advertisement

Nerve System.

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Nerve System.
Education

Published on December 27, 2008

Author: szajafri

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

The Nervous System p. 276 : 1 The Nervous System p. 276 The central processing unit Parts of the Nervous System p. 276 : 2 Parts of the Nervous System p. 276 Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): craniospinal nerves Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): nerves that control vital organs: heart, lungs, brain, etc. Neurons: nervous system cells p. 277 : 3 Neurons: nervous system cells p. 277 All neurons have: one axon one cell body one or more dendrite Types of Neurons p. 277 : 4 Types of Neurons p. 277 Receptors(eyes, ears, other sense organs) : 5 Receptors(eyes, ears, other sense organs) change information from outside the body ( for example, light waves) into electrical impulses. More nerve terms p. 277 : 6 More nerve terms p. 277 Slide 7: 7 The Central Nervous System includes p.278 The meninges: three membranes p. 278 : 8 The meninges: three membranes p. 278 Spaces between the meninges p. 278 : 9 Spaces between the meninges p. 278 BRAIN Dura mater Pia mater Arachnoid Subarachnoid space Subdural space Spaces between the meninges p. 278 : 10 Spaces between the meninges p. 278 What if a cell dies? p. 278 : 11 What if a cell dies? p. 278 Neurons cannot reproduce. Once a nervous system connection is broken, it is broken forever. References : 12 References www.nlm.nih.gov The Brain p. 279 : 13 The Brain p. 279 Parts of the Brain p. 280 : 14 Parts of the Brain p. 280 brainstem cerebellum diencephalon cerebrum Parts of the brainstem p. 280 : 15 Parts of the brainstem p. 280 pons: connects the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum, and cerebrum midbrain: contains auditory (hearing), visual (sight), and muscle control centers. medulla oblongata: lowest and most posterior (at the back of the brain) The hindbrain includes the pons and the medulla. The brainstem : 16 The brainstem www.daviddarling.info/images/brainstem.jpg The pons (the bridge) p. 280 : 17 The pons (the bridge) p. 280 Connects the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cerebrum Associates with sensory nerves: taste, hearing, and balance. Controls muscles of the face. The medulla oblongata p. 280 : 18 The medulla oblongata p. 280 controls alertness heart action respiration (breathing) blood pressure connects the CEREBRUM with the SPINAL CORD the RIGHT side of the brain controls the LEFT side of the body. the LEFT side of the brain controls the RIGHT side of the body. The midbrain p. 280 : 19 The midbrain p. 280 controls vision hearing muscles The cerebellum p. 281 : 20 The cerebellum p. 281 coordinates muscle activity. has three parts: the vermis the right cerebellar hemisphere the left cerebellar hemisphere The diencephalon p. 281 : 21 The diencephalon p. 281 is located between the midbrain and the cerebrum has three parts: the thalamus: receives sensory information and sends it to the cerebral cortex. the epithalamus: contains the pineal body and olfactory centers. the hypothalamus: connects the endocrine and nervous systems. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/anatomy_and_physiology.html The hypothalamus p. 281 : 22 The hypothalamus p. 281 connects the endocrine and nervous systems. controls the autonomic nervous system body temperature carbohydrate and fat metabolism appetite emotions www.brainexplorer.org The cerebrum p. 281 : 23 The cerebrum p. 281 is divided into two cerebral hemispheres has an outer surface, or CORTEX, made of “gray matter” www.laskerfoundation.org The cerebral cortex p. 281 : 24 The cerebral cortex p. 281 is divided into parts called lobes: the frontal lobe the parietal lobe the temporal lobe the occipital lobe www.colorado.edu The frontal lobe p. 282 : 25 The frontal lobe p. 282 is the center for voluntary movement is called the “motor area” (movement) includes the prefrontal area, for intelligence, creativity, memory, and ideas. The parietal lobe p. 282 : 26 The parietal lobe p. 282 Collects, recognizes, and organizes sensations: feelings of pain temperature touch position movement The temporal lobe p. 282 : 27 The temporal lobe p. 282 processes auditory (hearing) information stores auditory (hearing) and visual (seeing) memories includes Broca’s speech area The occipital lobe p. 282 : 28 The occipital lobe p. 282 is at the back of the cerebral hemisphere involves vision visual memory eye movements Side to side? p. 282 : 29 Side to side? p. 282 - The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body! The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body! The limbic system : 30 The limbic system controls emotions and memory The limbic system p. 282 controls emotions and memory Cerebrospinal fluid p 282-283 : 31 Cerebrospinal fluid p 282-283 Cerebrospinal fluid: watery liquid is found inside the brain, spinal cord, and subarachnoid space supports the brain’s weight protects and cushions the brain and the spinal cord PNS: Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 282-287 : 32 PNS: Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 282-287 Includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord cranial nerves: 12 pairs of nerves connected directly to the brain spinal nerves: 31 pairs of nerves connected to the spinal cord Nerve Pathways p. 287 : 33 Nerve Pathways p. 287 Somatic (body) motor pathways carry impulses from the CNS (central nervous system) to skeletal muscles pyramidal pathways carry impulses that control voluntary actions that involve thought extrapyramidal pathways carry impulses that control automatic movements, such as walking Reflexes p. 287 : 34 Reflexes p. 287 A reflex is an action that: occurs below the brain, within in the spinal cord is an automatic reaction is not conscious (voluntary) can be inborn (a baby has it at birth, such as sucking, swallowing, urinating) can be learned (such as talking,walking, driving) More reflexes p. 287 : 35 More reflexes p. 287 INBORN knee jerk reflex pupillary reflex Babinski swallowing coughing blinking LEARNED reading typing swimming dancing skating playing football Important reflexes p. 287 : 36 Important reflexes p. 287 knee jerk: lower leg jerks when knee is tapped Babinski: toes curl up when sole of foot is stroked pupillary: pupils of eyes contract in bright light The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 287 : 37 The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 287 controls involuntary, smooth, and cardiac (heart) muscles and glands. systems that work automatically: digestive, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, and endocrine. The Autonomic Nervous System : 38 The Autonomic Nervous System has two parts the sympathetic system the parasympathetic system These parts work together to maintain homeostasis: normal balance of the systems in the body. (More information on pg. 288) Related Terms: parts of the Nervous Systemp. 289 : 39 Related Terms: parts of the Nervous Systemp. 289 central nervous system peripheral nervous system autonomic system Related Terms: Central Nervous System(CNS) p. 289 : 40 Related Terms: Central Nervous System(CNS) p. 289 The part of the nervous system that includes: the brain the spinal cord Related Terms: Autonomic System p. 289 : 41 Related Terms: Autonomic System p. 289 part of the peripheral nervous system serves automatic systems cannot be controlled voluntarily includes: parasympathetic system peripheral system Related Terms: Peripheral System p. 289 : 42 Related Terms: Peripheral System p. 289 part of the nervous system includes nerves and ganglia outside the spinal cord and brain: cranial nerves spinal nerves autonomic nervous system Related Terms: Anatomy p. 289 – 290 : 43 Related Terms: Anatomy p. 289 – 290 cerebellum: second largest part of the brain cerebrum: largest part of the brain cerebral cortex: outer part of the cerebrum; contains gray matter cerebrospinal fluid: watery fluid in the brain and spinal cord convolution: fold in the surface of the cerebrum Related Terms: Anatomy p. 290 : 44 Related Terms: Anatomy p. 290 corpus callosum: connection between the two hemispheres (halves) of the cerebrum dura mater: membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord fissure: deep groove on the surface of the brain foramen magnum: hole in the back of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes Related Terms: anatomy p. 290 : 45 Related Terms: anatomy p. 290 hemisphere: either the right or the left side of the brain hippocampus: memory center of the brain, may be related to learning and memory problems lateral ventricle: open space in each hemisphere of the brain limbic system: the “emotional brain” Related terms: Anatomy p. 290 : 46 Related terms: Anatomy p. 290 lobes (parts) of the cerebrum occipital (in the back) frontal (in the front) temporal (on top) parietal (on the sides) Related terms: Anatomy p. 290 : 47 Related terms: Anatomy p. 290 medulla oblongata: posterior part of the brain connected to the spinal cord meninges: three membranes surrounding the central nervous system: dura mater pia mater arachnoid midbrain: upper part of the brainstem Related Terms: Spinal Nerves p. 291 : 48 Related Terms: Spinal Nerves p. 291 spinal cord: lowest part of the central nervous system (CNS); extends from the medulla oblongata to the base of the spine subarachnoid: space between the pia mater and the arachnoid subdural space: space between the dura mater and the arachnoid. Nerve Structures and Related Terms p. 291 : 49 Nerve Structures and Related Terms p. 291 myelinated nerves: nerves covered with white fatty material called myelin neuron: single nerve cell; has a cell body, axon, and dendrites neurotransmitters: chemicals that stimulate (start) or prohibit (prevent) the transmission of nervous impulses Nerve Structures and Related Terms p. 291 : 50 Nerve Structures and Related Terms p. 291 plexus: network of spinal nerves reflex: an action done without a person’s control, such as blinking sensory neurons: nerves that carry information from the sense organs to the spinal cord synapse: space between two neurons, across which an impulse is transmitted (passed) Related Terms: Cranial Nervesp. 292 : 51 Related Terms: Cranial Nervesp. 292 There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Here are a few of them: acoustic (also called auditory): hearing facial: facial muscles and taste olfactory: sense of smell Related Terms: More Cranial Nervesp. 292 : 52 Related Terms: More Cranial Nervesp. 292 opthalmic: forehead, nose, and eye optic: retina (back) of the eye trigeminal: eye and upper and lower jaws vagus: most of the trunk of the body Related Terms: Spinal Nervesp. 292 – 293 : 53 Related Terms: Spinal Nervesp. 292 – 293 There are many spinal nerves. Spinal nerves are identified by numbers and letters. C = A nerve connected to one of the cervical (neck) vertebrae T = A nerve connected to one of the thoracic (upper body) vertebrae L = A nerve connected to one of the lumbar ( middle body) vertebrae S = A nerve connected to one of the sciatic (lower body) vertebrae EX: L4 means the fourth lumbar vertebra Related Terms: Infectionsp. 294 : 54 Related Terms: Infectionsp. 294 encephalitis: inflammation of the brain herpes zoster: infection caused by herpes virus; characterized by small blisters on the skin; also called “shingles” meningitis: inflammation of the brain and meninges myelitis: inflammation of the spinal cord neuritis: inflammation of a nerve Related Terms: Infectionsp. 294 - 295 : 55 Related Terms: Infectionsp. 294 - 295 Poliomyelitis (“polio”): virus infection of the spinal cord, caused by a polio virus Polyneuritis: inflammation of a large number of spinal nerves at the same time Rabies: infection of the CNS and salivary glands, transmitted by animal bite Tetanus: acute bacterial infection caused by a bacterium found in soil, dust, or animal or human wastes Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 : 56 Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 hereditary: inherited from a parent congenital: a disorder a child has at birth developmental: a disorder that appears as a child grows Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 : 57 Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 anencephaly: congenital (a child is born with it) bones of cranium are defective brain and spinal cord do not develop cephalocele: part of the contents of the cranium protrude through a hole in the cranium Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 : 58 Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 epilepsy nervous system disorder inherited or the result of trauma (injury) patient may have convulsions of four types: grand mal petit mal psychomotor focal Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 : 59 Related Terms: Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, p. 295 hydrocephalus: enlarged head because of fluid accumulating inside the cranium meningocele: the meninges protrude (stick out) through a defect in the cranium or spine microcephaly: a baby is born with a very small head spina bifida: a baby is born with defective vertebrae Related Terms: Circulatory Disturbances, p. 297 : 60 Related Terms: Circulatory Disturbances, p. 297 cerebral hemorrhage: bleeding into the cerebrum CVA (cerebrovascular accident) also called stroke or apoplexy bleeding in the brain due to ruptured artery symptoms: headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion Related Terms: Circulatory Disturbances, p. 297 : 61 Related Terms: Circulatory Disturbances, p. 297 epidural hematoma: collection of blood outside the dura mater intracranial hemorrhage: bleeding inside the cranium subdural hemorrhage or hematoma: bleeding between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities, p. 297 : 62 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities, p. 297 Alzheimer’s disease: progressive brain disease, mainly of the elderly (people over 65) ALS (amytrophic lateral sclerosis): progressive nervous system disease of the spinal cord with muscle weakness and twitching. Aphasia: loss of the ability to speak or write Ataxia: loss of muscle coordination Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities, p. 297 : 63 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities, p. 297 Alzheimer’s disease: progressive brain disease, mainly of the elderly (people over 65) ALS (amytrophic lateral sclerosis): progressive nervous system disease of the spinal cord with muscle weakness and twitching. aphasia: loss of the ability to speak or write ataxia: loss of muscle coordination Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities,p. 297 - 298 : 64 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities,p. 297 - 298 aura: before an epileptic seizure, a patient sees, smells, hears, or feels something unusual. Bell’s palsy: weakness on one side of the face cerebral palsy: brain damage affecting control of muscles chorea: nervous disease with involuntary jerky movements. Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities, p. 298 : 65 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities, p. 298 coma: patient is unconscious, can’t be awakened delirium: patient has hallucinations, is excited, restless, and incoherent ( talking in an illogical way) dementia: brain deteriorates because of disease dyskinesia: patient’s movements are incomplete or uncontrolled, because of disease Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities p. 298 : 66 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities p. 298 dysphasia: patient doesn’t speak clearly hemiplegia: one side of the body is paralyzed Jacksonian seizures: seizures that start in a distant part of the body, such as the fingers, and spread towards the center of the body multiple sclerosis: progressive disorder of brain and spinal cord, starting early in life, resulting in tremors, lack of coordination, speech problems,etc. Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities p. 298 : 67 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities p. 298 narcolepsy: patient suddenly falls asleep neuralgia: pain in a nerve palsy: paralysis paralysis: loss of ability to move a part of the body paraplegia: paralysis of lower body and legs paresis: a form of paralysis Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities p. 298 - 299 : 68 Related Terms: Other Organic Abnormalities p. 298 - 299 Parkinson’s disease: nervous system disease of late life amnesia: loss of memory syncope: fainting Related Terms: Oncology, p. 299 : 69 Related Terms: Oncology, p. 299 glioma: any tumor (cancer) of the nervous system Surgical Procedures, p. 300 : 70 Surgical Procedures, p. 300 craniectomy: removing part of the skull cranioplasty: repairing the skull crainotomy: surgical opening of the skull lobectomy: removing a lobe of the brain lobotomy: cutting into the frontal lobe of the brain neuroplasty: repair of a nerve Laboratory tests, p. 301 : 71 Laboratory tests, p. 301 brain scan: using a scanner to diagnose defects of the brain cerebrospinal fluid tests: check for blood, infection,and other abnormalities echoencephalogram: using ultrasound to check the brain for abnormalities electroencephalogram (EEG) using a machine to check for abnormal electrical activity in the brain myelography: x-ray of the spinal cord Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 302 : 72 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 302 These diseases of the mind generally are not caused by physical abnormalities. alcoholic intoxication: confusion and amnesia caused by drinking alcohol (being “drunk”) delirium tremens: mental disturbance caused by drinking alcohol, with trembling, excitement, anxiety, hallucinations,and convulsions Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 302 : 73 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 302 anorexia nervosa: an eating disorder sometimes resulting in the patient starving to death; most patients are young females. antisocial personality disorder: patient behaves in a way that is not acceptable to society; for example, criminal or violent behavior Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 302 : 74 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 302 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a child or adolescent does poorly in school, is restless, has a short attention span, and is very active physically bulimia: deliberately vomiting after eating, to control weight dissociative disorder: a personality disease down syndrome: congenital mental retardation with physical symptoms Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303 : 75 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303 mania: extreme excitement mental retardation: below average intelligence paranoia: patient believes that people are trying to harm him posttraumatic stress disorder: emotional problems following a traumatic (harmful) event, such as war, rape, or crime Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303 : 76 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303 personality disorder: patient blames problems in relationships on other people. common types: paranoid schizoid antisocial passive-aggressive obsessive-compulsive Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303 : 77 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303 phobia: an unreasonable fear acrophobia: fear of heights agoraphobia: fear of open or crowded places claustrophobia: fear of closed-in places xenophobia: fear of strangers zoophobia: fear of a animal, or of animals in general Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303-304 : 78 Psychiatric (or Mental) Disordersp. 303-304 posttraumatic stress disorder: severe anxiety following a traumatic (frightening or harmful) event psychotic disorder: patient is out of touch with reality, confused, and cannot think properly substance abuse: patients are dependent on alcohol and/or drugs, and this interferes with their work or social lives Other Psychiatric Terms p. 304 : 79 Other Psychiatric Terms p. 304 amnesia: loss of memory analgesia: not being able to feel pain anesthesia: not feeling anything in a body part apathy: not feeling emotions asthenia: weakness autism: personality disorder that affects children Other Psychiatric Terms p. 304 - 305 : 80 Other Psychiatric Terms p. 304 - 305 catalepsy: muscles are rigid cyclothymic: switching between being very happy and very sad delusion: false belief or idea disorientation: confusion about time, place, and/or identity drug dependency: being addicted to or used to using drugs Other Psychiatric Termsp. 305 : 81 Other Psychiatric Termsp. 305 dyslexia: being unable to read well dysphoria: sadness or depression egocentric: self-centered empathy: the ability to understand how other people feel euphoria: feeling too happy, the opposite of dysphoria Other Psychiatric Termsp. 305 : 82 Other Psychiatric Termsp. 305 gay: homosexual (slang) hallucination: seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling, or tasting something that does not exist homosexuality: romantic attraction to people of the same sex hypnosis: induced condition of altered consciousness Other Psychiatric Termsp. 305 : 83 Other Psychiatric Termsp. 305 incest: sexual relations among close relatives inertia: not active insomnia: not able to sleep introverted: a person thinks about himself and doesn’t communicate much with other people Other Psychiatric Termsp. 306-307 : 84 Other Psychiatric Termsp. 306-307 malingering: pretending to be sick neurosis: mild psychiatric (mental) problem pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS): emotional distress before the start of menstruation psychogenic: illness came from psychological, rather than physical, disease psychosis: sever mental disorder; patient is out of touch with reality sadism: taking pleasure in hurting other people Psychiatric Treatmentp. 308 : 85 Psychiatric Treatmentp. 308 electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): electric shocks used to treat depression antianxiety drugs: tranquilizers, medicine that makes a person feel calmer psychotherapy: treatment for psychiatric disorders psychiatry: medical treatment for diseases of the mind and emotions tranquilizer: medicine that makes a person feel calmer

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts ...
Read more

Nervensystem – Wikipedia

Ein Nervensystem besteht aus vernetzten Nervenzellen sowie Gliazellen. Bei höheren Lebewesen besteht das Nervengewebe aus einem Neuronen-Netz, dessen ...
Read more

Nervensystem - DocCheck Flexikon

Englisch: nervous system. 1 Definition. Das Nervensystem ist der Teil des menschlichen Organismus, welcher der Reizwahrnehmung, der Reizverarbeitung und ...
Read more

Nervous System: Explore the Nerves with Interactive ...

The Human Nervous System – Interact with diagrams and descriptions of the nervous system anatomy of the human body, everything from the brain to nerve ...
Read more

Central nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is so named because ...
Read more

Nervous System: Facts, Function & Diseases

The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It ...
Read more

the nervous system - Estrella Mountain Community College

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Table of Contents. The Neuron | The Nerve Message | Nervous Systems | Peripheral Nervous System. Somatic Nervous System | Autonomic ...
Read more

Dr. Gumpert: Nervensystem - Medizin Online

Englisch: nervous system. ... Wird ein peripherer Nerv beschädigt, kommt es zu einer peripheren Lähmung, das bedeutet, dass ein Muskel ganz ausfällt.
Read more

Das vegetative Nervensystem - Onmeda.de

Allgemeines; Sympathikus, Parasympathikus und enterisches System; Weitere Informationen; Ob Atmung, Verdauung, Stoffwechsel oder Wasserhaushalt – all ...
Read more

Nerve Pain and Nerve Damage - WebMD: Neurological Symptoms

WebMD explains the causes, symptoms, and treatment of nerve pain and nerve damage. Skip to content. ... Learn how this disease affects the nervous system.
Read more