Published on March 12, 2014
The new role of rail in great citiesg MarceloLascanoKežić, M. Sc. Universidad de Buenos Aires/Universidad Nacional de San Martín March 2014March 2014 Institute for Transport Studies – University of Leeds – United Kingdom
Summary: There is a growing contrast between the travel times by surface rail or metro, and those by vehicles moving along the street grid and highways. Rail axes have thus gained new importance, all the more those surface systems spanning longer di t N t l h il i b tt ti Th i l distances. Not only has rail service become more attractive. There is also an increased number of potential users. As long as metropolitan growth continues and congestion stabilizes or increases, it is possible that rail axes may act again as shapers of metropolitan spatial features The recent evolution of global cities with shapers of metropolitan spatial features. The recent evolution of global cities, with their increased size, acute congestion and tendency to strengthen their central areas, convey a new utilization of rail transport. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the recent evolution of rail transport in three cities of similar entity: Buenos Aires ties the recent evolution of rail transport in three cities of similar entity: Buenos Aires, Chicago and Sao Paulo. The cases selected represent distinctive combinations of land‐use, infrastructure and recent policy evolution. Analysis is centered on accessibility to downtown areas, where transportation processes assemble with a greatcit accessibility to downtown areas, where transportation processes assemble with a context where space is scarce. In all three cases the use of railways, as a set of inherited infrastructures, has seen an increase whose magnitude suggests a link to modal reassignment due to increasing congestion. Scarcity of space in old ofrailin g g g y p downtown areas is being counteracted through more intense use, or through the expansion of vertical space for transportation operations. ewroleo Marcelo E. Lascano Kežić, M. Sc. Thene
City size and transportation issues J. Michael Thompson (1977): 1) Transportation challenges of cities are related to their size; 2) Conversely, independent of location, cities of similar size face similar transportation ties challenges; and that 3) Comparisons between cities of similar size, albeit located in different parts of the ld l d i i h i f i i f diff i greatcit world, are more relevant and interesting than comparisons of cities of different sizes in the same country/region. ofrailin “The quality of private transport tends to equal that of public transport” ewroleoThene
Why rail matters again in great cities? Rail as an inherited equipment within the city structure: ‐ insertion downtown. capacity ‐ metropolitan coverage ‐ inherited attribute: reliability ‐ evolving inherited attribute: travel time savings Downtown areas of large cities ties ‐ Are relevant even if they grow at a slower rate than suburban areas ‐ Most importantly: concentrates access to rail from all or most residential areas. No other city area has this advantage greatcit y g ‐ Keep their simbolic value. ‐ tendency to recovery ofrailin Large cities ‐ Continue to grow. Size not a deterrent. Increasing importance of capacity of trunk lines ewroleo g g p p y ‐ Have entered into a stage of all‐day congestion, no longer exclusive to downtown areas and main transport links. Thene
Why rail matters again in great cities? Objectives: ‐ Explicit the positive feedback between rail infrastructure capacity and large cities ‐Document recent ridership increases that have been fast (less than 5 years) in large cities that have old rail networks Hypothesis: ‐ There is a relationship between the spatial structure of a city and the transportation ties technology ‐increased ridership is becoming heterogeneous, socially, spatially. M h d l greatcit Methodology: ‐Harness operational ridership datasets, as the most comprehensive source of information illustrating use of rail in large cities, backed up with survey data, if il bl ofrailin available. ‐ distinguish, at least preliminary, two sections in a line: mainly residential, and mainly downtown or non residential with prevalence of alightnings during morning peaks ewroleoThene
The search for a principle prior to rail Place all attention on scale of demand as a variable prior to h ltechnology. Old il i f t t t diti d Old rail infrastructure, tradition and new use: ‐ Visibility of historians, collectors, modelers, nostalgia ‐ Separate nostalgia from policy ties ‐ Separate nostalgia from policy Change the subject: ‐ Demand is… turns attention to causality greatcit y ‐ Rail is….keeps the focus on effects Spatial structure as a main causal basis for the scale of transportation ofrailin p p demand to downtown areas ‐ Size ‐ Density Residential areas ewroleo Density ‐ Functional prevalence of downtown Thene
Density and size tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Spatial structure and demand scale density/sq hectare tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Spatial structure and demand scale N N‐1 1 2 3 4 5 1 tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Spatial structure and demand scale entriesentries tiesgreatcit exits ofrailinewroleo N 1N‐1 2 D D D D D Thene
Linear aggregation of demand and demand scale entries– Boardings exits– AlightningsBoardings predominant Alightnings predominant ties Linear aggregation In a specific corridor greatcitofrailinewroleo N 1N‐1 2 D D D D D Thene
Spatial structure and Linear aggregation of demand días hábil Linear aggregation of demand = vehicle load zonas residenciales: origen centro: destinomañanas ► hábiles tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Spatial structure and Linear aggregation of demand días hábiles Linear aggregation of demand = vehicle load zonas residenciales: origen centro: destinomañanas ► hábiles tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleo TCRP 100 Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual – 2nd Edition, 2003, page 1-21 Thene
Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleo Vuchic, 1999. Thene
Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene Inter American Development Bank, 2008
demand level and transportation technology metro pax/h/direction ▲ D2 metro D1 ties Dedicated lanes ó il D1 greatcit automóviles ofrailin +◄distance to downtown ewroleoThene
demand level and transportation technology Differential impact of bus supply aggregation according to the base scenario pax/h/direction ▲ dedicated lanes+ i l d b ties articulated buses regular buses greatcit mini vans ofrailin +◄distance to downtown ewroleoThene
Linear aggregation of demand and transportation technology 30.000 pax/h tiesgreatcit 40.000 pax/h ofrailin 40.000 pax/h Or “0” trasversal space? ewroleo Source: Vuchick, 1978 Thene
Study area – SHAPE AND SIZE tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
tiesgreatcit l f ll fi ofrailin Study area SHAPE AND SIZE same scale for all figures ewroleo Study area – SHAPE AND SIZE Thene
Commuter rail – Ridership tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Buenos Aires – modelling of monthly ticket sales per station Preliminary results EXTERNAL TERMINUS DIST. TO DWNTWN ELECTRIFIED NO. OF BUS LINES SERV. FREQ. POP. THYSSEN P. TRAVEL TIME HEALTH COVERAGEHEALTH COVERAGE LOG (% OCCUPIED)
Buenos Aires - Diesel line with moderate frequency increase 170.00 h Evol. of main line op. indicators - Constitución Berazategui car-km 140 00 150.00 160.00 monthsmoot ticket sales (monthly total - no adj) density of use 120.00 130.00 140.00 pril1995)-5m smoothhhh ties 100.00 110.00 e100indexap s greatcit 80.00 90.00 Apr/94 Oct/94 Apr/95 Oct/95 Apr/96 Oct/96 Apr/97 Oct/97 Apr/98 Oct/98 Apr/99 Oct/99 Apr/00 Oct/00 base ofrailin A O A O A O A O A O A O A O month ewroleo © daus Thene
Urban rail – Ridership tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Urban rail – Ridership – Chicago – station change, 00/08 tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Urban rail – Ridership – Chicago – absl. change, by dist. tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Chicago – 2000/2010 demographic change tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Diverging tendencies – bus and rail tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
Marcelo E. Lascano Kežić firstname.lastname@example.org tiesgreatcitofrailinewroleoThene
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