Networking Devices

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Information about Networking Devices

Published on January 1, 2008

Author: Janelle



CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking:  CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Chapter 2: Network Devices Objectives:  Objectives Explain the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of repeaters Explain the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of hubs Define wireless access points Define network segmentation Explain network segmentation using bridges Objectives (continued):  Objectives (continued) Explain network segmentation using switches Explain network segmentation using routers Explain network segmentation using brouters and gateways Repeaters:  Repeaters Length of cable used influence the quality of communication Attenuation Repeaters repeat signals Clean and boost digital transmission Analog networks use amplifiers to boost signal Repeaters only work with the physical signal Cannot reformat, resize, or manipulate the data Physical layer (layer 1) device Repeaters (continued):  Repeaters (continued) Repeaters (continued):  Repeaters (continued) Hubs:  Hubs Generic connection device Physical layer Connect several networking cables together Active hubs Multiport repeaters Passive hubs Hubs and topology Hubs (continued):  Hubs (continued) Advantages And Disadvantages Of Repeaters And Hubs :  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Repeaters And Hubs Advantages of using repeaters Extend network physical distance Do not seriously affect network performance Special repeaters connect different media Copper to fiber Disadvantages of using repeaters Cannot connect different network architectures Token Ring and Ethernet Cannot reduce network traffic Advantages And Disadvantages Of Repeaters And Hubs (continued):  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Repeaters And Hubs (continued) Disadvantages of using repeaters Do not segment the network Repeat everything without discrimination Number of repeaters must be limited Repeaters are part of a collision domain Wireless Access Points:  Wireless Access Points Wireless local area networks (WLANs) Wireless access points provide cell-based areas Contains radio transceiver Function like a hub Bandwidth is shared May also function as a wireless repeater Wireless clients Wireless Access Points (continued):  Wireless Access Points (continued) Network Segmentation:  Network Segmentation Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Problems occur with too many nodes on the same network segment or collision domain Network Segmentation (continued):  Network Segmentation (continued) Collision Back off algorithm Back off period Segmentation Collisions and retransmissions are reduced Contention for bandwidth is reduced Network Segmentation (continued):  Network Segmentation (continued) Bridges:  Bridges Operate at the Data Link layer Forward or drop frames Cannot filter broadcasts MAC to segment # table MAC to segment # table initial development Bridges (continued):  Bridges (continued) Transparent Bridges:  Transparent Bridges Also called learning bridges Build a table of MAC addresses as frames arrive Ethernet networks use transparent bridges Token Ring networks use source-routing bridges Source-Routing Bridges:  Source-Routing Bridges Used in Token Ring networks Rely of source of the frame transmission Explorer frames Translation Bridges:  Translation Bridges Connect networks with different network architecture Example: Token ring connecting to Ethernet Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bridges:  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bridges Advantages of using a bridge Extend physical network Reduce network traffic with minor segmentation Creates separate collision domains Reduce collisions Connect different architecture Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bridges (continued):  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bridges (continued) Disadvantages of using bridges Slower that repeaters due to filtering Do not filter broadcasts More expensive than repeaters Switches:  Switches Operate at the Data Link layer Increase network performance Virtual circuits between source and destination Micro segmentation Multiple virtual circuits are called “switched bandwidth” Switches (continued):  Switches (continued) Between two computers using a switch two collision domains are created each with dedicated bandwidth Between two hubs using a switch two collision domains are created each with shared bandwidth Filter based on MAC addresses Build tables in memory Switches (continued):  Switches (continued) Advantages of switches Increase available network bandwidth Reduced workload, computers only receive packets intended for them specifically Increase network performance Smaller collision domains Switches (continued):  Switches (continued) Disadvantages of switches More expensive than hubs and bridges Difficult to trace network connectivity problems through a switch Does not filter broadcast traffic Switches (continued):  Switches (continued) Routers:  Routers Provide filtering and network traffic control Used on LANs and WANs Connect multiple segments and networks Multiple routers create an “internetwork” Operate at the Network layer Routers (continued):  Routers (continued) Create a table to determine how to forward packets Filtering and traffic control base on logical addresses Physical Versus Logical Addresses:  Physical Versus Logical Addresses MAC addresses Data Link layer application Used by switches, bridges, and routers Used for directly connected devices Logical addresses Network and transport protocols dictate the format of the logical network layer address TCP/IP, IPX/SPX IP addresses are assigned manually or by software Physical Versus Logical Addresses (continued):  Physical Versus Logical Addresses (continued) Advantages And Disadvantages Of Routers:  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Routers Advantages of routers Can connect networks of different architecture Token Ring to Ethernet Choose best path through or to a network Create smaller collision domains Create smaller broadcast domains Advantages And Disadvantages Of Routers (continued):  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Routers (continued) Disadvantages of routers Only work with routable protocols More expensive than hubs, bridges, and switches Routing table updates consume bandwidth Increase latency due to a greater degree of packet filtering and/or analyzing Advantages And Disadvantages Of Routers (continued):  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Routers (continued) Brouters:  Brouters Hybrid device Functions as a router for routable protocols Functions as a bridge for non-routable protocols Operates at Data Link and Network layers Gateways:  Gateways A gateway is a combination of hardware and software Translate between different protocol suites Operates on all 7 layers of the OSI model Most negative on network performance Latency Summary :  Summary Network administrators use devices to control and extend the usable size of a network These devices include repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, brouters, and gateways Repeaters work against attenuation by cleaning and repeating signals that they receive on a network Repeaters work at the Physical layer of the OSI model They cannot connect different network architectures Summary (continued):  Summary (continued) Repeaters do not reduce network traffic or segment the network A hub ties several networking cables together to create a link between different stations on a network An active hub has its own electrical power and acts as a repeater, whereas a passive hub provides no signal regeneration Hubs operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model and do not segment the network Network segmentation is the process of isolating hosts onto smaller segments to reduce the possibility of collisions Summary (continued):  Summary (continued) Bridges and switches are two devices commonly used to segment networks Bridges provide network segmentation by examining the MAC address that is sent in the data frame Bridges can use transparent bridging or source-route bridging to determine which segment includes a specific physical address Bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model Summary (continued):  Summary (continued) Switches increase network performance by reducing the number of frames transmitted to the rest of a network They do this by opening a virtual circuit between the source and the destination Switches operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model Summary (continued):  Summary (continued) Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model and provide filtering and network-traffic control on LANs and WANs They can connect multiple segments and networks On a TCP/IP network, routers use IP addresses to route packets to the correct network segment Routers use information from routing tables to move packets from one network to another Summary (continued):  Summary (continued) A brouter is a hybrid device that functions both as a bridge for non-routable protocols and as a router for routable protocols Brouters operate at both the Data Link and Network layers Gateways are usually a combination of hardware and software and are used to translate between different protocols They usually operate at layer 4 and above in the OSI model

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