New Technology Lecture L16 A Worldwide Network

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Information about New Technology Lecture L16 A Worldwide Network

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: olandri



The Internet grew out of US efforts to build the ARPANET, a network of peer computers built during the cold war. The two major players were military and academia. The network was simple and required no efforts for security or social responsibility. The early Internet community was mainly highly educated and respectable scientist. In the early 1990s the World Wide Web, a hypertext system is introduced, and soon browsers start to appear, leading the commercialization of Net. New businesses emerge and a technology boom known as the dot-com era.

The network, now over 40, is being stretched. Problems such as spam, viruses, antisocial behaviour, and demands for more content are prompting reinvention of the Net and threatening its neutrality. Add to this government efforts to regulate and limit the network.

In this lecture we look at the Internet and the impact of the network. We will also look at the future of the Internet.


A Brief History of the Internet 1969-1995 Computer Networking! Simple net run by pioneers 1995-2000 Commercialisation and Growth! Enter the ISPs and the public 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit! New applications and digital media 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network! The New Internet emerges 2010 - ?! Death?

“The Internet works because a lot of people 
 cooperate to do things together” - Jon Postel 1969-1995 Computer Networking

Computer Networking Efforts on connecting computers started early Two principal groups: Defence and Academia Defence Strategic reasons during the Cold War Any computer could be reached, and if one goes down, the others still work Academia Economic reasons Mainframes are expensive and could be justified only by the collective needs of many departments

ARPANET ▪ Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) The Soviet Union – Founded in 1958 – Attributed Sputnik 1 lunched by the Russian
 on Sputnik satellite October to th 1954 – Renamed 4 DARPA ▪ Two main objectives – Computers had to talk to each
 other to share information – Links had to be robust

Arpanet Packet switching Open Architecture

TCP/IP Communication protocol Written by Bob Kahn & Vint Cerf

1979 46 military sites 16 academic campus sites

Network Layers Application Layer is for specific application Transport Layer is for reliable communication Network Layer is for routing packages

Packet Switched Source:  What  is  a  packet?

Example: Email message The e-mail is about 3,500 bits (3.5 kilobits) in size The network you send it over uses fixed-length packets of 1,024 bits (1 kilobit) The header of each packet is 96 bits long and the trailer is 32 bits long, leaving 896 bits for the payload To break the 3,500 bits of message into packets, you will need four packets divide 3,500 by 896) Three packets will contain 896 bits of payload and the fourth will have 812 bits Source:  What  is  a  packet?


FTP - File Transfer Protocol Telnet Email Usenet Source:  Internet  protocol  suite


Connecting Computers The phone system was already there ! Modem - modulate and demodulate A device that modulates an 
 analog carrier signal to encode 
 digital information, and also 
 demodulates such a carrier 
 signal to decode the 
 transmitted information Source:  Modem

The Early Internet Community The Internet is a simple peer to peer network Designed to be simple rather than secure ! The Internet became a community Most users where highly educated scientists Respect for others – spam nearly nonexistent Antisocial behaviour was rare ! Netiquette! How to behave on the net Violators are removed from the network

“On the Internet,
 nobody knows you're a dog.” - Peter Steiner cartoon in 
 The New Yorker 1995-2000 Commercialisation and growth

Metcalfe’s Law The value of a network equals approximately the square of the number of users of the system (n2)

Metcalfe’s Law Everything will be connected

Internet Growth


Maybe these gentlemen had something to do with it… inadvertently

Enter WinSock In the early 1990 the most popular operating systems were Windows and DOS ! Designed for Personal Computers ! Network support was later added LANs – NetBIOS ! WinSock – Windows Sockets! Microsoft had completely ignored TCP/IP Due to demand from IT companies, efforts started in 1991 WinSock 1.0 became available in 1992

World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee started his efforts on 
 information sharing in the 1980s Working for CERN, he proposed 
 the creation of non-hierarchical 
 hypertext based system! The system was to be based on 
 the established TCP/IP protocols

World Wide Web Due to lack of support he started work on his ideas himself Using a NeXT computer he 
 set out to create a program for building, browsing and editing hypertext pages  

The Basic Idea of WWW Hypertext To move from one document to another Resource identifiers – URL To locate a particular resource (computer, document or other resource) on the network Client-server model of computing – HTTP Client software requests of server software resources such as data or files Markup language – HTML Tags embedded in text indicate to a computer how to print or display the text, e.g. as in italics or bold type

The Rise and Fall of Gopher The WWW has not the only idea for a distributed hyperlink system ! Gopher Created at the University of Minnesota A distributed document 
 search and retrieval system Hierarchical menu structure Released in 1991 Became popular until the 
 UoM decided to license it


Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed? ▪ This design was simple – Simple syntax – Uniform URL to any resource using any protocols – No security, not authentication, no tracking ▪ HTTP – Simple protocol – GET, POST ▪ HTML – Not an advanced markup – enough to display text in different sizes ▪ Did not try to solve the problem of back-links – Avoided a huge problem

Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed? ▪ WWW was FREE ▪ Gopher failed – More rigid system – Tree structure – not free format – NOT FREE

First Browsers Without browsers, the Web would not take off And without content, no one would create browsers ! Mosaic NCSA developed Mosaic Web Browser Developed by Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina ! The Internet became synonymous 
 with “mosaic”

First Browsers

First Browsers

New Business Emerges Internet Service Providers – ISP The business of connecting the public to the Internet Many new companies entered this market AOL became a giant New services Domain name registration and hosting Dial-up access, Leased line access Web Design, Email services Laying the Tracks Companies like Cisco Systems

Netscape Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark formed Mosaic Communication Corporation 1994 Few months later renamed to Netscape Netscape became the Internet leader IPO in 1995 raised $140 million The decline came just as fast Did not establish sound business 
 models nor build an infrastructure Went head-on into competition
 with Microsoft Later bought by AOL


“...  an  Internet  browser  is  a  very  trivial  piece  of  software.   There  are  at  least  30  companies  that  have  written  very   credible  Internet  browsers,  so  that’s  nothing...”   -­‐  Bill  Gates

Enter the Giants The telephone business and software giants initially ignored the Internet Their focus was on voice or software Internet traffic was using the phone lines Classic example of the RPV theory ! Left the field open for new companies ! Seeing the success they entered the market Today most ISPs are phone companies

Enter the Giants Microsoft Came late to the Internet Bill Gates wrote The Road Ahead Were trying to establish a proprietary 
 “Information Superhighway” ! Microsoft Network MSN was released
 in 1995 with Windows 95



The Generative Pattern

Lessons: Internet ▪ The Internet works because of the simplicity – Dumb routing – No security – Anonymity ▪ The core of the network is always the same – Innovation is at the edges – No need to upgrade the core when new protocols are invented

Lessons: Internet ▪ Network infrastructure companies like the telecoms ignored the internet – Did not see any business in consumer connections – RVP theory explains this: their customer were companies ▪ Software vendors like Microsoft ignored the Internet – Saw no revenue model ▪ Left the field open for the Yahoos, Googles etc.

“Doing research on the Web is like using a library assembled piecemeal by pack rats and vandalized nightly” - Roger Ebert (attributed) 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit

Rise of P2P Peer-to-peer Networks Relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network Peers act as both clients and servers No central server ! Legal controversy

Digitalization of Content Netflix represents 32.7% of North America´s peak Web traffic

Stretching the Limits The Internet has scaled up to 2+ billion users Tweaked over the years Designed to be simple Innovation only happens at the edges The end-to-end principle Has prevented innovations at its core

Testing the Limits Visionaries only partially saw the future ! The net was designed to be simple peer to peer network ! Things like security and social responsibility were not a main concern

Problems with the Internet Limited IP numbers Dumb routing – content unaware Spam, Viruses and DoS attacks Illegal distribution of content Antisocial behaviour Lack of security Not possible to update the
 Internet protocols

“If a planet-wide network were built on Mars, 
 what would it look like?” - Reinventing the Internet (Economist) 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network

The Internet Infrastructure Several efforts for reinventing the Internet GENI – Global Environment for Networking Innovations FIND – Future Internet Design Internet2 PlanetLab ! Challenge How can we replace the current Internet infrastructure? How can we run multiple protocols at the same time?

Content Delivery Network Source: Akamai

“Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.” - Tim O'Reilly Web 2.0

....for seizing the reins of the global media, for founding and framing the new digital democracy, for working for nothing and beating the pros at their own game, TIME's Person of the Year for 2006 is you Read  more: 0,9171,1569514,00.html#ixzz1FjqlB9yO

Web 2.0 New web developments Popularized by O’Reilly 
 and others Refers to a new phase in 
 architecture and application
 development of web
 applications Buzzword that is not easy to define ! Trend Desktop Application and Web Application will become the same

The Community The smartest people in the room is everybody

The Hype Cycle “Web 2.0”

The Brief History of the Internet ▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking – Simple net run by pioneers ▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and Growth – Enter the ISPs and the public ▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit – New applications and digital media ▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network – New business models ▪ 2010-2015 ?

Vint Cerf on the Internet's future

Kevin Kelly on Internet of Things, 2007

Visions of the Future Trends ! Mobile phones are connecting to the Internet Sensors will be connected – Internet of Things New media content is emerging All content will be digital Internet of things is estimated to be worth $309 billion by 2020 We are just starting this revolution…

2010 – 2015 The App Internet - Smart and Local



Theory of Data Overload Linear Simple
 Web  sites Categorized Yahoo! Search Google Smart Siri,  Watson   Local

Applications are small and pieced together

Data is in the cloud

Run on any device











Future of the Internet The App Internet Smart and Local – knowledge about you Fragmented Sensor driven Connecting the online and offline worlds ! Threats: Powerful content owners and politicians

Summary ▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking – Simple net, TCP/IP, FTP, Telnet, HTTP and the web ▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and growth – Enter the ISPs and the public, huge growth – dot-com ▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit – New applications and digital media, bandwidth increases ▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network – IPv6, faster networks ▪ 2010-2015 APPs, Smart and Local

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