Published on March 7, 2014
Lecture L16 A WORLD WIDE NETWORK
A Brief History of the Internet 1969-1995 Computer Networking! Simple net run by pioneers 1995-2000 Commercialisation and Growth! Enter the ISPs and the public 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit! New applications and digital media 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network! The New Internet emerges 2010 - ?! Death?
“The Internet works because a lot of people cooperate to do things together” - Jon Postel 1969-1995 Computer Networking
Computer Networking Efforts on connecting computers started early Two principal groups: Defence and Academia Defence Strategic reasons during the Cold War Any computer could be reached, and if one goes down, the others still work Academia Economic reasons Mainframes are expensive and could be justified only by the collective needs of many departments
ARPANET ▪ Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) The Soviet Union – Founded in 1958 – Attributed Sputnik 1 lunched by the Russian on Sputnik satellite October to th 1954 – Renamed 4 DARPA ▪ Two main objectives – Computers had to talk to each other to share information – Links had to be robust
Arpanet Packet switching Open Architecture
TCP/IP Communication protocol Written by Bob Kahn & Vint Cerf
1979 46 military sites 16 academic campus sites
Network Layers Application Layer is for speciﬁc application Transport Layer is for reliable communication Network Layer is for routing packages
Packet Switched Source: What is a packet?
Example: Email message The e-mail is about 3,500 bits (3.5 kilobits) in size The network you send it over uses fixed-length packets of 1,024 bits (1 kilobit) The header of each packet is 96 bits long and the trailer is 32 bits long, leaving 896 bits for the payload To break the 3,500 bits of message into packets, you will need four packets divide 3,500 by 896) Three packets will contain 896 bits of payload and the fourth will have 812 bits Source: What is a packet?
WHAT WAS THE KILLER APP OF THE EARLY INTERNET?
FTP - File Transfer Protocol Telnet Email Usenet Source: Internet protocol suite
HOW DO YOU WIRE ALL THESE MACHINES TOGETHER?
Connecting Computers The phone system was already there ! Modem - modulate and demodulate A device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information Source: Modem
The Early Internet Community The Internet is a simple peer to peer network Designed to be simple rather than secure ! The Internet became a community Most users where highly educated scientists Respect for others – spam nearly nonexistent Antisocial behaviour was rare ! Netiquette! How to behave on the net Violators are removed from the network
“On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog.” - Peter Steiner cartoon in The New Yorker 1995-2000 Commercialisation and growth
Metcalfe’s Law The value of a network equals approximately the square of the number of users of the system (n2)
Metcalfe’s Law Everything will be connected
WHY DID THE INTERNET BECOME WIDESPREAD?
Maybe these gentlemen had something to do with it… inadvertently
Enter WinSock In the early 1990 the most popular operating systems were Windows and DOS ! Designed for Personal Computers ! Network support was later added LANs – NetBIOS ! WinSock – Windows Sockets! Microsoft had completely ignored TCP/IP Due to demand from IT companies, efforts started in 1991 WinSock 1.0 became available in 1992
World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee started his efforts on information sharing in the 1980s Working for CERN, he proposed the creation of non-hierarchical hypertext based system! The system was to be based on the established TCP/IP protocols
World Wide Web Due to lack of support he started work on his ideas himself Using a NeXT computer he set out to create a program for building, browsing and editing hypertext pages
The Basic Idea of WWW Hypertext To move from one document to another Resource identifiers – URL To locate a particular resource (computer, document or other resource) on the network Client-server model of computing – HTTP Client software requests of server software resources such as data or files Markup language – HTML Tags embedded in text indicate to a computer how to print or display the text, e.g. as in italics or bold type
The Rise and Fall of Gopher The WWW has not the only idea for a distributed hyperlink system ! Gopher Created at the University of Minnesota A distributed document search and retrieval system Hierarchical menu structure Released in 1991 Became popular until the UoM decided to license it
WHY DID THE WWW SUCEDE?
Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed? ▪ This design was simple – Simple syntax – Uniform URL to any resource using any protocols – No security, not authentication, no tracking ▪ HTTP – Simple protocol – GET, POST ▪ HTML – Not an advanced markup – enough to display text in different sizes ▪ Did not try to solve the problem of back-links – Avoided a huge problem
Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed? ▪ WWW was FREE ▪ Gopher failed – More rigid system – Tree structure – not free format – NOT FREE
First Browsers Without browsers, the Web would not take off And without content, no one would create browsers ! Mosaic NCSA developed Mosaic Web Browser Developed by Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina ! The Internet became synonymous with “mosaic”
New Business Emerges Internet Service Providers – ISP The business of connecting the public to the Internet Many new companies entered this market AOL became a giant New services Domain name registration and hosting Dial-up access, Leased line access Web Design, Email services Laying the Tracks Companies like Cisco Systems
Netscape Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark formed Mosaic Communication Corporation 1994 Few months later renamed to Netscape Netscape became the Internet leader IPO in 1995 raised $140 million The decline came just as fast Did not establish sound business models nor build an infrastructure Went head-on into competition with Microsoft Later bought by AOL
PHONE COMPANIES COMPLETELY IGNORED THE INTERNET LEFT THE SPACE OPEN FOR NEW COMPANIES
“... an Internet browser is a very trivial piece of software. There are at least 30 companies that have written very credible Internet browsers, so that’s nothing...” -‐ Bill Gates
Enter the Giants The telephone business and software giants initially ignored the Internet Their focus was on voice or software Internet traffic was using the phone lines Classic example of the RPV theory ! Left the field open for new companies ! Seeing the success they entered the market Today most ISPs are phone companies
Enter the Giants Microsoft Came late to the Internet Bill Gates wrote The Road Ahead Were trying to establish a proprietary “Information Superhighway” ! Microsoft Network MSN was released in 1995 with Windows 95
WHY DID THE INTERNET WIN?
The Generative Pattern
Lessons: Internet ▪ The Internet works because of the simplicity – Dumb routing – No security – Anonymity ▪ The core of the network is always the same – Innovation is at the edges – No need to upgrade the core when new protocols are invented
Lessons: Internet ▪ Network infrastructure companies like the telecoms ignored the internet – Did not see any business in consumer connections – RVP theory explains this: their customer were companies ▪ Software vendors like Microsoft ignored the Internet – Saw no revenue model ▪ Left the field open for the Yahoos, Googles etc.
“Doing research on the Web is like using a library assembled piecemeal by pack rats and vandalized nightly” - Roger Ebert (attributed) 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit
Rise of P2P Peer-to-peer Networks Relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network Peers act as both clients and servers No central server ! Legal controversy
Digitalization of Content Netflix represents 32.7% of North America´s peak Web traffic
Stretching the Limits The Internet has scaled up to 2+ billion users Tweaked over the years Designed to be simple Innovation only happens at the edges The end-to-end principle Has prevented innovations at its core
Testing the Limits Visionaries only partially saw the future ! The net was designed to be simple peer to peer network ! Things like security and social responsibility were not a main concern
Problems with the Internet Limited IP numbers Dumb routing – content unaware Spam, Viruses and DoS attacks Illegal distribution of content Antisocial behaviour Lack of security Not possible to update the Internet protocols
“If a planet-wide network were built on Mars, what would it look like?” - Reinventing the Internet (Economist) 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network
The Internet Infrastructure Several efforts for reinventing the Internet GENI – Global Environment for Networking Innovations FIND – Future Internet Design Internet2 PlanetLab ! Challenge How can we replace the current Internet infrastructure? How can we run multiple protocols at the same time?
Content Delivery Network Source: Akamai
“Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.” - Tim O'Reilly Web 2.0
....for seizing the reins of the global media, for founding and framing the new digital democracy, for working for nothing and beating the pros at their own game, TIME's Person of the Year for 2006 is you Read more: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/ 0,9171,1569514,00.html#ixzz1FjqlB9yO
Web 2.0 New web developments Popularized by O’Reilly and others Refers to a new phase in architecture and application development of web applications Buzzword that is not easy to define ! Trend Desktop Application and Web Application will become the same
The Community The smartest people in the room is everybody
The Hype Cycle “Web 2.0”
The Brief History of the Internet ▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking – Simple net run by pioneers ▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and Growth – Enter the ISPs and the public ▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit – New applications and digital media ▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network – New business models ▪ 2010-2015 ?
Vint Cerf on the Internet's future
Kevin Kelly on Internet of Things, 2007
Visions of the Future Trends ! Mobile phones are connecting to the Internet Sensors will be connected – Internet of Things New media content is emerging All content will be digital Internet of things is estimated to be worth $309 billion by 2020 We are just starting this revolution…
2010 – 2015 The App Internet - Smart and Local
Theory of Data Overload Linear Simple Web sites Categorized Yahoo! Search Google Smart Siri, Watson Local
Applications are small and pieced together
Data is in the cloud
Run on any device
INTERNET OF THINGS
NIKE + FUELBAND ACTIVITY SENSOR
JAWBONE UP BODY TRACKER
HUE LIGHTING SYSTEM
LOCKITRON LOCK FOR ACCESS CONTROL
IGRILL COOKING THERMOMETER
SCANADU MEDICAL SENSOR
SAMSUNG SMART WASHER
SAMSUNG SMART FRIDGE
Future of the Internet The App Internet Smart and Local – knowledge about you Fragmented Sensor driven Connecting the online and offline worlds ! Threats: Powerful content owners and politicians
Summary ▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking – Simple net, TCP/IP, FTP, Telnet, HTTP and the web ▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and growth – Enter the ISPs and the public, huge growth – dot-com ▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit – New applications and digital media, bandwidth increases ▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network – IPv6, faster networks ▪ 2010-2015 APPs, Smart and Local
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