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Negative expressions

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Information about Negative expressions
Education

Published on November 20, 2008

Author: dabreu

Source: slideshare.net

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Affirmative and negative expressions neither…nor  ni…ni     either…or o…o   nor  ni     or o   not yet  todavía no     already  ya   no longer ya no     still todavía, aún   neither tampoco     also también   never jamás     ever  alguna vez   never  nunca     always siempre   no one, none ninguno, -a     someone, some  alguno, -a   no one nadie     someone  alguien   nothing  nada     something  algo   Meaning in English Negative     Meaning in English Affirmative  

Expresiones Indefinidas y negativas Algo vs. Nada Algo something and nada nothing are invariable and refer to things and objects , cf.: Hay algo afuera. There is something outside. No hay nada en el refrigerador. There is nothing in the refrigerator. ... Alguien vs. Nadie Alguien "someone" and nadie "no one" are invariable and refer to people. When alguien, nadie, alguno and ninguno are direct objects, they must be preceded by the personal a when they refer to a person. Invité a alguien a salir. I asked someone out. No defiendo a nadie. I don't defend anybody. ...

Algo vs. Nada

Algo something and nada nothing are invariable and refer to things and objects , cf.:

Hay algo afuera. There is something outside.

No hay nada en el refrigerador. There is nothing in the refrigerator.

... Alguien vs. Nadie

Alguien "someone" and nadie "no one" are invariable and refer to people. When alguien, nadie, alguno and ninguno are direct objects, they must be preceded by the personal a when they refer to a person.

Invité a alguien a salir. I asked someone out.

No defiendo a nadie. I don't defend anybody.

...

Alguno vs. Ninguno Alguno "someone / some" and ninguno "no one / none" can refer to people or things . Furthermore, alguno and ninguno drop the final -o before masculine singular nouns (similarly, uno "one" shortens to un , and bueno "good" to buen ; Algún día venderemos millones. Some day we'll sell millions. Ningún producto está fallado. None of the products is damaged. NOTE: Ninguno is never used in a plural form. ... Alguna vez Alguna vez is equivalent to "ever". ¿Has diseñado alguna vez un logotipo? Have you ever designed a logo? ...

Alguno vs. Ninguno

Alguno "someone / some" and ninguno "no one / none" can refer to people or things . Furthermore, alguno and ninguno drop the final -o before masculine singular nouns (similarly, uno "one" shortens to un , and bueno "good" to buen ;

Algún día venderemos millones. Some day we'll sell millions.

Ningún producto está fallado. None of the products is damaged.

NOTE: Ninguno is never used in a plural form. ... Alguna vez

Alguna vez is equivalent to "ever".

¿Has diseñado alguna vez un logotipo?

Have you ever designed a logo?

...

The Use of Multiple Negative 1. Whenever the negative words nada, nadie, nunca, tampoco, jamás, follow the verb, no must precede the verb, which produces a multiple negative construction, cf.; No como nunca espinaca. I never eat spinach. 2. The negative word can be placed at the end of the sentence, cf.: No como espinaca nunca. I never eat spinach. When the negative word precedes the verb, the word no is not used, cf.: Nunca como espinaca. I never eat spinach.

The Use of Multiple Negative

1. Whenever the negative words nada, nadie, nunca, tampoco, jamás, follow the verb, no must precede the verb, which produces a multiple negative construction, cf.;

No como nunca espinaca. I never eat spinach.

2. The negative word can be placed at the end of the sentence, cf.:

No como espinaca nunca. I never eat spinach.

When the negative word precedes the verb, the word no is not used, cf.:

Nunca como espinaca. I never eat spinach.

Double No When the answer to a question is negative, the word no appears twice. It appears at the beginning of the sentence and also in front of the verb, cf.: -- ¿Abren ahora? -- No, no abrimos hasta las diez. -- Are you going to open now? -- No, we don't open until ten. NOTE: Usually the subject pronoun is omitted in the answer because the verb ending identifies the subject, as in the example above. ... Nunca jamás Nunca jamás "never ever / never again" is one of the strongest negative forms. Nunca jamás ganarán. They'll never ever win. ...

Double No

When the answer to a question is negative, the word no appears twice. It appears at the beginning of the sentence and also in front of the verb, cf.:

-- ¿Abren ahora?

-- No, no abrimos hasta las diez. -- Are you going to open now? -- No, we don't open until ten.

NOTE: Usually the subject pronoun is omitted in the answer because the verb ending identifies the subject, as in the example above. ... Nunca jamás

Nunca jamás "never ever / never again" is one of the strongest negative forms.

Nunca jamás ganarán. They'll never ever win.

...

Nunca más Nunca más is equivalent to "never again". Nunca más vi a Obama. I have not seen Obama ever again ... Jamás Jamás is used as a superlative and is equivalent to "ever". Este projecto es el más intenso que jamás he empredido. This project is the most intense that I have ever undertaken. ...

Nunca más

Nunca más is equivalent to "never again".

Nunca más vi a Obama. I have not seen Obama ever again

... Jamás

Jamás is used as a superlative and is equivalent to "ever".

Este projecto es el más intenso que jamás he empredido. This project is the most intense that I have ever undertaken.

...

También También "also / too" expresses the union of two affirmative sentences. Yo quiero comer; también ellos quieren comer. I want to eat; they want to eat too. Nosotros también ganamos la competencia. We also won the competition. ... Tampoco Tampoco means "neither" and is used to unite negative sentences, cf.: Alejandra no comió, y yo tampoco. Alexandra didn't eat and neither did I. ...

También

También "also / too" expresses the union of two affirmative sentences.

Yo quiero comer; también ellos quieren comer.

I want to eat; they want to eat too.

Nosotros también ganamos la competencia.

We also won the competition.

... Tampoco

Tampoco means "neither" and is used to unite negative sentences, cf.:

Alejandra no comió, y yo tampoco. Alexandra didn't eat and neither did I.

...

Ni ... ni Ni ... ni "neither ... nor" connects two negative constructions, cf.: No quiero ni comer ni beber. I don't want to eat or drink. ... Ni siquiera / No ... ni Ni siquiera and sometimes No ... ni are equivalent to "not even", cf.: Estefania ni siquiera me saludó. Stephanie did not even greet me. Rebeca no quiere ni saludarme. Rebecca doesn't even want to greet me.

Ni ... ni

Ni ... ni "neither ... nor" connects two negative constructions, cf.:

No quiero ni comer ni beber. I don't want to eat or drink.

... Ni siquiera / No ... ni

Ni siquiera and sometimes No ... ni are equivalent to "not even", cf.:

Estefania ni siquiera me saludó. Stephanie did not even greet me.

Rebeca no quiere ni saludarme. Rebecca doesn't even want to greet me.

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