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Need based nitrogen management

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Information about Need based nitrogen management
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Published on March 20, 2009

Author: bijaysingh

Source: authorstream.com

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Need based Nitrogen Management in Rice and Wheat : Need based Nitrogen Management in Rice and Wheat Bijay Singh ICAR National Professor Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana 141 004 Punjab INCREASING FOOD DEMAND : INCREASING FOOD DEMAND World population is increasing ~ 3%/year World food production increases ~ 2%/year 24,000 people die every day from hunger 90% of hunger-related deaths - due to chronic malnutrition only 10% - due to wars and famine (The Institute for Food and Development Policy) Role of crops and crop production : “The world’s most important renewable resource” ? Crop Production (Wittwer, 1998) What stands between people and starvation? ? Crops (Basra, 1998) 50% of calories and 60% of protein is supplied by ? Crops (Basra, 1998) Role of crops and crop production Nutrient management in Rice-Wheat cropping systems – some facts : Nutrient management in Rice-Wheat cropping systems – some facts Both rice and wheat are exhaustive feeders, and the double cropping system is heavily depleting the soil of its nutrient content A rice-wheat sequence that yields 7 t ha-1 of rice and 4 t ha-1 of wheat removes more than 300 kg N, 30 kg P, and 300 kg ha-1 K from the soil Nutrient management in Rice-Wheat cropping systems – some facts : Excessive application of nutrients, particularly N, or inefficient management means an economic loss to the farmer and can cause environmental problems While the subsidy structure may have accounted for excessive growth in fertilizer inputs to intensive rice-wheat systems, the farmers' current decisions on what can profitably be used in crop production may be guided more by fertilizer market prices. Nutrient management in Rice-Wheat cropping systems – some facts Nutrient management in Rice-Wheat cropping systems – some facts : Achieving sustainable high yields of crops requires increased flows of nutrients in the soil and large uptake by crop pants Efficient management of fertilizers implies that sustainable high yields are ensured and every effort is made to minimize losses of nitrogen to environment. There is no contradiction between these challenges Nutrient management in Rice-Wheat cropping systems – some facts Time trends of area and production of rice and wheat and fertilizer N consumption in India (FAI, 2005) : Time trends of area and production of rice and wheat and fertilizer N consumption in India (FAI, 2005) 6.6 times increase in fertilizer N consumption since 1975 Fertilizer N efficiency of food grain production (annual food grain production divided by annual fertilizer N application) during 1965 to 2004 in India (FAI, 2005) : Fertilizer N efficiency of food grain production (annual food grain production divided by annual fertilizer N application) during 1965 to 2004 in India (FAI, 2005) Slide 9: * Annual global cereal production divided by annual global application of N fertilizer Global trends in the N-Fertilization Efficiency of Crop Production* (FAO, 2001) Blanket fertilizer recommendations : Blanket fertilizer recommendations Current fertilizer recommendations for RWS in the IGP typically consist of ‘blanket’ recommendations with fixed rates and timings for large rice and wheat growing tracts Blanket recommendation have served the purpose very well by applying nutrient in right doses, at right time and following right method leading to enhanced nutrient use efficiency Blanket recommendations, however, cannot help increase nutrient use efficiency beyond a limit Blanket fertilizer recommendations : Large field-to-field variability of soil nutrient supply restricts efficient use of fertilizer when broad-based blanket recommendations for fertilizer are used And many a times, to ensure high yields, ignorant farmers apply fertilizer doses even higher than the blanket recommendations Blanket fertilizer recommendations Innovative fertilizer recommendations : Innovative fertilizer management has to integrate both preventive and corrective strategies to manage nutrients efficiently, sustain the soil resource base and increase the profitability of irrigated rice and wheat grown in the Indo-Gangetic plains Fertilizer use efficiency can be improved by applying fertilizer when it is needed the most Innovative fertilizer recommendations Congruence between N supply and demand : Congruence between N supply and demand Plants acquire N from the ‘available’ inorganic soil N pool (NH4+ and NO3-) The potential for N losses via all loss pathways is proportional to the amount of N in the available N pool at any point in time Optimizing yield and N use efficiency depends on matching the size of the available N pool to ‘immediate’ crop demand, without excess or deficiency, throughout the crop growth period Slide 16: Fertilizer recovery efficiency of rice after N topdressing at MT and PI Peng and Cassman (1998) Methods to improve timing and rate of N fertilizer in balance with N demand and N supply : Methods to improve timing and rate of N fertilizer in balance with N demand and N supply In-season soil testing for available N and/or plant tissue testing for N status Relatively expensive and requires access to public or commercial lab services Crop and soil simulation models None rigorously validated across soil types, environments, cropping systems, years Non-destructive measurement of crop N status Chlorophyll meter, Leaf Colour Charts, Remote sensing (NDVI) Slide 18: Real-time N management Leaf colour charts Optical sensors Chlorophyll meters Slide 19: Chlorophyll or SPAD Meter Leaf Color Chart - Simple and easy to use and inexpensive alternative to chlorophyll meter - Measures leaf color intensity which is related to leaf N status - Helps farmers determine the right time of N application The use of chlorophyll meter is based on the fact that rice leaf greenness is determined by N concentrations which in turn is correlated with rice yield . It displays a 3-digit SPAD value proportional to the amount of chlorophyll present in the leaf by measuring the transmittance of the leaf in two wavelengths (600-700 nm and 400-500 nm). Chlorophyll meter and LCC can be used to manage fertilizer N in two ways : Chlorophyll meter and LCC can be used to manage fertilizer N in two ways Real-time N management Fixed critical value Dynamic critical value Fixed time – adjustable N dose Real-time N management : Real-time N management Real-time N management : Real-time N management 2) Monitor leaf color Real time N management for rice using LCC already recommended to farmers in Punjab : Real time N management for rice using LCC already recommended to farmers in Punjab Apply a basal dose of 25 kg urea/acre at the last puddling. Match the colour of youngest fully expanded leaf (second from the top) of 10 randomly selected disease-free rice plants/hills from each field with the colour strips of the LCC every 7- 10 days starting from two weeks after transplanting of rice till initiation of flowering. Every time the greenness of 6 or more out of 10 leaves is less than the shade 4 on the LCC, top dress 25 kg urea/acre. Always compare colour of the leaf with LCC under shade of your body and around same time of the day, preferably by same person around 9-10 A.M. or 4-5 P.M. Need based nitrogen management using LCC holds good for all the prevalent rice varieties grown in all types of soils. Use LCC for applying nitrogen to rice also when amended with organic manures. LCC based fertilizer N management in rice : LCC based fertilizer N management in rice Slide 25: Evaluation of LCC based N management at 117 on-farm locations in Punjab Slide 26: Evaluation of leaf color chart (LCC) for N management for different rice varieties at on-farm locations during 2003 Real time N management in different rice cultivars in Punjab Real-time N management in rice using SPAD meter following sufficiency index or dynamic critical value approach : Real-time N management in rice using SPAD meter following sufficiency index or dynamic critical value approach †30 (45 at Los Banos) kg N ha-1 applied at transplanting, 30 kg N ha-1 applied whenever SPAD meter reading <90% of the fertilized reference. Total N applied: 90 kg N ha-1 at Ludhiana and 135 kg N ha-1 at Los Banos ‡Blanket fertilizer dose of 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 was applied in split doses at fixed timings at Ludhiana and Los Banos Fixed time – adjustable dose N management : Fixed time – adjustable dose N management LCC based N applications at fixed growth stages of rice at Gurdaspur : LCC based N applications at fixed growth stages of rice at Gurdaspur †40 kg N/ha at LCC<4 or 20 kg N/ha at LCC=4 at 42 and 56 DAT Fertilizer requirement can be better determined by considering both : Fertilizer requirement can be better determined by considering both Chlorophyll content and ? Biomass of the crop Chlorphyll meter and Leaf colour chart are wonderful gadgets for efficient management of N fertilizers BUT Slide 31: GreenSeekerTM N-Fertilizer Handheld Optical Sensor Optically estimates plant biomass, total nitrogen in the crop, and plant stress Can sample scan a crop (rice or wheat) Data can be used to calculate response index for added nitrogen fertilizer Holland sensor: 590±10 and 880±10 nm GreenSeeker sensor: 670±10 and 780±10 nm Slide 32: GreenSeekerTM Sensor Light Detection and Filtering Slide 33: Wavelength (nm) Reflectance (%) 0.25 0.5 Visible Near Infrared 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 500 600 700 1000 900 800 0.00 PhotosyntheticPotential Measure of living plant cell’s ability to reflect infrared light Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) : Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) In-Season Estimated Yield (INSEY) INSEY = NDVI / Days from planting to sensing, GDD>0 NDVI = (NIRref - Redref) / (NIRref + Redref) Managing fertilizer N using GreenSeeker optical sensor : Managing fertilizer N using GreenSeeker optical sensor v Predict “ Yield Potential” Mid-Season v Predict “Responsiveness to Applied N” v Project “N Uptake” Difference (Fertilized & Non fertilized) v Project “N Rate” Based on the Difference Slide 36: 2 Predict RI Predict YP0 Predict YPN based on RI Fertilizer N = (GNUPYPN –GNUPYP0)/0.5 3 4 1 2 3 4 Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm INSEY-grain yield relationships for wheat at Feekes 5/6 stage : INSEY-grain yield relationships for wheat at Feekes 5/6 stage INSEY-grain yield relationships for wheat at Feekes 7/8 stage : INSEY-grain yield relationships for wheat at Feekes 7/8 stage Evaluation of GreenSeeker based N management in wheat : Evaluation of GreenSeeker based N management in wheat * GreenSeeker guided N dose INSEY-grain yield relationship for rice at 42 DAT : INSEY-grain yield relationship for rice at 42 DAT INSEY-grain yield relationship for rice at 49 DAT : INSEY-grain yield relationship for rice at 49 DAT INSEY-grain yield relationship for rice at 56 DAT : INSEY-grain yield relationship for rice at 56 DAT Evaluation of GreenSeeker based N management in rice : Evaluation of GreenSeeker based N management in rice * GreenSeeker guided N dose Working out need-based fertilizer N applications to wheat at maximum tillering stage – the experimental setup : Working out need-based fertilizer N applications to wheat at maximum tillering stage – the experimental setup Relationship between grain yield of wheat with different basal+CRI N levels and SPAD values or INSEY values at MT stage : Relationship between grain yield of wheat with different basal+CRI N levels and SPAD values or INSEY values at MT stage Relationship between grain yield response of wheat to 30 kg N/ha applied at MT and SPAD values at MT : Relationship between grain yield response of wheat to 30 kg N/ha applied at MT and SPAD values at MT Conclusions : Conclusions Need based nitrogen management in rice and wheat is possible. Technologies already exist now These need to be fine tuned for different cultivars and situations Thanks! : Thanks!

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mamidisettivenkatesh@gmil.com | 01/12/14
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