Neuroscience and Behavior Psych 101

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Information about Neuroscience and Behavior Psych 101

Published on November 3, 2008

Author: aSGuest2496


Your Amazing Brain : 1 Your Amazing Brain Receives information – within a fraction of a second, too minuscule to measure Acts on the external universe – allows you to cry, walk, play a musical instrument Utilizes language – one of your most advanced functions Possesses emotions – creates your affective universe Your Amazing Brain : 2 Your Amazing Brain Thinks –is responsible for your memory, intelligence, your thoughts Controls your autonomic functions – heart rate, breathing, homeostasis Controls your immune system – protects you from viruses Slide 3: 3 Slide 4: 4 Peripheral Nervous System : 5 Peripheral Nervous System Handles the CNS’s input and output. Contains all the portions of the NS outside of the brain and spinal cord. Contains sensory nerves and motor nerves Divided into autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. Peripheral Nervous System : 6 Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Nerves (to the brain) Carry messages from special reporters in the skin, muscles, and other internal and external sense organs to the spinal cord and then to the brain Motor Nerves (from the brain) Carry orders from CNS to muscles, glands to contract and produce chemical messengers Peripheral Nervous System : 7 Peripheral Nervous System Somatic NS Consists of nerves connected to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles Permits voluntary action (writing your name) Autonomic NS Permits the involuntary functioning of blood vessels, glands, and internal organs such as the bladder, stomach and heart Autonomic Nervous System : 8 Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic NS Like the accelerator of your car Mobilized the body for action Increases heart rate Elevates blood pressure Parasympathetic NS Like the brakes in your car Slows the body down to keep its rhythm Enables the body to conserve and store energy Sympathetic NSand Emotion : 9 Sympathetic NSand Emotion You perceive the sensory stimulus. The adrenal gland sends two hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine. They activate the sympathetic nervous system. That produces a state of arousal or alertness that provides the body with the energy to act (the pupils dilate, the heart beats faster, and breathing speeds up). Slide 10: 10 Central Nervous System : 11 Central Nervous System The Spinal Cord The Brain The Spinal Cord : 12 The Spinal Cord Protected by a column of bones Produces some behaviors of its own without the help of the brain These spinal reflexes are automatic, requesting no conscience effort Sometimes they are influenced by thought and emotion Example: touching a hot iron The Brain : 13 The Brain Areas of the Brain The Four Lobes of the Brain Lateralization Slide 14: 14 The Hind Brain : 15 The Hind Brain Medulla – breathing, heart rate Pons – sleeping, walking, dreaming Riticular Activating System – alertness, attention Cerebellum – balance, coordination for the muscles The Forebrain : 16 The Forebrain Thalamus Direct sensory messages to higher centers in the brain The sight of sunset is directed to a visual area The only sense that completely bypasses the thalamus is the sense of smell, which has its private switching station, the olfactory bulb The Forebrain : 17 The Forebrain The Hypothalamus It is involved with drives associated with survival such as hunger, thirst, emotion, sex, and reproduction The ForebrainThe Limbic System : 18 The ForebrainThe Limbic System The Amygdala Responsible for evaluating sensory information It determines its emotional importance It makes the decision to approach or to withdraw Its initial response may be overridden by the appraisal of the cerebral cortex The Hippocampus The gate way to memory The Forebrain : 19 The Forebrain The Cerebrum Higher forms of thinking take place in it It is divided into two halves called the cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a large band of fibers called the corpus callosum They have different tasks (lateralization) The Forebrain : 20 The Forebrain The Cerebral Cortex The cerebrum is covered by several thin layers of densely packed cells known as the cerebral cortex On each cerebral hemisphere, deep fissures divide the cortex into 4 lobes Slide 21: 21 The Four Lobes of theCerebral Cortex : 22 The Four Lobes of theCerebral Cortex Slide 23: 23 Functions of the Cortex : 24 Functions of the Cortex Motor Cortex – an area of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. It sends messages out to the body. When stimulating, specific parts of the region in the left or right hemisphere, specific body parts moved on the opposite side of the body. Functions of the Cortex : 25 Functions of the Cortex Sensory Cortex – the area at the front of the parietal lobes that receives, registers, and processes body sensations. Association Functions – areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. Functions of the Cortex : 26 Functions of the Cortex Language 1- Broca’s Area – an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech 2- Wernicke’s Area – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. Specialization and Integration in Language : 27 Specialization and Integration in Language 1- Visual cortex – receives written words as visual stimulation. 2- Angular gyrus – transforms visual representations into an auditory code. 3- Wernicke’s area – interprets auditory code. 4- Broca’s area – controls speech muscles via the motor cortex. 5- Motor cortex – word is pronounced. Slide 28: 28 The Endocrine System The Endocrine System : 29 The Endocrine System The body’s slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream. The Endocrine SystemA Set of Glands : 30 The Endocrine SystemA Set of Glands Thyroid gland- affects metabolism Pancreas – regulates the level of sugar in the blood Parathyroids – help regulate the level of calcium in the blood Ovary – secretes sea female hormone Testes – secrete sex male hormone The Endocrine SystemA Set of Glands : 31 The Endocrine SystemA Set of Glands The Pituitary Gland A sort of master gland It is cherry-sized endocrine gland The hormones it secretes affect growth and the secretion of other endocrine glands The real boss is the hypothalamus Feedback System brain pituitary other glands hormones brain The Endocrine SystemA Set of Glands : 32 The Endocrine SystemA Set of Glands The Adrenal Gland A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidney They secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine which help to arouse the body in times of stress. Lateralization : 33 Lateralization Left Hemisphere Verbal competence Speaking, reading, thinking & reasoning Processes info in sequence One piece of data at a time logical Right Hemisphere Nonverbal areas Comprehension, spatial relationships, drawing, music, emotion Processes info. As a whole intuitive Emotion and Lateralization : 34 Emotion and Lateralization Left Hemisphere Important for the expression of positive emotion Damage to the L.H. leads to loss of the capacity of joy. Activation in the L.H. leads to tendencies to approach other people. Right Hemisphere Important for the expression of negative emotion Damage to the R.H. may make people euphoric. Activation in the R.H. leads to tendencies to withdraw from people. Slide 35: 35 Slide 36: 36 Slide 37: 37 Neurons : 38 Neurons The NS is made up in part of neurons They are held in place by glial cells The Function of Glial Cells: Provide neurons with nutrients Insulate neurons Remove cellular debris when neurons die The Structure of the Neuron : 39 The Structure of the Neuron 1- Dendrites Act like antennas receiving messages 2- The Cell Body Contains the biochemical machinery to keep the neuron alive 3- The Axon Transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons Myelin Sheath : 40 Myelin Sheath Surrounds the axons A layer of fatty material, which is derived from glial cells There are 2 purposes of the myelin sheath: To prevent signals from adjacent cells from interfering with each other To speed up the production of neural impulses Stop! : 41 Stop! Is the brain capable of reorganizing itself if damaged? Plasticity : 42 Plasticity When one brain area is damaged, other areas may in time reorganize and take over some of its functions. If neurons are destroyed, nearby neurons may partly compensate for the damage by making new connections that replace the lost ones. Examples: How the sense of touch in blind men invades the visual part of the brain. How the brain struggles to recover from a minor stroke. Stop! : 43 Stop! Could damaged neurons in the central nervous system multiply and grow back? Precursor Cells(Immature Cells) : 44 Precursor Cells(Immature Cells) Precursor cells can give birth to new neurons when immersed in a growth-promotion protein Physical and mental exercise promote the survival and the production of new precursor cells Stress can prohibit the production of new cells Nicotine can kill precursor cells How Neurons Communicate : 45 How Neurons Communicate Slide 46: 46 Chemical Messengers in the NS : 47 Chemical Messengers in the NS Neurotransmitters Endorphins Hormones Neurotransmitters : 48 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters travel from one neuron to another. Changes occur in the receiving neuron’s membrane, The ultimate effect is either: Excitatory: the probability that the receiving neuron will fire increases Inhibitory: the probability that the receiving neuron will fire decreases Neurotransmitters : 49 Neurotransmitters Serotonin Sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temperature regulation, pain suppression, and mood Dopamine Voluntary movement, learning, memory, and emotion Acetylcholine Muscle action, cognitive functioning, memory, and emotion Neurotransmitters : 50 Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine Increased heart rate and the slowing of intestinal activity during stress, learning, memory, dreaming, waking from sleep, and emotion GABA (gama-aminobutyic acid) The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Why Not Flood the Brain with Artificial Opiates? : 51 Why Not Flood the Brain with Artificial Opiates? The brain may stop producing its own natural opiates. For a drug addict, the result is agony until the brain resumes production of its natural opiates or receives more artificial opiates. Is Designing a Drug Easy? : 52 Is Designing a Drug Easy? Dopamine as a drug doesn’t help because dopamine doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier by which the brain fences out unwanted chemicals circulating in the blood. L-dopa, a raw material the brain can convert to dopamine, can sneak through the fence. How Drugs and Other Chemicals Alter Neurotransmitters : 53 How Drugs and Other Chemicals Alter Neurotransmitters The agonist molecule excites. It mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receiving neuron. Morphine mimics the action of neurotransmitters by stimulating receptors in the brain involved in mood and pain sensation. The antagonist molecule inhibits by blocking the neurotransmitters or by diminishing their release. Botulin poison causes paralysis by blocking receptors for acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter that produces muscle movement) Hormones : 54 Hormones Insulin Produced by the pancreas Regulates the body’s use of glucose & affects appetite Melatonin Secreted by the pineal gland Helps to regulate daily biological rhythms and promotes sleep. Hormones : 55 Hormones Adrenal Hormones Produced by the adrenal glands are involved in emotion and stress. They rise in response to nonemotional conditions, such as cold, heat, pin injury, and physical exercise, and in response to some drugs such as caffeine and nicotine. The Outer Part Cortisol The Inner Part Epinephrine & Norepinephrine Hormones : 56 Hormones Sex Hormones Are secreted by the gonads and by the adrenal glands Androgens Masculinizing Hormones Estrogens Feminizing Hormones Neurotransmitters & Hormones : 57 Neurotransmitters & Hormones Acetylcholine Shortage in acetylcholine may be associated with Alzheimer’s disease Dopamine The degeneration of brain cells that produce and use another neurotransmitter, dopamine, appears to cause symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Low levels of dopamine may cause ADHD Neurotransmitters & Hormones : 58 Neurotransmitters & Hormones Serotonin Decrease in norepinephrine and serotonin is associated with depression. Elevated levels along with other biochemical and brain abnormalities have been implicated in childhood autism. Norepinephrine Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and adrenaline are associated with excitement and stress. Neurotransmitters & Hormones : 59 Neurotransmitters & Hormones Cortisol Cortisol is associated with stress. Increase in cortisol damages the brain and may be associated with posttraumatic stress. GABA Abnormal GABA levels have between implicated in sleep and eating disorders and in compulsive disorders. Glutamate Glutamate, serotonin, and high levels of dopamine have been associated with schizophrenia

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