Neorev

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Published on February 24, 2008

Author: Flemel

Source: authorstream.com

Origins of Agriculture:  Origins of Agriculture humans as hunters and gatherers Until dominated by the environment constant movement the norm Living area ?:  Living area ? tropical areas: one sq.. mile per person colder climates: 20-30 sq. miles per person for 30 people: almost 1000 sq. miles life is “nasty, brutish, and short” Radical Change:  Radical Change the Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) radical change in the acquisition of food humans began to consciously produce food Neolithic differences:  Neolithic differences grinding stone tools more durable than flint or chert obtained food wholly or primarily by organized agriculture and/or animal husbandry rather than hunting and gathering Slide11:  Flaked stone Polished stone Most important change:  Most important change organized agriculture sedentary life-style based on farming a few simple crops for surplus When and Where?:  When and Where? Middle East about 10,000 B.C. near the end of the last ice age How did it happen?:  How did it happen? some single genius? accident? in human history: never underestimate stupidity and accident the genius is the one who figures out how to really screw up productively What did humans know?:  What did humans know? empirically aware of the natural cycle of plants? plants come from seeds? they need water and sunlight? same time, same place, each year? Why did it take so long?:  Why did it take so long? traditional explanation: no incentive hunter and gatherers maintain small populations infanticide, abortion, lactation taboos lacking stimulus for radical change? Problems and Advantages:  Problems and Advantages food supply is at the mercy of the elements food supply is more varied and healthy food supply requires less work to acquire nomadic lifestyle avoids disease Why the Shift?:  Why the Shift? end of the Ice Age: climate and environment change? population growth Alternative theories:  Alternative theories accident accident and stupidity accident and good luck Other reasons for slow change?:  Other reasons for slow change? number of plants suitable for domestication 3,000 of 200,000 plants are suitable depending on climate and local only 30 (or so) are of major importance Domestic plants? (sedentary agriculture):  Domestic plants? (sedentary agriculture) four grasses: wheat, maize, rice, sugar starches: potatoes, yam, manioc, banana legumes: lentils, peas. wetches, beans, peanuts, soybeans Domestic animals? (pastoralism):  Domestic animals? (pastoralism) not many and how exactly do you domesticate them, anyway? So why did people change?:  So why did people change? why leave a relatively casual hunting-and-gathering life for the seven-days-a-week life of a farmer forced to do so by climatic change? forced to do so by gradual (over the centuries) population growth ? accidental by-product of trade ? Advantages ?:  Advantages ? support more people per sq. mile security Change:  Change between 10,000 and 2,000 years ago most humans switched to organized agriculture in whole or in part Origins of early spread of agriculture:  Origins of early spread of agriculture Agriculture and Population Growth:  Agriculture and Population Growth Location: early origins:  Location: early origins Asia Minor Palestine Iranian Plateau Surplus Food and the Specialization of Labor:  Surplus Food and the Specialization of Labor Emergence of villages and towns Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük, Turkey, occupied 7250-5400 BCE Tremendous range of manufactured products Pottery, Jewelry, Textiles, Copper tools Development of crafts Slide32:  Catal Huyuk ca. 9,5000 B. C. Slide33:  House in Catal Huyuk Slide34:  Catal Huyuk: Their view Slide35:  The Boss? Location: later, large-scale:  Location: later, large-scale the Middle East China India Central America (eventually, but later still Early methods:  Early methods slash-and-burn incipient agriculture in the Middle East: from 9,500 B.C. to about 7,500 B.C. longer in the Western hemisphere Varieties of Agriculture:  Varieties of Agriculture Middle East: wheat, barley, the rye Africa: rice, millet Mediterranean: olive, barley, wheat, millet, grapes Iranian plateau and India: same as M. East China: rice Varieties of Agriculture: con’t:  Varieties of Agriculture: con’t N. America: beans, squash, maize C. America: beans, squash, maize, chili peppers, avocado, tomatoes, etc.. S. America: manioc, potatoes, sweet potatoes, Areas of unfavorable climate:  Areas of unfavorable climate stock raising pastoral nomads a variety of animals Impact of Agriculture:  Impact of Agriculture sedentary existence the Neolithic village Slide42:  Jarmo, Northern Iran, 6000 B.C. Slide43:  Abu Hureyra Northern Syria 9600 B.C. The mound Pit houses Slide44:  Neolithic house at Hassuna Slide45:  Hansa bowl Slide46:  Halaf Bowl Slide47:  The Great Tower Jericho southern Palestine ca. 9000 B.C. Slide48:  Wall painting from Jericho Low productivity:  Low productivity gradual awareness of types of soil fertilizer crop rotation Problems:  Problems poor harvests disease (human waste and garbage) relationships with pastoral nomads accurate measurement of time shortage of suitable land Life:  Life life expectancy: very low (lower ?) birth rates: high (because of predictable food) higher standard of living (We have Stuff!!) pottery, extra clothing and possessions textiles: from natural fibers Social Organization: Villages:  Social Organization: Villages nuclear family: man, woman, children extended family: two or more married couples and their children clans: groups of families tribes: inhabitants of the villages of a given region Extended Family:  Extended Family more suitable for village economic life more hands to work more efficient at planting and harvest more intensive labor Relations between men and women:  Relations between men and women egalitarian Catal Huyuk: women enjoyed equal status in agriculture and crafts higher status in religion? art: mother, then daughter, then son, then finally, father Development of Religion:  Development of Religion absolutely no explanation for any phenomena in the physical world causes the development of religion and magic,....... which are the same things (1) a method of explanation (2) a“technology” for control Religion:  Religion fertility specifically: fertility of women both directly and as metaphor for the world fertility figures Slide57:  Female fertility figure Neolithic age Slide58:  Female fertility figure Neolithic Age Slide59:  Stonehenge , Salisbury Plain England clock, calender, landing pad for alien spacecraft? Slide61:  shaman Slide62:  Newgrange, Ireland neolithic tomb ca. 3100 B.C. Slide63:  A dolmen. Ireland The Historical Period:  The Historical Period begins with the development of such communities Books to read:  Books to read Robert J. Wenke. Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind’s First Three Million Years Charles Keith Maisels. The Emergence of Civilization: From Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture, Cities, and the State in the Near East The Cambridge Ancient History: Prolegomena and Prehistory

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