Published on February 21, 2014
Lecture L12 THE RISE OF THE MACHINE
“I can assure you on the highest authority that the data processing is a fad and won’t last out the year.” Editor-in-charge of business books, Prentice-Hall 1957
68 Years ago “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” -‐ Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
37 years ago “There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in their home.” -‐ Kenneth Olsen, president and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
Think about this How many computers do you have in your household?
History Computing is time consuming and error prone ! Demands for computation were increasing with more organised societies ! Industrial revolution and the Napoleonic reforms ! ! Impetus came from Government: Taxing and Defence
The Counting Business Efforts to speed calculations started early ! Use of logarithmic tables and trigonometry to speed calculations
The Counting Business The Slide Rule by William Oughtred in 1625 ! Built using logarithms, multiplication of two numbers could be done easier a*b = 10^(log(a)+log(b)) ! ! ! ! Much quicker than manual calculation
Early Machines Wilhelm Schickard (1592 -1635) ! German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy University of Tüblingen, Germany ! Built a calculating machine in 1620s ! Documented in letters to Johannes Kepler ! 1623 and 24
Early Machines Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) ! French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher ! Built an adding machine in1642-44 ! Tried to commercialise the machine but labor was too cheap
Early Machines Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) ! German mathematician and philosopher ! Built a machine, the Leibniz Wheel that could multiply and divide
History Workmanship for building complex machines lacked ! In late eighteenth century demand for calculation was growing ! Calculations were done by hand ! Tedious, slow and error-prone and tables of logarithms were riddled with errors
Think about this The idea of calculating with steam was to many impossible - machines could never take over this human activity ! Yet it did. Can you think of a task done today that will be taken over by machine in the future?
Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871) Sometimes called Inventor of the Computer ! Wanted to remove the inevitable human errors from computing ! Believed that machines could replace laborious and error-prone calculations
Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871) Designed the Diﬀerence Engine ! Machine to compute polynomials ! Got grants but eﬀorts were slow ! Lack of workmanship of the time delayed the project ! Worked stopped 1833
Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871) Babbage started on a new machine in 1834 Beginning of the 2nd Kondratiev – Steam ! Analytical engine ! Programmable machine – with primitive programming language Input was in punched cards Run by steam
A Programmable Machine General purpose computer ! Contained mill to calculate, store to keep data, and formulas ! The ﬁrst programmer: ! Ada Lovelace had inﬂuenced the machine
The Cash Register
The Cash Register ! One of the ﬁrst calculating machines ! Developed by James Ritty in 1879 in response to thefts by staff ! “The Incorruptible Cashier” ! National Cash Register Company – NCR ! One of the salesman was Tomas Watson, Sr. ! Watson would later leave for CRT – Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Tabulating Machines In the US need for data processing was growing One application was census taking ! US population grew from 17 million in 1840 to 50 million in 1880 It took 1.495 clerks 7 years to produce the 1880 census
Tabulating Machines Tabulating Machine Company – TMC ! US Census Bureau awarded Herman Hollerith a contract to produce the 1890 census ! Tabulating Machines with punched cards ! Successfully ﬁnished in 2,5 years with one-third less cost (claimed) Source: Tabulating machine Herman Hollerith
Tabulating Machines Used punched cards Hollerith cards were in use until 1960s Source: Tabulating machine Herman Hollerith
Tabulating Machines The Business of Data Processing ! Even with the growing need for data processing around 1900, the market for tabulating machines was limited ! CRT and TMC merged and would later change the name to International Business Machines – IBM
“I think there is a market for about five computers” - Tomas Watson, Sr. Electronic Brains
Electric Computing Foundation of electric computing was laid early ! Mechanical computers were not considered practical ! Electricity is widespread ! Threat of war is looming in the 1930s Governments turn to computing for ballistic computations and code-breaking
The Prevailing Technology Trap Although electricity had entered the equation, it had done so only as an alternative method of powering mechanical equipment Source: Engines that Move Markets
Early Work Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) German Engineer Built primitive machines, Z1-Z4 based on relay switches in 1936 – 1944 ! Used binary system Designed his own language, Plankalkül ! Never received any ofﬁcial support from war-time Germany unlike the Allies P2 max (V0[:8.0],V1[:8.0]) => R0[:8.0] V0[:8.0] => Z1[:8.0] (Z1[:8.0] < V1[:8.0]) -> V1[:8.0] => Z1[:8.0] Z1[:8.0] => R0[:8.0] END Source: Konrad Zuse
Bletchley Park Location of top-secret code-breaking team Code-breaking the German coding machine ENIGMA
Alan Turing English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer ! Headed the team at Bletchley Park Worked on the algorithms to break the ENIGMA code ! Bombe Computer based on heuristics ! Lead to COLOSSUS – one of the ﬁrst electronic computer ! Publishes paper in 1936: On Computable Numbers Source: Alan Turing, COLOSSUS, Enigma
War Machines COLOSSUS! ! Built in England’s Bletchley Park and used by British code breakers to read encrypted German ENIGMA messages during World War II ! Designed by Alan Turing ! Winston Churchill speciﬁcally ordered the destruction of most of the Colossus machines into 'pieces no bigger than a man's hand‘ Source: COLOSSUS
War Machines ENIAC! ! Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ! Built by the U.S. Army for the purpose of calculating ballistic ﬁring tables Used 18.000 vacuum tubes ! Designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert! ! The machine was unveiled in 1946 and was in operation until 1955 Source: EINIAC
John von Neumann Hungarian mathematician ! Worked on the Manhattan project and became involved in Moore’s School ENIAC and EDVAC projects ! Publishes paper - or a memo, On computer design, 1945 ! Came to be know as Von Neumann architecture John von Neumann, Von Neumann architecture
Post-war Computers Based on Vacuum Tubes Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson
UNIVAC I Commercial Computer ! 5,200 vacuum tubes, weighed 13 tons, consumed 125 kW, and could perform ab 1,905 operations per second running on a 2.25 MHz clock ! Occupied more than 35.5 m² of ﬂoor space ! The addition time was 525 microseconds Source: UNIVAC I Source: Model of UNIVAC I, c. 1954. Picture from Smithsonian Institution
Transistor Era Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson
Transistor was invented by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in 1948
Transistor Device use to amplify or switch electronic signals ! Huge performance improvement Smaller Less energy More robust Faster Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson
Computers became faster, larger and more powerful Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson
Tyranny of Numbers Computer Engineers have much more ﬂexibility with transistors ! Problem was that as the number of components increased, wiring them together became a problem Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson Source: Tyranny of Numbers, Transistor Computer
The Integrated circuit
The Invention of the Integrated Circuit Introduced in 1958 by two inventors ! Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments ! Transistors could be wired together in practical way ! Mass manufacturing of ICs Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson Source: Integrated circuit
Adjacent Possible Two inventors at the same time invented the IC Copyright © 2011 Ólafur Andri Ragnarsson
Competition Emerges The Computer Market is born The main application is data processing • Business applications like Payroll, inventory and so on ! IBM enters the computer business Tomas Watson, Jr. launched IBM System/360 in 1964 ! Systematically replaced data processing machines with mainframe computers
In the 1950s Automation Starts
Automation Automation – Computers begin to disrupt ! Start to replace jobs ! Banks and insurance companies were early adopters ! Handling paycheques, payroll that used to require many clerks to compute
Automation Hollywood took notice ! Desk Set from 1957 with Spencer Tracey and Katherine Hepburn Source: Desk Set (from IMDB)
From Mainframes to Personal Computers
Think About This! The Disruptive Innovation Theory Resources, Processes and Values Theory
Computers in the 1970s
Mainframes Large computers in data centers ! Batch operations Critical applications Financial transaction processing ! IBM 704 IBM System/360
Time-sharing Computers were expensive to purchase and maintain ! To make it eﬃcient required multiple users Large data centers ! Utility Computing ! Time-sharing of expensive equipment
Moore’s Law Cost of computers went down
Minicomputers Cost for new entrants in the computer business was prohibitive in the 60s ! Market for those that did not need complete solution but could beneﬁt from using computes ! Birth of the Minicomputers ! Two major client groups: academic community and the military
Minicomputers Digital Equipment Corporation! ! Founded in 1957 by Ken Olsen Launched PDP-1 in 1960 ! The PDP-8 was the ﬁrst successful commercial minicomputer – 1965 ! Used integrated circuits ! Time-sharing allowed multiple users to use the machines at the same time
The Disruptive Innovation Theory Digital used relatively simple, convenient, low-cost innovation to create growth and disrupt IBM
RPV IBM Was a mainframe company, their customers wanted mainframes, not low-performance mini computers
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