorder) and biotinidase deficiency Newborn Screening Advisory Committee recommended step-wise expansion to include cystic fibrosis, biotinidase deficiency and disorders found through MS/MS Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel:  Newborn Screening-Why Expand the Test Panel Growing awareness in disparity across states in conditions included in newborn screening test panel Expansion would provide SC infants with one of the most comprehensive test panels in US Consumer groups such as the March of Dimes support expanded test panels Newborn Screening Expansion:  Newborn Screening Expansion Current test panel includes screening for PKU, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), medium chain acyl co-A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) and hemoglobinopathies Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that is found in 1:3500 Caucasian and 1:17,000 African American births CF is a recessive genetic disorder. Risk of recurrence is 1:4 with each pregnancy. In CF, the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems are severely compromised. Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis Fluids that are normally thin and slippery become thick and sticky Infections are treated aggressively Chest physiotherapy used to clear lungs Pancreatic enzymes used to aid digestion Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis Screening will include measurement of immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) If the IRT is above a set level, a repeat IRT will be requested. If the IRT is still above normal limits on the second specimen, the infant will be referred to a CF center for sweat testing Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Cystic Fibrosis Sweat testing is still the “gold standard” for confirmation DNA testing for the most common CF mutations may be added to the screening protocol in the future Newborn Screening Expansion-Biotinidase Deficiency:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Biotinidase Deficiency Biotinidase deficiency is a recessive genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1:60,000 births (ethnic difference in prevalence not established) Like CF, risk of recurrence is 1:4 with each pregnancy Affected infants cannot utilize biotin, a vitamin found in foods, including breastmilk and infant formula Newborn Screening Expansion-Biotinidase Deficiency:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Biotinidase Deficiency Leads to developmental delay, seizures, hair loss, hearing loss, skin disorders and immunodeficiency Treated by giving infant biotin in the form of a crushed pill or capsule mixed into milk or food Screening will involve direct measurement of biotinidase False positive rates should be low Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Organic Acid Disorders Fatty acid, amino acid and organic acid disorders are individually rare, but occur with a combined frequency of 1:5000 to 1:6000 births Screening will include measurement of an acyl carnitine profile and an amino acid profile Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Organic Acid Disorders MS/MS is very precise, but interpretation is complex REMINDER--MS/MS can identify many, but not all metabolic disorders Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Most common FA disorder—MCADD—is part of the current test panel Expansion will add seven additional FA disorders All are recessive genetic disorders so risk of recurrence is 1:4 with each pregnancy Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Symptoms of most FA disorders Hypoketotic hypoglycemia Muscle weakness Seizures Sometimes cardiomyopathy Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Treatment of most FA disorders Avoid fasting Immediate medical attention when unable to eat usual diet Control type/amount of fat in diet depending upon the specific diagnosis Carnitine if indicated Cornstarch tube feeding at night if indicated Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Treatment (con’t) Ensure immunizations are up-to-date Treat infections promptly All patients should keep an “emergency protocol” letter with them at all times Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders MINOR ILLNESSES CAN PRECIPITATE METABOLIC DECOMPENSATION IN AN INFANT/CHILD WITH A FA DISORDER!! Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Short chain acyl co-A dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) Estimated incidence is 1:40,000 to 1:100,000 Outcomes of known patients highly variable, but may be less severe than other FA disorders Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Long chain 3 OH co-A dehydrogenase deficiency/Trifunctional protein defect (LCHADD/TFP) Unknown incidence Differential diagnosis needed to separate LCHADD from TFP Cardiomyopathy and retinal changes HELLP/AFLP in 20% of affected pregnancies Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Very long chain acyl co-A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) Unknown incidence Some infants have cardiomyopathy Good outcome when treated presymptomatically Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Glutaric aciduria type II (GA II) Not thought to be rare, but incidence unknown Outcomes variable based upon phenotype Riboflavin supplementation useful in some mild cases Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) Unknown incidence Muscle weakness, pain and myoglobinuria prompted by prolonged exercise 80% affected patients have been male Cardiac dysfunction rare Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Fatty Acid Disorders Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACT) Thought to be very rare Long term outcome not clearly known Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Expansion will add eleven OA disorders Most are recessive disorders so risk of recurrence is 1:4 with each pregnancy A few sub-types are X-linked so only males are affected, but females may show milder symptoms Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Symptoms of most OA disorders Feeding problems Seizures Metabolic acidosis Lethargy Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Treatment of most OA disorders Avoid fasting Immediate medical attention when unable to eat usual diet Control type/amount of protein in diet depending upon the specific diagnosis Carnitine if indicated Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Treatment (con’t) Ensure immunizations are up-to-date Treat infections promptly All patients should keep an “emergency protocol” letter with them at all times Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders MINOR ILLNESSES CAN PRECIPITATE METABOLIC DECOMPENSATION IN AN INFANT/CHILD WITH AN OA DISORDER!! Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Propionic acidemia (PA) Estimated incidence is 1:100,000 Oral antibiotics may be useful to decrease gut propionate Biotin if helpful Continuous overnight feeds helpful in some patients Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) Estimated incidence is 1:48,000 for B-12 non-responsive type; unknown incidence in other types Oral antibiotics may be useful to decrease gut propionate Vitamin B-12 if helpful Betaine if helpful Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Isobutyrul co-A dehydrogenase deficiency (IBCDD) Thought to be very rare Long term outcome not clearly known, but appears to be good Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) Estimated incidence is 1:230,000 Most have “sweaty sock” odor Glycine may be used in addition to carnitine Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders 2 methylbutyryl co-A dehydrogenase deficiency (2-MBCDD) Thought to be very rare Long term outcome not clearly known, but appears to be good Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders 3 methylcrotonyl co-A carboxylase deficiency (3-MCC) Estimated incidence is 1:50,000 Glycine may be used in addition to carnitine NBS result in infant may really be indicative of maternal 3-MCC Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Beta ketothiolase deficiency Unknown incidence Urinary ketones should be monitored Moderate protein intake indicated Bicarbonate therapy often required long term Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders 3 methyl 3-OH glutaryl co-A lyase deficiency (HMGLD) Unknown incidence Diet may also be somewhat restricted in fat Supplemental glucose may be used Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders 3 methylglutaconyl co-A hydratase deficiency Thought to be very rare Type II is X-linked Protein restriction and supplemental carnitine may be useful for Type I Other types do not appear to respond to treatment Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD) Estimated incidence is 1:87,000 Diet restriction NOT indicated Most cases are biotin responsive Biotin enhances the function of the carboxylase enzymes Not the same as biotinidase deficiency! Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I) Estimated incidence is 1:40,000 Very important to proceed directly to diagnostic testing with any elevation Must treat fever aggressively Hospital admission mandatory for IV’s with any vomiting illness Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Organic Acid Disorders Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I) con’t Prone to subdural hemorrhages and retinal hemorrhages after minor head trauma (ie, fall when learning to walk) Can be misdiagnosed as child abuse May have profuse sweating Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders Most common AA disorder—PKU—is part of the current test panel Expansion will add four additional AA disorders All are recessive genetic disorders so risk of recurrence is 1:4 with each pregnancy Symptoms and treatments vary by disorder Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders Homocystinuria Estimated incidence is 1:200,000 Dislocated lens, marfanoid body type, thromboembolism Some patients are vitamin B 6 responsive MET restricted diet if B 6 non-responsive Betaine used after infancy Monitor folate/B 12 and supplement if needed Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) Estimated incidence is 1:185,000 Severe ketoacidosis,  ammonia, sezuires, coma LEU restricted/ILE, VAL controlled diet Thiamin if responsive Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders Citrullinemia Estimated incidence is 1:57,000  ammonia, lethargy, seizures, coma Protein restricted diet, ARG supplementation Na benzoate, Na phenylacetate, Na phenylbutyrate if indicated Aggressive treatment when ammonia levels  Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders:  Newborn Screening Expansion-Amino Acid Disorders Argininosuccinic aciduria Estimated incidence is 1:70,000  ammonia, lethargy, seizures, coma Protein restriction, ARG supplementation Na benzoate, Na phenylacetate, Na phenylbutyrate if indicated Aggressive treatment when ammonia levels  Testing and Follow-up:  Testing and Follow-up State law requires all infants to be tested before hospital discharge regardless of their length of stay. DHEC laboratory performs all newborn screening tests. All results (normal, unacceptable and abnormal) are sent to the physician of record and the hospital or birthing center. Repeat tests are required when: one of the screening tests was abnormal, the initial sample was unacceptable, the initial sample was collected before 24 hours of age. Testing and Follow-up:  Testing and Follow-up Follow-up program calls physician of record when results are highly suggestive of a case. Follow-up program sends letter to physician of record to document phone call. Testing and Follow-up:  Testing and Follow-up Follow-up program sends letter to physician of record when results are outside of normal limits, but not highly suggestive of a case. Testing and Follow-up:  Testing and Follow-up By allowing name to be put on collection form, physician assumes all responsibility for ensuring repeat specimens are collected. Testing and Follow-up:  Testing and Follow-up If physician of record not providing care after hospital stay, he/she must notify DHEC as soon as possible so that local health department staff can ensure repeat specimens are collected. Challenges in Ensuring Complete Follow-up:  Challenges in Ensuring Complete Follow-up Name changes Incomplete demographic data Marking lab slip wrong (i.e. mark “PKU” when needed “T4”) Incorrect coding of MD or record Newborn Screening Expansion:  Newborn Screening Expansion FINAL WORDS—Never call newborn screening the “PKU test!!” Contact information general info: Kathy Tomashitis phone: 803-898-0619 email: tomashkf@dhec.sc.gov Newborn Screening Expansion:  Newborn Screening Expansion Contact information (con’t) Patient results: Linda Baker phone: 803-898-0593 fax: 803-898-0337 Medical consultant: Dr Bryant Fortner phone: 803-898-0362 email: fortnebr@dhec.sc.gov

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