New role of rail in great cities

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Published on March 12, 2014

Author: ITSLeeds

Source: slideshare.net

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Presentation by Marcelo E. Lascano Kežic of the University of San Martin, Buenos Aires and the University of Buenos Aires.

Delivered on 6 March 2014 to an audience at the Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) University of Leeds .

www.its.leeds.ac.uk/research/themes

The new role of rail in great citiesg MarceloLascanoKežić, M. Sc. Universidad de Buenos Aires/Universidad Nacional de San Martín March 2014March 2014 Institute for Transport Studies – University of Leeds – United Kingdom

Summary: There is a growing contrast between the travel times by surface rail or metro, and  those by vehicles moving along the street grid and highways. Rail axes have thus  gained new importance, all the more those surface systems spanning longer  di t  N t  l  h   il  i  b     tt ti  Th  i   l    distances. Not only has rail service become more attractive. There is also an  increased number of potential users. As long as metropolitan growth continues and  congestion stabilizes or increases, it is possible that rail axes may act again as  shapers of metropolitan spatial features  The recent evolution of global cities  with shapers of metropolitan spatial features. The recent evolution of global cities, with  their increased size, acute congestion and tendency to strengthen their central  areas, convey a new utilization of rail transport. To test this hypothesis, we analyze  the recent evolution of rail transport in three cities of similar entity: Buenos Aires   ties the recent evolution of rail transport in three cities of similar entity: Buenos Aires,  Chicago and Sao Paulo. The cases selected represent distinctive combinations of  land‐use, infrastructure and recent policy evolution. Analysis is centered on  accessibility to downtown areas, where transportation processes assemble with a  greatcit accessibility to downtown areas, where transportation processes assemble with a  context where space is scarce. In all three cases the use of railways, as a set of  inherited infrastructures, has seen an increase whose magnitude suggests a link to  modal reassignment due to increasing congestion. Scarcity of space in old  ofrailin g g g y p downtown areas is being counteracted through more intense use, or through the  expansion of vertical space for transportation operations. ewroleo Marcelo E. Lascano Kežić, M. Sc. Thene

City size and transportation issues J. Michael Thompson (1977): 1) Transportation challenges of cities are related to their size; 2) Conversely, independent of location, cities of similar size face similar transportation  ties challenges; and that 3) Comparisons between cities of similar size, albeit located in different parts of the  ld l d i i h i f i i f diff i greatcit world, are more relevant and interesting than comparisons of cities of different sizes  in the same country/region. ofrailin “The quality of private transport tends to equal that of public transport” ewroleoThene

Why rail matters again in great cities? Rail as an inherited equipment within the city structure: ‐ insertion downtown.  capacity ‐ metropolitan coverage ‐ inherited attribute: reliability ‐ evolving inherited attribute: travel time savings  Downtown areas of large cities ties ‐ Are relevant even if they grow at a slower rate than suburban areas ‐ Most importantly: concentrates access to rail from all or most residential areas.  No other city area  has this advantage greatcit y g ‐ Keep their simbolic value.  ‐ tendency to recovery ofrailin Large cities ‐ Continue to grow. Size not a deterrent.  Increasing importance of capacity of trunk lines ewroleo g g p p y ‐ Have entered into a stage of all‐day congestion, no longer exclusive to downtown areas  and main transport links. Thene

tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Why rail matters again in great cities? Objectives: ‐ Explicit the positive feedback between rail infrastructure capacity and large cities ‐Document recent ridership increases that have been fast (less than 5 years) in large  cities that have old rail networks Hypothesis: ‐ There is a relationship between the spatial structure of a city and the transportation  ties technology  ‐increased ridership  is becoming heterogeneous, socially, spatially.  M h d l greatcit Methodology: ‐Harness operational ridership datasets,  as the most comprehensive  source of  information illustrating use of rail in large cities, backed up with survey data, if  il bl ofrailin available. ‐ distinguish, at least preliminary, two sections in a line: mainly residential, and mainly  downtown or non residential with prevalence of alightnings during morning peaks ewroleoThene

The search for a principle prior to rail Place all attention on scale of demand as a variable prior to  h ltechnology. Old  il i f t t  t diti   d   Old rail infrastructure, tradition and new use: ‐ Visibility of historians, collectors, modelers, nostalgia ‐ Separate nostalgia from policy ties ‐ Separate nostalgia from policy Change the subject: ‐ Demand is… turns attention to  causality greatcit y ‐ Rail is….keeps the focus on effects Spatial structure as a  main causal basis for the scale of transportation  ofrailin p p demand to downtown areas ‐ Size ‐ Density Residential areas ewroleo Density ‐ Functional prevalence of downtown Thene

Density and size tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Spatial structure and demand scale density/sq hectare  tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Spatial structure and demand scale N N‐1 1 2 3 4 5 1 tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Spatial structure and demand scale entriesentries tiesgreatcit exits ofrailinewroleo N 1N‐1 2 D D D D D Thene

Linear aggregation of demand and demand scale entries– Boardings exits– AlightningsBoardings predominant Alightnings predominant ties Linear aggregation In a specific corridor greatcitofrailinewroleo N 1N‐1 2 D D D D D Thene

Spatial structure and Linear aggregation of demand días hábil Linear aggregation of demand = vehicle load zonas residenciales: origen centro: destinomañanas ► hábiles tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Spatial structure and Linear aggregation of demand días hábiles Linear aggregation of demand = vehicle load zonas residenciales: origen centro: destinomañanas ► hábiles tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleo TCRP 100 Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual – 2nd Edition, 2003, page 1-21 Thene

Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleo Vuchic, 1999. Thene

Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene Inter American Development Bank, 2008

demand level and transportation technology metro pax/h/direction ▲ D2 metro D1 ties Dedicated lanes ó il D1 greatcit automóviles ofrailin +◄distance to downtown ewroleoThene

demand level and transportation technology Differential impact of bus supply aggregation according to the base scenario pax/h/direction ▲ dedicated lanes+ i l d b ties articulated buses regular buses greatcit mini vans ofrailin +◄distance to downtown ewroleoThene

Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology 30.000 pax/h tiesgreatcit 40.000 pax/h ofrailin 40.000 pax/h Or “0” trasversal space? ewroleo Source: Vuchick, 1978 Thene

Study area – SHAPE AND SIZE tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

tiesgreatcit   l  f   ll fi ofrailin Study area SHAPE AND SIZE same scale for all figures ewroleo Study area – SHAPE AND SIZE Thene

tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Commuter rail – Ridership tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Buenos Aires – modelling of monthly ticket sales per station Preliminary results EXTERNAL TERMINUS DIST. TO DWNTWN ELECTRIFIED NO. OF BUS LINES SERV. FREQ. POP. THYSSEN P. TRAVEL  TIME HEALTH COVERAGEHEALTH COVERAGE LOG (% OCCUPIED)

Buenos Aires - Diesel line with moderate frequency increase 170.00 h Evol. of main line op. indicators - Constitución Berazategui car-km 140 00 150.00 160.00 monthsmoot ticket sales (monthly total - no adj) density of use 120.00 130.00 140.00 pril1995)-5m smoothhhh ties 100.00 110.00 e100indexap s greatcit 80.00 90.00 Apr/94 Oct/94 Apr/95 Oct/95 Apr/96 Oct/96 Apr/97 Oct/97 Apr/98 Oct/98 Apr/99 Oct/99 Apr/00 Oct/00 base ofrailin A O A O A O A O A O A O A O month ewroleo © daus Thene

Urban rail – Ridership tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Urban rail – Ridership – Chicago – station change, 00/08 tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Urban rail – Ridership – Chicago – absl. change, by dist. tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Chicago – 2000/2010 demographic change tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Diverging tendencies – bus and rail tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

Marcelo E. Lascano Kežić  marcelo.lascano@fulbrightmail.org  tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene

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