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NEW chpt 4

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Published on October 17, 2007

Author: Heather

Source: authorstream.com

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CHAPTER 4:  CHAPTER 4 THE MEANINGS AND DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE Slide2:  Characteristics of Culture Culture Slide3:  Priorities of Cultural Values United States 1. Freedom 2. Independence 3. Self-reliance 4. Equality 5. Individualism 6. Competition 7. Efficiency 8. Time 9. Directness 10. Openness Arab Countries 1. Family security 2. Family harmony 3. Parental guidance 4. Age 5. Authority 6. Compromise 7. Devotion 8. Patience 9. Indirectness 10. Hospitality Japan 1. Belonging 2. Group harmony 3. Collectiveness 4. Age/seniority 5. Group consensus 6. Cooperation 7. Quality 8. Patience 9. Indirectness 10. Go-between Values- Basic convictions that people have regarding what is right and wrong, good and bad, important or unimportant Slide4:  How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches Cultural Diversity Slide5:  Cultural Stereotypes French Culture U.S. Culture How Americans see the French Arrogant Flamboyant Hierarchical Emotional How French see Americans Naive Aggressive Unprincipled Workaholic Slide6:  Values in Culture U.S. Cultural Values Alternative Values Examples of Management Function Affected Individuals can influence the future (when there is a will there is a way). Life follows a preordained course, and, human action is determined by the will of God. Planning and scheduling Individuals should be realistic in their aspirations. Ideals are to be pursued regardless of what is “reasonable.” Goal setting and career development We must work hard to accomplish our objectives (Puritan ethic). Hard work is not the only prerequisite for success. Wisdom luck, and time also are required. Motivation and reward system Employees can be removed if they do not perform well. The removal of an employee from a position involves a great loss of prestige and will rarely be done. Promotion Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions :  Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Power Distance The extent to which less powerful members of institutions accept that power is distributed unequally High (Mexico, South Korea, India) blindly obey order of superiors, large number of supervisors,encourage and promote inequality hierarchical organizational structure Low (U.S., Denmark, Canada) decentralized decision making, small number of supervisors flat organizational structures Slide8:  Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations High (Germany, Japan, Spain) high need for security, need structured activities, more written rules, lower labor turnover, less risk taking, strong beliefs in experts Low (Denmark, UK) willing to accept risks, fewer rules less structuring of activities, encourage personnel to take responsibility for their actions more ambitious employees Slide9:  Individualism (vs. Collectivism) The tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only strong work ethic, countries with high GNP promotions based on merit, individual initiative U.S., Canada, Australia Collectivism The tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty weaker work ethic, poorer countries, less individual initiative promotions based on seniority China, South American cultures Slide10:  Masculinity (Vs. Femininity) the dominant values in society are success, money and things emphasis on earnings and recognition, focus on economic growth and materialism high stress workplace Japan Femininity the dominant values in society are caring for others and the quality of life employment security, culture of cooperation, friendly atmosphere, group decision making, conservation of the environment employee freedom, lower job stress Scandinavian cultures Slide11:  Cultural Dimensions by Trompenaars Universalism vs. Particularism Universalism: the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification -focus on formal rules not relationships -”A deal is a deal” U. S., Germany, and Canada Particularism: the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. -focus on relationships and trust, bend rules, rules can be modified China and South Korea Slide12:  Individualism vs. Communitarianism Individualism: refers to people regarding themselves as individuals -stress personal and individual matters -negotiations made by one person for the group -take personal responsibility U.S., UK, Canada and Hong Kong Communitarianism: refers to people regarding themselves as part of a group -group related issues, decisions made by committees, joint responsibility, decisions not made quickly Malaysia and Korea Slide13:  Neutral Vs. Affective (Emotional) Neutral: emotions are held in check -put it all on paper, don’t like to show their hand Japan and the UK Affective: emotions are openly and naturally expressed -smile a lot, talk loudly and excitedly, warm responses Mexico, Netherlands, and Switzerland Specific Vs. Diffuse Specific: People are more open and extroverted and there is a strong separation of work and private life UK, U. S., and Switzerland Diffuse: People appear indirect and introverted and work and private life are linked Venezuela, China, and Spain Slide14:  Achievement Vs. Ascription Achievement: people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions U.S., Switzerland, and UK Ascription: status is attributed based on who or what a person is -Status on age, gender, social connections Venezuela and China Slide15:  Sequential: time is prevalent, people tend to do only one activity at a time, keep appointments strictly, and prefer to follow plans U.S. Synchronous: time is relative, people tend to do more than one activity at a time, appointments are approximate, and schedules are not important Mexico and France Present oriented/future oriented: Future is more important (US, Italy, Germany) Present is more important (Venezuela, Spain) Time Slide16:  Environment Trompenaars explained the way people deal with their environment by asking: “What happens to me is my own doing.” “Sometimes I feel that I do not have enough control over my life.” Inner Directed Believe in controlling outcomes U.S. Outer Directed Believe in letting things take their own course Asian Cultures Slide17:  GLOBE Project Variable Highest Medium Lowest Ranking Ranking Ranking Assertiveness Spain, U.S. Egypt, Ireland Sweden, New Zealand Future orientation Denmark, Canada Slovenia, Egypt Russia, Argentina Gender differentiation South Korea, Italy, Brazil Sweden Denmark Egypt Uncertainty avoidance Austria, Denmark Israel, U.S. Russia, Hungary Power distance Russia, Spain England, France Demark, Netherlands Collectivism/Societal Denmark, Hong Kong, U.S. Greece, Hungary Singapore In-group collectivism Egypt, China England, France Denmark, Netherlands Performance orientation U.S., Taiwan Sweden, Israel Russia, Argentina Humane orientation Indonesia, Egypt Hong Kong, Germany, Spain Sweden

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