New Trends and Updates in Methamphetamine

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Information about New Trends and Updates in Methamphetamine
Education

Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Hillary

Source: authorstream.com

First Responders and Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratories: :  First Responders and Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratories: Chemical Contaminants, Exposure Concerns, And Possible Toxicological Sequelae OR….:  OR…. What’s Going To Make Me Sick? Ami Ruffing Center for Environmental Health and Safety Southern Illinois University Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratories in Illinois :  Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratories in Illinois Personnel with Potential Exposure to Clandestine Laboratories :  Personnel with Potential Exposure to Clandestine Laboratories Law Enforcement Firefighters Emergency Medical Technicians Social Workers Forensic Scientists Children Avoiding or Minimizing Exposure :  Avoiding or Minimizing Exposure Slide6:  To minimize exposure to chemicals from a clandestine methamphetamine laboratory, you first need to understand: HOW you are exposed to chemicals, and WHAT happens to them in your body Basic Toxicology :  Basic Toxicology Study of adverse health effects caused by exposure to chemical substances that interact with the human body. What is “Toxic”? :  What is “Toxic”? Any substance can be toxic if the exposure (dose) is large enough….water, table salt, coffee For our purposes today, a toxic material will be defined as a chemical substance of which relatively small quantities are capable of producing detrimental local or systemic health effects. Routes of Entry How Chemicals Get Into You :  Routes of Entry How Chemicals Get Into You Inhalation – through lungs Absorption – through skin or mucous membrane Ingestion – intentional or after inhalation Parenteral (injection) – intentional or unintentional needlestick Storage and Metabolism in the Body :  Storage and Metabolism in the Body When a chemical enter your body, it may be immediately metabolized, or it may be metabolized slowly. Metabolisis occurs when the chemical structure of a compound is changed in the body. Products of metabolism are called metabolites. Metabolites may be more harmful than the chemical itself. Blood and urine tests for chemical exposure actually test for the presence of the chemical and/or its metabolites. Physiologically Clearing Chemicals :  Physiologically Clearing Chemicals Once chemicals are metabolized, they are either excreted or stored. Excretion can occur through urine, feces, breath or perspiration. Storage can occur in your liver or bones, and the chemicals can be slowly released back into the body. Water-soluble chemicals are often excreted, and fat-soluble chemicals are often stored. Slide12:  People have individual variations in their metabolisms. Some people will be more susceptible to chemical exposure, and some people will be more robust. Effects of chemical exposure depend upon: :  Effects of chemical exposure depend upon: duration of exposure route of exposure chemical properties individual descriptors such as height, weight, age, gender, underlying health issues, and metabolism Toxicological Effects :  Toxicological Effects Chemical exposures can have effects that are local or that are systemic. Local effects include things like acid burns. Systemic effects include, for instance, an inhaled chemical vapor that would make your blood pressure drop. Acute and Chronic :  Acute and Chronic We use the terms acute and chronic to refer to two things: Types of EXPOSURES Types of EFFECTS Types of Exposures :  Types of Exposures Acute exposures are those exposures that are of short duration, usually high concentrations Chronic exposures are those exposures that occur over a long period of time (days, weeks, even years), usually of low concentrations. Types of Effects :  Types of Effects Acute effects are felt immediately upon exposure Chronic effects are felt weeks, months or years after the exposure. Latency Period :  Latency Period The time period between a chemical exposure and its effect is called the latency period. Long latency periods make it difficult to quantify an exposure, and difficult to link a particular exposure to an effect. EPA Classes of Hazardous Chemical Waste :  EPA Classes of Hazardous Chemical Waste Corrosive Flammable Reactive Toxic Corrosive Chemicals :  Corrosive Chemicals These are chemicals which are usually liquids, and have a pH below 2 or above 12.5 Chemicals with a pH below 2 are called acids. Hydrochloric acid. Chemicals with a pH above 12 are called bases. Anhydrous ammonia. Acids and bases can react violently when mixed! They don’t play well together! Target Organs of Corrosives :  Target Organs of Corrosives Corrosive chemicals primarily act on skin, mucous membranes, or lungs Splashes cause burns Remember that contact with vapors can cause burns too! NO SNIFF TESTS! Signs and Symptoms of Corrosive Exposure :  Signs and Symptoms of Corrosive Exposure Skin itching Skin pain – burning sensation Redness, irritation, blistering Acid burns: shallow and widespread Base burns: deep and concentrated Inhalation: respiratory tract irritation Flammable Chemicals :  Flammable Chemicals Flammable chemicals are those with a closed-cup flashpoint of 140°F If a spark or flame source is near, these chemicals can burn or explode. Ether, Coleman fuel, methanol. Target Organs of Flammables :  Target Organs of Flammables Danger of fire. Common route of exposure: inhalation. Less common: absorption. Most flammable chemicals used in meth production are also volatile. Signs and Symptoms of Flammable Exposure :  Signs and Symptoms of Flammable Exposure Inhalation: irritation of respiratory tract, coughing, choking, dizziness, headache Absorption: defat skin, irritation, ulceration Reactive Chemicals :  Reactive Chemicals These are chemicals that will spontaneously ignite on exposure to air or water, or will polymerize. Lithium, sodium. Target Organs of Reactives:  Target Organs of Reactives Primary danger is physical injury from explosion or fire. Can also be toxic by absorption or ingestion. Signs and Symptoms of Reactive Exposure Absorption: Skin burn, irritation Toxic Chemicals :  Toxic Chemicals As we defined earlier, a chemical substance in which relatively small quantities are capable of producing detrimental local or systemic health effects. Methamphetamine. Target Organs of Toxics :  Target Organs of Toxics Many toxic chemicals cause systemic illness. Liver, kidneys, central nervous system Most common routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion. Signs and Symptoms of Toxic Exposure :  Signs and Symptoms of Toxic Exposure Acute exposure Inhaled: respiratory irritation, headache Absorbed: local skin irritation, ulceration Ingested: nausea, vomiting Chronic exposure Inhaled: pulmonary edema, bronchitis, nervous system damage Absorbed: allergies, chronic skin irritation Ingested: cancer, liver/kidney necrosis Methamphetamine Manufacturing Terms:  Methamphetamine Manufacturing Terms Methamphetamine precursor: a chemical that’s changed into the final product, methamphetamine. Typically this is pseudoephedrine. Also can use ephedrine or P2P. Methamphetamine Manufacturing Terms :  Methamphetamine Manufacturing Terms Methamphetamine manufacturing reagent: a chemical that’s used in a reaction that does not become part of the final product. A reagent is used to react with and alter the precursor. Alcohols, sulfuric acid, lye Methamphetamine Manufacturing Terms:  Methamphetamine Manufacturing Terms Methamphetamine manufacturing solvent is a liquid used to dissolve or dilute the precursor and reagents. Usually not water in the Nazi method. Ethyl ether, Coleman fuel, white gas. Methamphetamine Synthesis Anhydrous Ammonia/Lithium Method Overview :  Methamphetamine Synthesis Anhydrous Ammonia/Lithium Method Overview Step One: Extract pseudoephedrine from cold tablets. Use denatured alcohol (methanol, methyl alcohol) and cold tablets Dangers Fire / explosion of flammable mixture Inhalation of solvent fumes Step Two: Synthesis of Methamphetamine:  Step Two: Synthesis of Methamphetamine Uses anhydrous ammonia, lithium and pseudoephedrine. Dangers: Corrosive, toxic vapor from ammonia Corrosive, reactive liquid mix during synthesis Fire danger from exposed lithium Steps One and Two :  “One Pot” Method combines steps one and two Pills, anhydrous, lithium and solvent all poured into one container Multiple hazards: flammable, corrosive, toxic Steps One and Two Step Three: Precipitate Hydrochloride Salt :  Uses hydrogen chloride gas made from table salt and sulfuric acid drain cleaner Corrosive, toxic gas from reaction Corrosive liquid and sludge from reaction Toxic methamphetamine can aerosolize Step Three: Precipitate Hydrochloride Salt Anhydrous Ammonia :  Anhydrous Ammonia Red Phosphorus Method :  Red Phosphorus Method Not common in Southern Illinois Uses cold pills, iodine, red phosphorus Can generate phosphine gas Synthesis of “Anhydrous” Ammonia :  Synthesis of “Anhydrous” Ammonia Reducing Exposure :  Reducing Exposure Avoid exposure: ventilate clan labs and identify possible sources of contamination; don’t enter unless necessary Minimize exposure: use personal protective equipment and good work practices Personal Protective Equipment :  Personal Protective Equipment PPE should be chosen based on a hazard assessment and possible routes of exposure PPE is the second-best alternative. Avoiding exposure altogether is the best alternative. Respiratory PPE :  Respiratory PPE Air-purifying respirators (APRs): disposable, half- or full-mask, powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) Use of respiratory protection triggers OSHA regulations Ingestion PPE :  Ingestion PPE Only good work practices will protect you! No eating or drinking in clan labs No smoking Don’t chew gum, handle contact lenses or apply makeup Absorption PPE :  Absorption PPE Clothing: Tyvek suits, lab coats, Level A suits, disposable boots Gloves: latex, nitrile Eyes: glasses, goggles, face shields Remember good work practices: minimize exposure to surfaces. Don’t sit or lean on potentially contaminated surfaces. Colorado studies indicate that methamphetamine volatilizes during final salting out, is deposited on floors, walls, furniture. Resources :  Resources NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Material Safety Data Sheets from manufacturers Summary :  Summary Clandestine methamphetamine laboratories present multiple chemical hazards Use good work practices and personal protective equipment to reduce exposure Know the signs and symptoms of overexposure Document exposures, and seek medical treatment for overexposure

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