New Technology Lecture L17 The Mobile Revolution

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Information about New Technology Lecture L17 The Mobile Revolution

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: olandri



The ideas for cellular phones were developed in the 1940s. However, it was not until the microprocessor becomes available that practical commercial solutions are possible.

Today there are more than 4 billion mobile phone subscriptions in the world. In the last few years the increase has been most dramatic in developing countries. Telecoms operators have tried to capitalise on this by offering new services that will generate new revenues for them. Mobile Applications are increasing revenues for the operators while voices revenues are getting less and less. But what are mobile applications?

In this lecture we look mobile.


Why is the mobile 
 phone so important 
 to us? Q1

400M daily circulations of all newspapers 800M registered cars 900M total cable/satellite TV subscribers 1.1B of all types of computers (PC, netbooks...) 1.2B total landline phones 1.5B total TV sets 1.7B total unique holders of credit cards 2.1B total unique holders of bank accounts 3.9B total FM radios in use

Mobile Phones 6.9billion connections !

There are more mobile phones in the world than there are toothbrushes Mobile Phones

Will grow to 8 billion phones in the next few years Image:  Nokia Mobile Phones

Why is the mobile 
 phone so important 
 to us? Q1


There are 48 million people in the world who have a mobile phone but do not have electricity at home Mobile Phones provide safety Cisco,  January  2011

The Digital Revolution

Early Systems The First Cell phone (1973) Name:  Motorola  Dyna-­‐Tac
 Size:  9  x  5  x  1.75  inches
 Weight:  2.5  pounds
 Display:  None
 Number  of  Circuit  Boards:  30
 Talk  time:  35  minutes
 Recharge  Time:  10  hours
 Features:  Talk,  listen,  dial

Microchip ! Digital Signal Processor ! Mobile phones became practical in the 1980s Technical Improvements

Cellular Networks Radio network made up of radio
 cells ! Tower and base

Base stations connect to 
 Mobile Telephone Switching Office 
 MTSO ! SID – System identification Code ! SIM-cards Cellular Networks

Handoff Calls are automatically moved from one cell to the next MTSO controls the switch ! Roaming Connecting from one 
 phone company to another Cellular Networks

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson Lessons Learned: Cellular Phones ▪ Mobile phones provide safety ▪ The most common device of all ▪ Mobile phones are not practical until 1980s due to size of technology – Adjacent Possible ▪ The invention of the microchip played crucial role in the development of cell phones

1G Analog

1G Analog 1980s Voice only NMT, AMPS, FDMA

Early systems were in Bahrain, US, Japan and in the Nordic countries ! First international system
 was NMT in the Nordic ! Frequency Division 
 Multiple Access - FDMA 1G Analog

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson Q2 When the first mobile phones become possible, how does the market evolve?

NMT in Nordics AMPS in the US TACS in UK C-Nets in West Germany Radiocom 2000 in France RTMI/RTMS in Italy 1G Analog

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson Q3 What are the characteristics of the first mobile phones and who where the users?

Big Expensive Limited Characteristics Business users Field users Mobira  Talkman  
 frá  Nokia 1G Analog Early users

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson Q4 Early on multiple system were developed all over Europe. What was the problem with that?

Multiple standards – roaming is a problem ! In the US this is not a problem 1G Analog

European countries decide to define 
 common standard – digital Work on a Global System for Mobile 
 Communication (GSM) starts 1982 1G Analog

2G Digital

1990s Voice and data 9.6 – 14.4 Kbps GSM, TDMA Downloading 3 min. MP3 song: 31-41 min. 2G Digital

Digital mobile phones appear in early 90s ! GMS takes off in 1991 – 
 unites Europe ! Time Division Multiple 
 Access – TDMA
 2G Digital

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson Q5 US is slow to adopt 2G, why?

US was slow in adopting 2G because roaming worked well ! Digital did not add enough over analog ! Texting and SIM cards was not known 2G Digital


Global System for Mobile Communication ! Built on TDMA – Digital ! Three times the capacity of analog, encryption, texting, SIM cards GMS

GMS GSM association has 800 networks in 220 countries

Texting Short Message System allowed 160 letters ! Became an accidental killer app – messages, 
 chat, ring tones ! First message sent 03.12.1992:
 “Merry Christmas”

Lessons Learned: Cellular Phones ▪ Cars became the first platform for phones ▪ First phones are analog ▪ Multiple standard – each country invents its own – Problem with standards (history repeats itself?) ▪ Roaming problems in Europe call for a standard ▪ Digital standard developed in Europe, G2 ▪ US does not have roaming problems and gets stuck in G1


Mobile networks and the Internet start to
 converge ! 1G and 2G are circuit switched – fine for voice
 The Internet is packet-switched 3G

3G Packet Switching IMT – 2000 was a global standard for 3G
 mobile communications defined in mid-1990s ! Goals: Available 2000, 
 Data rage 2000 kbps, Frequencies in the 2000 Mhz region

2000s   More  data   128+  Kbps   GPSR,  EDGE,  UMTS,  CDMA Downloading 3 min. MP3 song: 
 11 sec. – 1,5 min. 3G Packet Switching

More bandwidth, more applications ! Email, Images, music, movies, streaming ! Based on Code Division
 Multiple Access – CDMA 3G Packet Switching

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson

3G Solutions Messages Browsing Apps

Built with limitations ! Screen size, bandwidth restrictions Input limited – one-handed keyboard Limited memory, battery life ! Fragmentation nightmare 3G Solutions

Then, in 2007, the world changed

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur  Andri  Ragnarsson

How does the 
 respond? Think about The Arrogance of the Present

iPhone hit the market in June 2007

Ok, let’s check the facts 
 five years later­‐bigger-­‐than-­‐microsoft-­‐2012-­‐2

Copyright  ©  2011,  Ólafur   Andri  Ragnarsson The 

Touch screen

Industrial strength desktop quality OS

Software and User

Platform for Apps

60 billion apps downloaded (Oct 13)

~400 apps per second

Smartphone Market

Smartphone Market

Source: Mary Meeker Slide Deck Smartphone Market

Smartphone Market


The App Store is to the iPhone what iTunes is to the iPod ! Google Play is the same Availability

Specialized Apps with Quality of Service – Innovation Context

Mobile media users pick up their phone 18 times a day to consume content via apps/ browser

Key Trends Mobile became important in 2010 and will be a revenue opportunity going forward

Bandwidth on 3G mobile networks is growing by approximately 
 annually Source: Heavy Reading Smartphones

Source: Skynews Smartphones How long does it take to download a HD movie 3G - 1 hour 4G - 40 seconds 5G - 1 second

Image  courtesy  of  Admob  (Google) Looking forward 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Source:  Morgan  Stanley Mobile vs. Desktop

Source:  Morgan  Stanley Mobile vs. Desktop

Cameron Says UK And Germany To Work On 5G, Internet Of Things

Solutions Voice, text Apps, music, videos,

Worldwide tablet sales are predicted to grow by more than 400% over a two-year period, reaching 81.3 million units in 2012. Tablets

Work   More  focused   More  information Digital Online World Browsing   Consuming   content Checking   Mobile   Want’s  it  now

The “mobile web” is just the web – there is only one web. It’s just displayed in multiple of screen sizes Source:  The  Next  Big  Thing:  Mobile,  

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