New Zealand 1800 1900 Part B Economy And Politics 2011 Class Version

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Information about New Zealand 1800 1900 Part B Economy And Politics 2011 Class Version
Education

Published on July 22, 2009

Author: nzhistory

Source: slideshare.net

Description

NCEA Level 3 History
Political and Economic Change 1800-1900
Also some Social Change

New Zealand 1800-1900 Part B: Economic and Political Change CLASS VERSION

Overview New Zealand was a Maori country in 1840. Migration saw tens then hundreds of thousands of people arrive in the country. Most arrived with their own aspirations, hopes and dreams. More people saw more of the country exploited and developed. New Industries emerged. Economic expansion attracted more people. More people with less traditional attitudes also saw calls for political change. Traditional power bases were weakened and changed. Political change saw the ‘small man’ emerge as an agent of change.

New Zealand was a Maori country in 1840.

Migration saw tens then hundreds of thousands of people arrive in the country.

Most arrived with their own aspirations, hopes and dreams.

More people saw more of the country exploited and developed.

New Industries emerged.

Economic expansion attracted more people.

More people with less traditional attitudes also saw calls for political change.

Traditional power bases were weakened and changed.

Political change saw the ‘small man’ emerge as an agent of change.

This Section of the Course This section of the course looks at Political and Economic changes after 1840. Political and economic change were both affected by Migration which saw the Pakeha population increase from 2,000 in 1840 to 60,000 by 1860 and 900,000 by 1900. At the same time the Maori population fell from 80,000 in 1840 to 60,000 in 1860 and 42,000 by 1892 Economic change looks at how the land itself was exploited mainly in the form of different types of farming (Pastoralism) but also in resource exploitation mainly forestry and mining. Political change sees the colony move from Crown Colony to Settler Government and the maturation from Provincialism to Party Politics .

This section of the course looks at Political and Economic changes after 1840.

Political and economic change were both affected by Migration which saw the Pakeha population increase from 2,000 in 1840 to 60,000 by 1860 and 900,000 by 1900.

At the same time the Maori population fell from 80,000 in 1840 to 60,000 in 1860 and 42,000 by 1892

Economic change looks at how the land itself was exploited mainly in the form of different types of farming (Pastoralism) but also in resource exploitation mainly forestry and mining.

Political change sees the colony move from Crown Colony to Settler Government and the maturation from Provincialism to Party Politics .

Migration: Planned Migration Economic Growth was generated by an expanding population. There were two types of migrant to New Zealand after 1840 . Planned or Assisted migrants, were those who arrived as part of some scheme. NZ Co. settlers in the 1840’s NZ Co. settled in and around the first settlements (Wellington, Nelson, New Plymouth) The 1870’s Vogel Plan migrants came as part of a planned scheme to open up the and develop the country. (Taranaki, the 70 Mile Bush) They were often family groups.

Economic Growth was generated by an expanding population.

There were two types of migrant to New Zealand after 1840 .

Planned or Assisted migrants, were those who arrived as part of some scheme.

NZ Co. settlers in the 1840’s NZ Co. settled in and around the first settlements (Wellington, Nelson, New Plymouth)

The 1870’s Vogel Plan migrants came as part of a planned scheme to open up the and develop the country. (Taranaki, the 70 Mile Bush)

They were often family groups.

Migration: The Progress Industry (Planned)Systematic Colonisers Planned Migration was typified by The New Zealand Company which had a huge impact on New Zealand. For some Historians it is Wakefield and his activities which resulted in the Treaty in 1840. The first migrants arrived at Port Nicholson January 1840 aboard the Tory. They were dumped on the beach at Petone, trapped between the swamps and the sea. Meanwhile in the Bay of Islands Capt. Hobson was about to arrive to take up his new post. This was in many ways the beginning of a struggle between Governor and Settler which would last for 30 years. Historiography: Page 126 C of C Page 62 WON

Planned Migration was typified by The New Zealand Company which had a huge impact on New Zealand. For some Historians it is Wakefield and his activities which resulted in the Treaty in 1840.

The first migrants arrived at Port Nicholson January 1840 aboard the Tory. They were dumped on the beach at Petone, trapped between the swamps and the sea.

Meanwhile in the Bay of Islands Capt. Hobson was about to arrive to take up his new post.

This was in many ways the beginning of a struggle between Governor and Settler which would last for 30 years.

Wakefields Theory of ‘Sufficient Price’ Wakefield believed that past colonial ventures had failed because land was to easily available. He wanted to restrict this and by placing a “sufficient price” on land force migrants to work before they could acquire the land. Land would ne acquired from Natives as cheaply as possible. The sale of land would fund the new migrants and provide a healthy profit. Owners who had bought land in England would arrive WITH the funds to employ labourer’s to work on their farms. Demand would ensure wages were high. Wage-earners would own their own farms after three or four years. Although he wanted denser settlement, the only close-knit unit in the colony he explicitly talked about was the family. He recommended that assisted immigrants consist of young married couples.

Wakefield believed that past colonial ventures had failed because land was to easily available.

He wanted to restrict this and by placing a “sufficient price” on land force migrants to work before they could acquire the land.

Land would ne acquired from Natives as cheaply as possible.

The sale of land would fund the new migrants and provide a healthy profit.

Owners who had bought land in England would arrive WITH the funds to employ labourer’s to work on their farms.

Demand would ensure wages were high.

Wage-earners would own their own farms after three or four years.

Although he wanted denser settlement, the only close-knit unit in the colony he explicitly talked about was the family.

He recommended that assisted immigrants consist of young married couples.

The NZ Company: Broken Promises The NZ Company was responsible for the creation of Settlements at Wellington, New Plymouth, Wanganui and Nelson. Each one required renegotiation of sales with Maori. It was also supportive of the planned settlements in Canterbury and Otakou. (Otago) Initially Settlements were hampered by a lack of food and land. Early settlers became dependent upon Maori generosity and were frustrated at the slow progress in land sales. The economic system envisaged by Wakefield never worked in the original settlements because of the lack of work. Settlers spent their funds on food and too little was left to buy land when it was finally available. NZ Co. Settlements Canterbury Assoc. Free Church of Scot Assoc.

The NZ Company was responsible for the creation of Settlements at Wellington, New Plymouth, Wanganui and Nelson.

Each one required renegotiation of sales with Maori.

It was also supportive of the planned settlements in Canterbury and Otakou. (Otago)

Initially Settlements were hampered by a lack of food and land.

Early settlers became dependent upon Maori generosity and were frustrated at the slow progress in land sales.

The economic system envisaged by Wakefield never worked in the original settlements because of the lack of work.

Settlers spent their funds on food and too little was left to buy land when it was finally available.

What Price Wellington? 100 red blankets 2 tierces tobacco (packets) 2 cases soap 48 iron pots 60 red night caps 10 doz pairs of scissors 10 doz looking glasses 21 kegs gunpowder 15 fowling pieces (muskets) 1 keg lead slabs 1 cask ball catridges 100 tomahawks 100 cartouche bags (tote) 100 yards check (material) 100 yards ribbon 1 doz pairs shoes 10 doz combs 1 doz razors 1 doz sticks sealing wax 200 yards calico (material) 2 doz kerchiefs 200 pencils 1 case pipes 40 pipe tomahawks 50 steel axes 2 doz spades 12 bullet moulds 12 doz shirts 20 jackets 1,200 fish hooks 300 yards cotton duck (material) 1 doz hats 1 doz umbrellas 1 gross jews harp (instrument) 2 suits clothes 6 doz hoes (gardening implement) 2 doz adzes (carving implement) 1 doz shaving boxes

100 red blankets

2 tierces tobacco (packets)

2 cases soap

48 iron pots

60 red night caps

10 doz pairs of scissors

10 doz looking glasses

21 kegs gunpowder

15 fowling pieces (muskets)

1 keg lead slabs

1 cask ball catridges

100 tomahawks

100 cartouche bags (tote)

100 yards check (material)

100 yards ribbon

1 doz pairs shoes

10 doz combs

1 doz razors

1 doz sticks sealing wax

200 yards calico (material)

2 doz kerchiefs

200 pencils

1 case pipes

40 pipe tomahawks

50 steel axes

2 doz spades

12 bullet moulds

12 doz shirts

20 jackets

1,200 fish hooks

300 yards cotton duck (material)

1 doz hats

1 doz umbrellas

1 gross jews harp (instrument)

2 suits clothes

6 doz hoes (gardening implement)

2 doz adzes (carving implement)

1 doz shaving boxes

False Advertising: Wellington How is Wellington presented? What appears in this image that differs today? What is wrong with this image?

How is Wellington presented?

What appears in this image that differs today?

What is wrong with this image?

Absentee Owners In London land in the colonies was sold at Auction. Many speculators saw a quick profit from rising property values. As absentee owners they never intended to live in NZ. As a result they did not employ the labourers the Directors expected. Land Commissioner William Spain found only a small proportion of the 20M acres William Wakefield claimed were valid. He allowed 60,000 acres in New Plymouth but later Governor Fitzroy would only accept 4,500 acres , infuriating the Settlers by limiting the area they could sell or develop This seriously inhibited the chances for the settlements to prosper….

In London land in the colonies was sold at Auction.

Many speculators saw a quick profit from rising property values.

As absentee owners they never intended to live in NZ.

As a result they did not employ the labourers the Directors expected.

Land Commissioner William Spain found only a small proportion of the 20M acres William Wakefield claimed were valid.

He allowed 60,000 acres in New Plymouth but later Governor Fitzroy would only accept 4,500 acres , infuriating the Settlers by limiting the area they could sell or develop

This seriously inhibited the chances for the settlements to prosper….

The Settlements - Wakefields Theory II Wakefield intended to sell land to new settlers at a fixed (SUFFICIENT) price, high enough to make a good profit and to keep it out of reach of working class settlers. Their labour would then be available for capitalists who could afford to buy land. Profits would be used to subsidise labourers fares and to develop public works. This would maintain a steady supply of labour and restrict the spread of the settlements. A compact township based on intensive agriculture would be easier to supply services to. Original sections would include both a town and a suburban section, a potential speculative windfall. 1000 Wellington sections were sold sight unsold to buyers who had no intention of migrating.

Wakefield intended to sell land to new settlers at a fixed (SUFFICIENT) price, high enough to make a good profit and to keep it out of reach of working class settlers.

Their labour would then be available for capitalists who could afford to buy land. Profits would be used to subsidise labourers fares and to develop public works.

This would maintain a steady supply of labour and restrict the spread of the settlements. A compact township based on intensive agriculture would be easier to supply services to.

Original sections would include both a town and a suburban section, a potential speculative windfall.

1000 Wellington sections were sold sight unsold to buyers who had no intention of migrating.

Britannia

Land Sales

Wellington 1840 The original Settlement was intended to be at Petone. The settlement had to be moved across the harbour to Te Aro and Thorndon. Settlers were enraged when Hobson moved the Capital only as far south as Auckland. The settlement proved unsuitable to for agriculture as it did not have enough arable land, until the Hutt Valley was opened up in 1846-7. The failure of agriculture led to economic decline. Immigration virtually ceased by 1842. By 1845 only 7000 of 110,00 acres had been surveyed. By 1848 only 11% of settlers were listed as agriculturalists and only 1700 acres were in cultivation. By 1848 only 85 of the original (1840) 436 settlers still remained in Wellington…. The Settlers needed another site to expand into. Thorndon Flats Extension Reading

The original Settlement was intended to be at Petone.

The settlement had to be moved across the harbour to Te Aro and Thorndon.

Settlers were enraged when Hobson moved the Capital only as far south as Auckland.

The settlement proved unsuitable to for agriculture as it did not have enough arable land, until the Hutt Valley was opened up in 1846-7.

The failure of agriculture led to economic decline.

Immigration virtually ceased by 1842.

By 1845 only 7000 of 110,00 acres had been surveyed.

By 1848 only 11% of settlers were listed as agriculturalists and only 1700 acres were in cultivation.

By 1848 only 85 of the original (1840) 436 settlers still remained in Wellington….

The Settlers needed another site to expand into.

NZ company propaganda Petre

W(h)anganui 1840 Wanganui was purchased in 1840 and used as a way of providing the agricultural land Wellington had failed to. Initially it supplied pigs pork and potatoes to Wellington. Maori resistance to land sales also limited its growth. By 1848 its population numbered only 156. Disputes with local Maori continued to hinder their progress until 1849 when the land was purchased again. Later it became a garrison town, hosting as many as 800 soldiers who protected the lower North Island from possible Kingitanga and later Pai Marire attack.

Wanganui was purchased in 1840 and used as a way of providing the agricultural land Wellington had failed to.

Initially it supplied pigs pork and potatoes to Wellington.

Maori resistance to land sales also limited its growth.

By 1848 its population numbered only 156.

Disputes with local Maori continued to hinder their progress until 1849 when the land was purchased again.

Later it became a garrison town, hosting as many as 800 soldiers who protected the lower North Island from possible Kingitanga and later Pai Marire attack.

Nelson 1841 It was supposedly better planned, and land deals were more generous than in Wellington. Unfortunately the actually site chosen proved to have too little available land. Local Maori (Ngai Tahu) did not recognise the land sale made by Te Rauparaha (Ngati Toa). The Settlement rapidly filled with Settlers. 1842 only 562 of 1000 Town allotments were sold, There were few employers, 364 of the owners were absentee. A building boom to house the settlers employed some for a few months. Frustration grew as the available land was occupied, while settlers continued to arrive.. This frustration resulted in the 1843 Wairau incident. Settler worries about Maori continued until Te Rauparaha was arrested and the Hutt and Wanganui wars ended in 1847.

It was supposedly better planned, and land deals were more generous than in Wellington.

Unfortunately the actually site chosen proved to have too little available land.

Local Maori (Ngai Tahu) did not recognise the land sale made by Te Rauparaha (Ngati Toa).

The Settlement rapidly filled with Settlers.

1842 only 562 of 1000 Town allotments were sold,

There were few employers, 364 of the owners were absentee.

A building boom to house the settlers employed some for a few months.

Frustration grew as the available land was occupied, while settlers continued to arrive..

This frustration resulted in the 1843 Wairau incident.

Settler worries about Maori continued until Te Rauparaha was arrested and the Hutt and Wanganui wars ended in 1847.

Neslon 1841

Takaka Nelson

New Plymouth 1841 New Plymouth suffered from the same problems as the other Wakefield settlements. It was difficult to establish title to the land. There was little work for the landless settlers. Commissioner Spain & Fitzroy refused to accept their land claims. It lacked a decent harbour. Problems associated with importing enough food, resulted in shortages, exacerbated by the lack of land, and employers created widespread poverty.

New Plymouth suffered from the same problems as the other Wakefield settlements.

It was difficult to establish title to the land.

There was little work for the landless settlers.

Commissioner Spain & Fitzroy refused to accept their land claims.

It lacked a decent harbour.

Problems associated with importing enough food, resulted in shortages, exacerbated by the lack of land, and employers created widespread poverty.

The Road to Prosperity is through the Waitara… As the settlement grew it became safer for Maori (Wiremu Kingi & Te Atiawa) who had been in exile for 25 years to return to their land in 1848. This restricted the settlers access to previously uninhabited lands north of the Waitara River. Some Te Atiawa sold land despite opposition. from other Maori and in the 1850’s the Settlement began to prosper. Despite losing a decision over the amount of land they owned, they had more land in the cultivation than any other settlement. Settlers continued to covet the Waitara. Te Atiawa clashes over land sales gave them hope. The First Taranaki War almost closed the township in 1860.

As the settlement grew it became safer for Maori (Wiremu Kingi & Te Atiawa) who had been in exile for 25 years to return to their land in 1848.

This restricted the settlers access to previously uninhabited lands north of the Waitara River.

Some Te Atiawa sold land despite opposition. from other Maori and in the 1850’s the Settlement began to prosper.

Despite losing a decision over the amount of land they owned, they had more land in the cultivation than any other settlement.

Settlers continued to covet the Waitara.

Te Atiawa clashes over land sales gave them hope.

The First Taranaki War almost closed the township in 1860.

Assessing the Wakefield legacy The NZ Company brought 10,000 immigrants to NZ between 1839-1845 Many found that conditions were quite different to those promised by commission collecting Agents. Promises and lies were used to fill quota’s. It also meant that many immigrants did not fit the requirements stated by the Company. The retention rate suffered by Wellington was almost certainly reflected in the other Settlements. Wakefield’s plans had many weaknesses. The settlements were under funded with to few capitalists and too many labourers. Riches in the settlements depended not on close knit highly priced agricultural settlement s but on loosely knit, cheaply priced, grazing. Pastoralism was King. Wakefield has to be acknowledged as the man who placed enough pressure on the crown that they were forced into the Treaty. Historiography See page 150 C of C

The NZ Company brought 10,000 immigrants to NZ between 1839-1845

Many found that conditions were quite different to those promised by commission collecting Agents.

Promises and lies were used to fill quota’s.

It also meant that many immigrants did not fit the requirements stated by the Company.

The retention rate suffered by Wellington was almost certainly reflected in the other Settlements.

Wakefield’s plans had many weaknesses.

The settlements were under funded with to few capitalists and too many labourers.

Riches in the settlements depended not on close knit highly priced agricultural settlement s but on loosely knit, cheaply priced, grazing.

Pastoralism was King.

Wakefield has to be acknowledged as the man who placed enough pressure on the crown that they were forced into the Treaty.

Settlement in the South Settlements in the south were Otago centered on Dunedin and Canterbury centered on Christchurch. These were independently controlled planned settlements (with some input from Wakefield). They quickly gave up on intensive farming for extensive sheep farming. Ngai Tahu welcomed their presence as protection against Ngati Toa.

Settlements in the south were Otago centered on Dunedin and Canterbury centered on Christchurch.

These were independently controlled planned settlements (with some input from Wakefield).

They quickly gave up on intensive farming for extensive sheep farming.

Ngai Tahu welcomed their presence as protection against Ngati Toa.

Otakau 1848 Otago was the first planned settlement that was not arranged by Wakefield, however the NZ Company was involved because of its expertise. The Free Scottish Churches involvement meant that there was an air of respectability to the affair lacking in other settlements. Lack of capital initially made life difficult. The land had been acquired for the Nga Tahu for £2500 . Farmers around the Settlement were soon able to produce large quantities of wheat for export to the Sydney market. The real wealth lay outside the small settlement in the expansive grasslands and its riverbeds..

Otago was the first planned settlement that was not arranged by Wakefield, however the NZ Company was involved because of its expertise. The Free Scottish Churches involvement meant that there was an air of respectability to the affair lacking in other settlements.

Lack of capital initially made life difficult.

The land had been acquired for the Nga Tahu for £2500 .

Farmers around the Settlement were soon able to produce large quantities of wheat for export to the Sydney market.

The real wealth lay outside the small settlement in the expansive grasslands and its riverbeds..

Dunedin 1858

Wool and Gold In the 1840’s Sydney based entrepreneurs began to expand into the Southern grasslands. Many shonky land deals took place. In the 1850’s pastoralism spread from Wairarapa into the South and many farmers took up the challenge. Pastoralism spread through the South. This improved the economic outlook for Otago. In the 1860’s Gold discoveries in Australia led to massive growth. (Melbourne) Provinces began to offer a reward for the discovery of gold. Gabriel Reads discovery in 1860 led to a Rush and Otago took off.

In the 1840’s Sydney based entrepreneurs began to expand into the Southern grasslands.

Many shonky land deals took place.

In the 1850’s pastoralism spread from Wairarapa into the South and many farmers took up the challenge.

Pastoralism spread through the South.

This improved the economic outlook for Otago.

In the 1860’s Gold discoveries in Australia led to massive growth. (Melbourne)

Provinces began to offer a reward for the discovery of gold.

Gabriel Reads discovery in 1860 led to a Rush and Otago took off.

Dunedin 1871

Dunedin 1874

Canterbury 1850 The Canterbury Association led by John Godley wanted to avoid problems experienced by the NZ Company and chose to only sell land to people present in the settlement. Land sales were still below expectations especially within the Settlement. A drought during the 1850’s in Australia saw many graziers arrived having recognised the opportunity offered by the grasslands of the Canterbury plains. Despite protests from Wakefield Godley changed the laws to allow cheap grazing leases. Christchurch’s greatest advantage lay in its proximity to these grazing lands and the lack of any sizeable Maori opposition to their presence. Government purchases of Ngai Tahu land made more and more available.

The Canterbury Association led by John Godley wanted to avoid problems experienced by the NZ Company and chose to only sell land to people present in the settlement.

Land sales were still below expectations especially within the Settlement.

A drought during the 1850’s in Australia saw many graziers arrived having recognised the opportunity offered by the grasslands of the Canterbury plains.

Despite protests from Wakefield Godley changed the laws to allow cheap grazing leases.

Christchurch’s greatest advantage lay in its proximity to these grazing lands and the lack of any sizeable Maori opposition to their presence.

Government purchases of Ngai Tahu land made more and more available.

Lyttleton Harbour

Deans Property 1858

Christchurch 1860

Canterbury Provincial Govt. Building (1858)

Huts on the Mesopotamia Run

Cheviot Estate

Unplanned Migration Unplanned or Independent migrants were those who arrived in NZ independently. Many of these arrived from Australia. In the 1840’s Auckland became the largest unplanned settlement. As the Capital, Auckland provided land for speculators and settlers and employment for those who could not yet afford land. In the 1860’s many were often sojourners hoping to make their fortune exploiting resources like gold. These migrants were often solitary males. They opened up new areas like Otago & the West Coast.

Unplanned or Independent migrants were those who arrived in NZ independently.

Many of these arrived from Australia.

In the 1840’s Auckland became the largest unplanned settlement.

As the Capital, Auckland provided land for speculators and settlers and employment for those who could not yet afford land.

In the 1860’s many were often sojourners hoping to make their fortune exploiting resources like gold.

These migrants were often solitary males.

They opened up new areas like Otago & the West Coast.

Unplanned Settlement: Auckland Tamaki Makaurau was a perfect site for settlement. With two harbours (Waitemata & Manukau) and plenty of available land it seemed ideal. It also fell between the largest Maori groups (Waikato/Ngapuhi) Ngati Whatua welcomed Hobson in 1840. Access to Pakeha trade (and mana) Protection from other Maori. ((Ngapuhi) Large areas were bought and on-sold to settlers. The presence of the Government also gave a welcome economic boost to the city. Speculators and potential profits. Land for settlement Land for the tandless labourers

Tamaki Makaurau was a perfect site for settlement.

With two harbours (Waitemata & Manukau) and plenty of available land it seemed ideal.

It also fell between the largest Maori groups (Waikato/Ngapuhi)

Ngati Whatua welcomed Hobson in 1840.

Access to Pakeha trade (and mana)

Protection from other Maori. ((Ngapuhi)

Large areas were bought and on-sold to settlers.

The presence of the Government also gave a welcome economic boost to the city.

Speculators and potential profits.

Land for settlement

Land for the tandless labourers

Auckland (Start as you mean to go on) Ngati Whatua sold 3,000 acres for £340. Unplanned Auckland fared better than the other Settlements. As the Capital it attracted speculators who could profit from the demand created by the housing demands of the administration. In 1841 some city land was priced at £550 an acre. Labourers could earn 8s a day. (More than double the average wage) It soon earned a reputation as the ‘Australian” Colony – in 1847 it had 28 Brothels for only 5000 people and 12% of them had been arrested for drunkenness. Abundant arable land allowed the ports to develop. In the late 1850’s Grey’s military build up also contributed to its economic growth. Confiscated land in the Waikato continued its growth.

Ngati Whatua sold 3,000 acres for £340.

Unplanned Auckland fared better than the other Settlements.

As the Capital it attracted speculators who could profit from the demand created by the housing demands of the administration.

In 1841 some city land was priced at £550 an acre.

Labourers could earn 8s a day. (More than double the average wage)

It soon earned a reputation as the ‘Australian” Colony – in 1847 it had 28 Brothels for only 5000 people and 12% of them had been arrested for drunkenness.

Abundant arable land allowed the ports to develop.

In the late 1850’s Grey’s military build up also contributed to its economic growth.

Confiscated land in the Waikato continued its growth.

Auckland 1840 Hobson moved the capital to The Auckland Isthmus after an invitation form Ngati Whatua who gifted several thousand acres as an incentive. They also seemed keen on selling land. Wellington settlers were enraged when Hobson moved the Capital only as far south as Auckland. This thwarted possible profits that being the capital would have given them. They argued that Wellington made better geographic sense. For Hobson it made political sense, being placed between the two largest concentrations of Maori. (Ngapuhi and Waikato). It also kept him away from the influence of the NZ Co. Settlers.

Hobson moved the capital to The Auckland Isthmus after an invitation form Ngati Whatua who gifted several thousand acres as an incentive.

They also seemed keen on selling land.

Wellington settlers were enraged when Hobson moved the Capital only as far south as Auckland.

This thwarted possible profits that being the capital would have given them.

They argued that Wellington made better geographic sense.

For Hobson it made political sense, being placed between the two largest concentrations of Maori. (Ngapuhi and Waikato).

It also kept him away from the influence of the NZ Co. Settlers.

Auckland 1843

Queen Street 1859

Britomart Point 1864

Albert Barracks 1869

Auckland “Party Central” 1887

Queen Street 1889

The Progress Industry(s) Colonisation was in many respects encouraged and encouraged by (Belich) the Progress Industry. Belich has identified a number of factors which contributed to the Progress Industry. Public Works – increasing the range and scale of Infrastructure. Organised (Planned) Migration. Belich also sees war as a means of removing ‘obstacles’ to progress. There were allies. Extractive Industries – Sealing Whaling Flax Manfacturing and Farming Together these assaulted nature, natives, emptiness and distance. Land was taken, forest became grassland, settlers arrived and roads & rail closed the gaps between towns and provinces. Eventually they turned NZ into a Greater Britain.

Colonisation was in many respects encouraged and encouraged by (Belich) the Progress Industry.

Belich has identified a number of factors which contributed to the Progress Industry.

Public Works – increasing the range and scale of Infrastructure.

Organised (Planned) Migration.

Belich also sees war as a means of removing ‘obstacles’ to progress.

There were allies.

Extractive Industries – Sealing Whaling Flax

Manfacturing and Farming

Together these assaulted nature, natives, emptiness and distance.

Land was taken, forest became grassland, settlers arrived and roads & rail closed the gaps between towns and provinces.

Eventually they turned NZ into a Greater Britain.

Other Influences: Explosive Migration Belich has recently begun to see migration to NZ and other places as explosive in its nature. While there was a steady trickle of immigrants attracted by the Provinicial Governments there were periods when the numbers arriving boomed…. This can certainly be seen in the 1840’s with the Wakefields (000’s) Belich has also identified smaller ‘Rush’ Migrations associated with The 1860’s with the Gold Rushes.(*0,000’s) And finally the 1870’s with the Vogel scheme.(*00,000’s) Belich believes such movements created huge changes in the settler population especially their economic and political power.

Belich has recently begun to see migration to NZ and other places as explosive in its nature.

While there was a steady trickle of immigrants attracted by the Provinicial Governments there were periods when the numbers arriving boomed….

This can certainly be seen in the 1840’s with the Wakefields (000’s)

Belich has also identified smaller ‘Rush’ Migrations associated with

The 1860’s with the Gold Rushes.(*0,000’s)

And finally the 1870’s with the Vogel scheme.(*00,000’s)

Belich believes such movements created huge changes in the settler population especially their economic and political power.

European Settlement

The Vogel Scheme After the New Zealand Company collapse in the early 1850’s Migration to New Zealand became a matter of chance. The individual Provincial Governments used Migration Agents to attract Migrants to their part of New Zealand. Through the 1850’s and 1860’s the southern Provinces did better as they had more land available and were not involved in the wars of the 1860’s. They also prospered from the discovery of Gold in Otago, West Coast and Nelson areas. But this prosperity was often short-lived. Nationally New Zealand was in stagnation as the 1870’s approached.

After the New Zealand Company collapse in the early 1850’s Migration to New Zealand became a matter of chance.

The individual Provincial Governments used Migration Agents to attract Migrants to their part of New Zealand.

Through the 1850’s and 1860’s the southern Provinces did better as they had more land available and were not involved in the wars of the 1860’s.

They also prospered from the discovery of Gold in Otago, West Coast and Nelson areas. But this prosperity was often short-lived.

Nationally New Zealand was in stagnation as the 1870’s approached.

The Government and Pakeha Economic Development Initially the Colony and the Government were expected to be self funding, using land sales to finance the running of the Public Service. Until Grey arrived, most Governors found this an impossible mission, as Maori simply refused to sell land for less than the market rate. Economic realism overcame the Wakefields objections to the availability of cheap land. Pastoralism shifted the focus south as settler development there increased based around cheap available land & the growth in sheep farming. Grey encouraged this by allowing land to be made available at affordable rates. The government also ensured that the Gold fields Act ensured the development of Gold Mining.

Initially the Colony and the Government were expected to be self funding, using land sales to finance the running of the Public Service.

Until Grey arrived, most Governors found this an impossible mission, as Maori simply refused to sell land for less than the market rate.

Economic realism overcame the Wakefields objections to the availability of cheap land.

Pastoralism shifted the focus south as settler development there increased based around cheap available land & the growth in sheep farming.

Grey encouraged this by allowing land to be made available at affordable rates. The government also ensured that the Gold fields Act ensured the development of Gold Mining.

Provincial Rivalries From 1852 the Provinces worked towards economic development based on their own self interest. They relied on land sales to fund themselves. They used immigration Agents and the promise of cheap land to attract settlers. Land confiscations made even more land available and finally freed up the rich northern forests, the actions of the Native Land Court increased the transition of Maori land to Pakeha. Central Governments role in Economic Development increased markedly with the arrival of Julius Vogel. When the Provincial Governments proved difficult to work with Vogel had them abolished in 1876.

From 1852 the Provinces worked towards economic development based on their own self interest.

They relied on land sales to fund themselves.

They used immigration Agents and the promise of cheap land to attract settlers.

Land confiscations made even more land available and finally freed up the rich northern forests, the actions of the Native Land Court increased the transition of Maori land to Pakeha.

Central Governments role in Economic Development increased markedly with the arrival of Julius Vogel.

When the Provincial Governments proved difficult to work with Vogel had them abolished in 1876.

Sir Julius Vogel From 1865 to 1869 Vogel was effectively leader of the opposition until becoming Treasurer in 1869. As Colonial Treasurer Vogel developed his scheme which included: borrowing ten million pounds. Acquisition of land in remote areas. construction of roads, railways and telegraphs. Assisted Migration . He hoped that immigration combined with expanded infrastructure would result in expansion of the economy. Vogel planned to set aside 6M acres to help pay for the scheme. Vogel's policy was adopted by the House in 1870 and implemented during the seventies. The new economic policy was popular within the country. It marked the end of an era of slow growth and conflict He also set up State Life Insurance in 1869 and the Public Trust Office in 1872. In 1873 almost 32,000 immigrants arrived in New Zealand followed by 18,000 the following year.

From 1865 to 1869 Vogel was effectively leader of the opposition until becoming Treasurer in 1869.

As Colonial Treasurer Vogel developed his scheme which included:

borrowing ten million pounds.

Acquisition of land in remote areas.

construction of roads, railways and telegraphs.

Assisted Migration .

He hoped that immigration combined with expanded infrastructure would result in expansion of the economy.

Vogel planned to set aside 6M acres to help pay for the scheme.

Vogel's policy was adopted by the House in 1870 and implemented during the seventies.

The new economic policy was popular within the country. It marked the end of an era of slow growth and conflict

He also set up State Life Insurance in 1869 and the Public Trust Office in 1872.

In 1873 almost 32,000 immigrants arrived in New Zealand followed by 18,000 the following year.

The Provinces

Vogels railways

Vogel’s Migrant Scheme. Between 1870 and 1880 more people arrived than did under Wakefield in the 1840’s or in the 1860’s Gold rushes. In this decade 100,000 assisted and another 40,000 unassisted migrants arrived. In 1873 alone, almost 32,000 immigrants arrived in New Zealand followed by 18,000 the following year. Amongst the unassisted migrants were 5,000 Chinese although only half stayed. Most of the assisted migrants arrived as part of the Public Works Policy and thus went to Otago and Canterbury where most of these projects especially rail were located.

Between 1870 and 1880 more people arrived than did under Wakefield in the 1840’s or in the 1860’s Gold rushes.

In this decade 100,000 assisted and another 40,000 unassisted migrants arrived.

In 1873 alone, almost 32,000 immigrants arrived in New Zealand followed by 18,000 the following year.

Amongst the unassisted migrants were 5,000 Chinese although only half stayed.

Most of the assisted migrants arrived as part of the Public Works Policy and thus went to Otago and Canterbury where most of these projects especially rail were located.

Vogels Migrant.

Here and There

The Origins of Migrants Vogels Migrants were attracted from all over Britain. The ability of Immigration Agents and the local conditions (economic/social) often influenced how many people came from any one region.

Vogels Migrants were attracted from all over Britain.

The ability of Immigration Agents and the local conditions (economic/social) often influenced how many people came from any one region.

Vogel Migrants 1870-1900 In which years did migration peak? When did assisted migration stop? What might have led to the fall in migration?

In which years did migration peak?

When did assisted migration stop?

What might have led to the fall in migration?

The Rimutaka Hill Road 1870’s

Class ‘A’ Locomotive What does this engine tell us about NZ’s economy? What does this tell us about the changes in New Zealand in the 1870’s?

The future State Highway 2 through the Wairarapa

Carriage in 40 Mile Bush Featherston

The view over Featherston 1890’s

Canvas Hut: The Bush Frontier

Vogel Scheme Success…… 140,000 new immigrants arrived. Overall the population doubled in size. 4,000 miles of telegraph line increased communications. This allowed the Provinces to be abolished. 1,000 miles of railway line including the South Island main trunk line was built. Most of the North Islands rail-line was also built. New areas in the interior like 70 Mile Bush (Wairarapa) the Manawatu and the West Coast (Goldfields) were opened up.

140,000 new immigrants arrived.

Overall the population doubled in size.

4,000 miles of telegraph line increased communications.

This allowed the Provinces to be abolished.

1,000 miles of railway line including the South Island main trunk line was built.

Most of the North Islands rail-line was also built.

New areas in the interior like 70 Mile Bush (Wairarapa) the Manawatu and the West Coast (Goldfields) were opened up.

A bright start…. Canterbury wheat fields increased five-fold (50,000 to 250,000 acres). The number of factories doubled in this decade. (836 to 1643, as did the number of people employed here). Railways opened up the West Coast coalfields. (Brunner) The abolition of the Provinces allowed a more efficient Government of the Country.

Canterbury wheat fields increased five-fold (50,000 to 250,000 acres).

The number of factories doubled in this decade. (836 to 1643, as did the number of people employed here).

Railways opened up the West Coast coalfields. (Brunner)

The abolition of the Provinces allowed a more efficient Government of the Country.

… or failure? BUT The Loans were a massive burden on the economy. Interest and capital repayments needed constant growth. The expected growth had not had the chance to establish itself before the world economy began to falter. When the depression began to emerge the Government was forced to pay more for its loans. Revenues had not reached predictions, loans became harder to find and to fund. Lacking any vision the Government reduced spending (Retrenchment).

BUT

The Loans were a massive burden on the economy.

Interest and capital repayments needed constant growth.

The expected growth had not had the chance to establish itself before the world economy began to falter.

When the depression began to emerge the Government was forced to pay more for its loans.

Revenues had not reached predictions, loans became harder to find and to fund.

Lacking any vision the Government reduced spending (Retrenchment).

Vogel planned to borrow £10m but used £20m. Economic development had only just begun to increase when an international recession turned into a fully fledged depression. Prices for wheat and wool began to fall. Gold outputs also began to decline. Many of the new farms were still being broken in and many owed money to banks who needed to recall their funds. Companies closed and Farms foreclosed. Everyone blamed Vogel for their predicament. The normal response by 19 th C Governments was to reduce or stop spending (RETRENCHMENT) – (SHADES of 2009!) Vogel’s fall from Grace: Depression

Vogel planned to borrow £10m but used £20m.

Economic development had only just begun to increase when an international recession turned into a fully fledged depression.

Prices for wheat and wool began to fall.

Gold outputs also began to decline.

Many of the new farms were still being broken in and many owed money to banks who needed to recall their funds.

Companies closed and Farms foreclosed.

Everyone blamed Vogel for their predicament.

The normal response by 19 th C Governments was to reduce or stop spending (RETRENCHMENT) – (SHADES of 2009!)

The downward (Recession) spiral Farmers incomes fall, they cut costs by employing fewer labourers and cutting back on spending in shops. International prices for wool fall. This signals a general decline in commodity prices. As suppliers/shops incomes fall they also cut costs employing fewer workers and cutting back on spending With most peoples incomes falling less and less is spent, Public & Private Retrenchments continue . Business confidence is low so little is invested in new ventures – people prefer to save their money. (Banks fail) With its tax collections falling the Government also reduces spending , especially in employment and supplies. (Retrenchment) ECONOMIC DEPRESSION

Scapegoat Grand scapegoat procession. The Tories and Renegades taking Vogel into the wilderness with all their sins . Cartoon shows G. Fisher giving conflicting election promises, Grey pushing with Atkinson and Bryce pulling a wheel chair into which a goat (i.e. Vogel) is bound. The scene is a path in front of craggy mountains, where vultures are hovering Published in 1887

Vogel Vampires

Economic Change Overview. Economic development sees New Zealand move from relatively small scale extraction of resources available from the coastline to development of the interior and the development of manufacturing industries. Pastoralism and Gold opened up the country and provided export income. Immigration encouraged economic growth. This was possible because of the growing Pakeha population and the creation of export industries. War also led to economic expansion. Innovation led to new industries, like refrigeration. 1880’s Depression limited growth and created a climate for political change.

Economic development sees New Zealand move from relatively small scale extraction of resources available from the coastline to development of the interior and the development of manufacturing industries.

Pastoralism and Gold opened up the country and provided export income.

Immigration encouraged economic growth.

This was possible because of the growing Pakeha population and the creation of export industries.

War also led to economic expansion.

Innovation led to new industries, like refrigeration.

1880’s Depression limited growth and created a climate for political change.

Economic Change This area focuses on the development and growth of 4 Main Industries. Agriculture – Food production for the Domestic and Export Markets Timber - The destruction of the native forests for domestic use and for export Gold - Initially in Otago, Westland and Thames. Pastoralism - especially Sheep via Wool then frozen meat for export , and Dairy products.

This area focuses on the development and growth of 4 Main Industries.

Agriculture – Food production for the Domestic and Export Markets

Timber - The destruction of the native forests for domestic use and for export

Gold - Initially in Otago, Westland and Thames.

Pastoralism - especially Sheep via Wool then frozen meat for export , and Dairy products.



Industry Gold: Otago, West Coast, Nelson and Thames Timber : Mainly centered around Kauri in the north and other timbers in Taranaki and Wairapapa. Pastoralism : Mainly Otago and Canterbury, but also Wairarapa and Hawke Bay Agriculture : around the Waikato and major Towns

Gold: Otago, West Coast, Nelson and Thames

Timber : Mainly centered around Kauri in the north and other timbers in Taranaki and Wairapapa.

Pastoralism : Mainly Otago and Canterbury, but also Wairarapa and Hawke Bay

Agriculture : around the Waikato and major Towns

Agriculture Agriculture was based on labour. Bush had to be cleared in a back breaking process based on the farmer his wife and any labourers he could afford to pay. The hardest part was the initial land clearance which required dangerous burn-offs of the underbrush, then the clearance of the larger trees, planting crops around their stumps amongst the ashes of the bush. This was easier in the southern grasslands in the 1850’s but eventually extended into the northern bushlands from 1872.

Agriculture was based on labour.

Bush had to be cleared in a back breaking process based on the farmer his wife and any labourers he could afford to pay.

The hardest part was the initial land clearance which required dangerous burn-offs of the underbrush, then the clearance of the larger trees, planting crops around their stumps amongst the ashes of the bush.

This was easier in the southern grasslands in the 1850’s but eventually extended into the northern bushlands from 1872.

Fire to Clear Bush

Bush Clearance



Growth in Agriculture Women's contribution was limited in a society where most gave up their property rights with marriage. Most were able to contribute through management of the household. Before 1880 most farming was small scale growing for a local market. Most farms were mixed, offering vegetables meat milk etc. In the South large scale wheat farming emerged on the plains that required little clearance. Vogels schemes increased settlement and with it the size of the Agricultural sector.

Women's contribution was limited in a society where most gave up their property rights with marriage.

Most were able to contribute through management of the household.

Before 1880 most farming was small scale growing for a local market.

Most farms were mixed, offering vegetables meat milk etc.

In the South large scale wheat farming emerged on the plains that required little clearance.

Vogels schemes increased settlement and with it the size of the Agricultural sector.

Mixed farming - Willowbridge

Innovation Innovation was reflected in the development of better machinery, better land management and stock development. This innovation would see machinery like Traction Engines from the 1880’s increasingly replace labourers This would see the drift to the cities intensify by the end of the century. By 1910 the majority of New Zealanders would live in large towns or cities.

Innovation was reflected in the development of better machinery, better land management and stock development.

This innovation would see machinery like Traction Engines from the 1880’s increasingly replace labourers

This would see the drift to the cities intensify by the end of the century.

By 1910 the majority of New Zealanders would live in large towns or cities.

Harvesting Wheat

Wheat

Canterbury Wheatfields

Traction Engine What does this picture tell us about changes in farming practices during the 1880s? What does it tell us about the profitability of the farms? What question(s) would you ask of the people in this picture?

What does this picture tell us about changes in farming practices during the 1880s?

What does it tell us about the profitability of the farms?

What question(s) would you ask of the people in this picture?

Baling What would the effect of mechanisation be on farm life?

What would the effect of mechanisation be on farm life?

Giles Family, north Canterbury What does this picture tell us about life on farms in the 1880’s?

What does this picture tell us about life on farms in the 1880’s?

Timber

Timb er Initially the quality of the timber proved attractive to Pakeha. Trees were cut to supply spars for shipping, often travelling back to Britain as the return cargo after dropping off convicts in Sydney. Missionaries encouraged the trade as did Chiefs keen to trade, often supplying the labour to help the traders. From 1840 Sawn timber developed, helping to fuel the building boom in Sydney, and later the building of ships. Later pit sawing gave way to water and steam power. Later the Auckland building boom fuelled demand for sawn logs and an increased demand for firewood.

Initially the quality of the timber proved attractive to Pakeha.

Trees were cut to supply spars for shipping, often travelling back to Britain as the return cargo after dropping off convicts in Sydney.

Missionaries encouraged the trade as did Chiefs keen to trade, often supplying the labour to help the traders.

From 1840 Sawn timber developed, helping to fuel the building boom in Sydney, and later the building of ships.

Later pit sawing gave way to water and steam power.

Later the Auckland building boom fuelled demand for sawn logs and an increased demand for firewood.

Pit sawing Kauri Pit sawing meant men had to have a great deal of trust in their workmates. What question(s) would you ask of the people in this picture?

Pit sawing meant men had to have a great deal of trust in their workmates.

What question(s) would you ask of the people in this picture?

Sawing Kauri

Bullock Teams

Building a Kauri Driving Dam

Kauri Dam waiting to be triggered a

a

Logs awaiting the trip

Kauri Dam after triggering

Clearing a log jam

Kauri Boom

Scow

Kauri Boom in Auckland

Kahikatea, Rimu and Totara New species were used as Kauri began to run out. Kahikatea was found to be especially good for making boxes for exporting butter (Butter-Box Wood) and 95% of the existing stands were felled. Rimu, Matai and Totara were also cut down. By the 1890’s there were calls to regulate the destruction of the native forests. With the removal of the Kauri from the northern forests the way was cleared for another industry to develop. The Collection of Kauri Gum, initially from the cleared forests then later from the swampland that surrounded the area.

New species were used as Kauri began to run out.

Kahikatea was found to be especially good for making boxes for exporting butter (Butter-Box Wood) and 95% of the existing stands were felled.

Rimu, Matai and Totara were also cut down.

By the 1890’s there were calls to regulate the destruction of the native forests.

With the removal of the Kauri from the northern forests the way was cleared for another industry to develop.

The Collection of Kauri Gum, initially from the cleared forests then later from the swampland that surrounded the area.

GOLD

19 th Century Gold Rushes 1849 1851 1860 1896 300.000 100.000 20,000 10,000

Gold Gold discoveries had already been world-wide phenomena in California and Australia, attracting thousands of men searching for the ‘Mother Lode’. In May 1861 Otago had had only 300 Pakeha residents. By 1862, 8000 miners had arrived from Victoria alone. By 1863 36,000 Pakeha lived in the area. The West Coast then also gave up its Gold and its population also exploded. Services sprang up to supply the Miners. Shops Entertainment Gold was then discovered in the Thames area , being close to Auckland it had a massive impact on its population which virtually emptied overnight. Unfortunately its gold was embedded in quartz requiring more than a pan and riffle to extract it.

Gold discoveries had already been world-wide phenomena in California and Australia, attracting thousands of men searching for the ‘Mother Lode’.

In May 1861 Otago had had only 300 Pakeha residents. By 1862, 8000 miners had arrived from Victoria alone. By 1863 36,000 Pakeha lived in the area.

The West Coast then also gave up its Gold and its population also exploded.

Services sprang up to supply the Miners.

Shops

Entertainment

Gold was then discovered in the Thames area , being close to Auckland it had a massive impact on its population which virtually emptied overnight.

Unfortunately its gold was embedded in quartz requiring more than a pan and riffle to extract it.

Goldfields 1862 Thames/Coromandel 1861 Gabriel’s Gully 1856 Collingwood 1862 Dunstan 1863 Shotover 1865 Buller Reefton Greymouth Hokitika 1899 Waihi

Blue Spur at Gabriel’s Gully

Dunstan, Otago

BNZ at Maori Point Otago

Hydaulic Mining

Sluicing How does this type of mining differ from earlier styles? How might this have changed relationships on the golf fields?

How does this type of mining differ from earlier styles?

How might this have changed relationships on the golf fields?

2 mile Water Race License

Water Sluice.

Companies replace Diggers



Grahamtown (Thames)

A Gold Battery Gold held in quartz rock required heavy machinery to remove it. Steam or water powered “Stamper’s” were used to crush the rock until the gold could be removed using chemicals. The machinery and chemicals required large amounts of capital. Miners were forced to band together to share their resources or even worse could only work for a wage.

Gold held in quartz rock required heavy machinery to remove it.

Steam or water powered “Stamper’s” were used to crush the rock until the gold could be removed using chemicals.

The machinery and chemicals required large amounts of capital.

Miners were forced to band together to share their resources or even worse could only work for a wage.

100 Crowded Years: Gold 1940: 100 Crowded Years (Centennial) 1970’s: Spot On – A children’s series

Gold and the Economy For a few years Gold was an important export commodity. It encouraged immigration especially amongst the Males. (See page 190 from C of C) It created a whole new service industry, offering the services and supplies necessary to keep thousands of men working. Dunedin flourished and so did the Run Holders who could now sell their ‘Tucker’ to the hungry miners. Pakeha settlement suddenly covered almost all of the South Island. Chinese Miners arrived later and were often marginalised and discriminated against.

For a few years Gold was an important export commodity. It encouraged immigration especially amongst the Males. (See page 190 from C of C)

It created a whole new service industry, offering the services and supplies necessary to keep thousands of men working.

Dunedin flourished and so did the Run Holders who could now sell their ‘Tucker’ to the hungry miners.

Pakeha settlement suddenly covered almost all of the South Island.

Chinese Miners arrived later and were often marginalised and discriminated against.

Provincial Rivals In the 1860’s most of the wealth of the country was generated by the Southern provinces. The North Island was wracked by war against Maori. Taxes from the South was used to pay for the war. Increasingly this led to resentment and calls for secession. (Vogel) Even within the South, resentment led to calls conflict between Provinces especially between West Coast and Canterbury.

In the 1860’s most of the wealth of the country was generated by the Southern provinces.

The North Island was wracked by war against Maori.

Taxes from the South was used to pay for the war.

Increasingly this led to resentment and calls for secession. (Vogel)

Even within the South, resentment led to calls conflict between Provinces especially between West Coast and Canterbury.

Provincial Rivalry

Murder on the Maungatapu In 1866 5 men were murdered. Suspicion fell on a group who were spending freely in Nelson. Burgess, Levy, Kelly and Sullivan, had served prison time in England, Australia and Otago for robbery and burglary. Sullivan took the £200 reward and informed on the others. The heads were removed and cast to to support the theories of phrenology, a pseudo-science that sought to determine personal characteristics by examining the shape of an individual's head.

In 1866 5 men were murdered.

Suspicion fell on a group who were spending freely in Nelson.

Burgess, Levy, Kelly and Sullivan, had served prison time in England, Australia and Otago for robbery and burglary.

Sullivan took the £200 reward and informed on the others.

The heads were removed and cast to to support the theories of phrenology, a pseudo-science that sought to determine personal characteristics by examining the shape of an individual's head.

Bright Fine Gold Spend it in the winter Or die in the cold. One a pecker, Tuapeka Bright fine gold Chorus. Bright fine gold, Bright fine gold. One a pecker, Tuapeka, Bright red gold. Some are sons of fortune, And my man came to see That the riches in the river Are not for such as he. I'm weary of Otago I'm weary of the snow, Let my man strike it rich And then we'll go. The Tune of BFG Sung as a Kids Song

Spend it in the winter

Or die in the cold.

One a pecker, Tuapeka

Bright fine gold

Chorus. Bright fine gold, Bright fine gold. One a pecker, Tuapeka, Bright red gold.

Some are sons of fortune,

And my man came to see

That the riches in the river

Are not for such as he.

I'm weary of Otago

I'm weary of the snow,

Let my man strike it rich

And then we'll go.

Lyrics 1862. In New Zealand, in 1861, gold rushes broke out almost simultaneously at Wangapeka, near Nelson , and in the Tuapeka River in Otago . This prompted newspaperman and political parodist Crosbie Ward to write next year, in 1862,  (Reeves 1883)  that soon New Zealand Nurses will sing their babies to sleep with the lullaby “Gold, gold , fine bright gold Tuapeka, Wangapeka, bright red gold. “ Red gold contains copper. 1874. And indeed, 22 years later, Frederick Young published this variation   (Young 1874), with the remark that it was the refrain of a New Zealand lullaby . (If this was the refrain of a lullaby, then we can infer that the lullaby had verses too .) Gold, gold, gold - bright fine gold, Wangapeka, Tuapeka - gold, gold, gold. 1880 Robert Fulton was born and raised near Tuapeka. In his 1922 autobiography,  he wrote:- "as a youngster, [he] remembers the nurse's lullabies to the smaller children:- “Bright fine gold, bright fine gold, One-a-pecker, Tuapeka, bright fine gold.“ When Fulton wrote about the children using the digger's cry of "Joe" for anything unusual, he mentioned it was "nigh on 40 years ago," thus giving the period in time when he heard the nurse's lullaby.

1862.

In New Zealand, in 1861, gold rushes broke out almost simultaneously at Wangapeka, near Nelson , and in the Tuapeka River in Otago . This prompted newspaperman and political parodist Crosbie Ward to write next year, in 1862,  (Reeves 1883)  that soon New Zealand Nurses will sing their babies to sleep with the lullaby “Gold, gold , fine bright gold Tuapeka, Wangapeka, bright red gold. “

Red gold contains copper.

1874.

And indeed, 22 years later, Frederick Young published this variation   (Young 1874), with the remark that it was the refrain of a New Zealand lullaby . (If this was the refrain of a lullaby, then we can infer that the lullaby had verses too .)

Gold, gold, gold - bright fine gold, Wangapeka, Tuapeka - gold, gold, gold.

1880

Robert Fulton was born and raised near Tuapeka.

In his 1922 autobiography,  he wrote:- "as a youngster, [he] remembers the nurse's lullabies to the smaller children:- “Bright fine gold, bright fine gold, One-a-pecker, Tuapeka, bright fine gold.“

When Fulton wrote about the children using the digger's cry of "Joe" for anything unusual, he mentioned it was "nigh on 40 years ago," thus giving the period in time when he heard the nurse's lullaby.

Bright Fine Gold on Record (Black Vinyl Thingies) 1968 The Song-spinners,   Songs of the Gold Diggers (Kiwi) 1960s Gary & Everill Muir,   Folk Songs-2 EP S/EA 162 (Kiwi ) 1960s Don Fulton, son of Robert V Fulton 45 (in possession of Phil Garland) 1971 Phil Garland,   Down a Country Road (Kiwi) 1972 Phil Garland,   Song of a Young Country compilation LP (Kiwi Pacific) 1970s Kevin Scully,   Alone in the Hills 45 (Robbins) 1980 Graham Wilson,   Paydirt (LP) 1983 Gerry Hallom,   A Run a Minute (Fellside 36, England ) 1985 Arthur Toms,   Trypots, Cradles and Gutboards (Radio NZ) 1987 Pioneer Pog 'n' Scroggin Bush Band,   Pognorhythyms (LP) 1986 Phil Garland ,   Songs of Old New Zealand (Kiwi-Pacific ) 1991 Colonial Two-Step ,   Colonial Heritage Songs cass. (Gumdiggers) 1991 When the Cat's Been Spayed,   Down the Hall... CD (Kiwi-Pacific) 1999 Gordon Bok ,   In the Kind Land CD (Timberhead Camden, Maine USA,)

1968 The

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