NCECA 2014: Janice Chassier

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Published on April 25, 2014

Author: nceca

Source: slideshare.net

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Obvara Firing Technique: The History, Revival and Contemporary Development of an Ancient Eastern European Firing Technique

Obvara Pottery, what's that? Where did it come from and why did the ancient potters of Eastern Europe use this technique? What did the ancient potters create, and what are artists around the world currently using this technique for? Learn the basics and start your own exploration.

Obvara, an Eastern European Firing Technique The History, Preservation and Contemporary Development by Janice Chassier Sue Misfud Ulla Harju Jane Jermyn Daniil Pavelchuk Janice Chassier Janice Chassier

Classroom Teacher - 11 years Art Teacher - 10 years Graduate Student at Hood College - 8 years Closeup of Chickenpox, Janice Chassier Poppa Goose, Janice Chassier

What is the Obvara Firing Technique? Where did it originate? What is the history? What’s the story? Who uses this now, and what are they doing with it? Frick by Janice Chassier Frick by Janice Chassier Adult Swim by Janice Chassier Swimming Gosling by Janice Chassier

3 gallons of warm water 2 pounds of flour 1 tablespoon of sugar 2 pkg of yeast The Basic Process Make the solution 3 days prior to firing. Mix the solution daily.

Fire to 1800 degrees F 1000 degrees C Remove with tongs Bisque fire the work Submerge in Obvara solution Fine particles singe the clay Submerge in water To stop the burning The Basic Process Photos from Jane Jermyn

from Jane Jermyn’s Facebook page Images by Metin Erturk

Screen shot of Facebook page Independent Study

Belarusian Pottery Pottery is one of the most ancient crafts on Earth. It was practiced in the lands which are currently known as Belarus from the pre-historic times. The slavic tribes has started to settle here since VII century assimilating baltic tribes that were populating these lands before - Yatviangians, Lits etc. Thus Belarusian ceramic tradition is Slavic and Baltic in its origin. The potter's wheel has appeared in our lands in X century. Before it all ceramics was hand plastered. Hand plastering technique has survived in Paniamonnie (Litvanian lands in the basin of the Nioman river) to these days. "Hartavanaia" or "abvarnaia" ceramics was made when the hot ceramics straight from the oven was immersed into special liquid - "abvara". This was done to minimize porosity of the ceramics. Depending on the recipe of "abvara" the resulting ceramics looked as light brown with dark brown or black spots. That is why it is also sometimes referred as "Rabaia" (Engl.: "spotted"). "Abvara - is a solution ("bautuha") for tempering red hot clay ceramics straight out of the oven. Other local names are "padzhoha" and "pazhoha" (A.A. - both words have roots "burn"). It was made out of rare solution of rye and wheat flower in water, often with addition of beet juice or sour kraut juice, mixed in flux or hemp "trasta" (A.A. - left over mass of crushed blended seeds after squeezing out flux and hemp oil out of it), powdered wooden coals, chimney ashes. In XIX- early XX centuries - it was used mainly by village pot makers of Northern and Central Belarus". Such ceramics is still made in the village of Hanevichi (Kleck region). http://www.belarusguide.com/culture1/visual_arts/Pottery.html

Sergey Zatsarensky Ceramic Technologist-South Russian University Painter on porcelain & earthenware Was a shaper, pattern maker, now free artist Daniil Pavelchuk Master Artist in Obvara Evgeny Pakhtusov Doing Obvara 3 yrs. Vitaly Shepelevich Master Artist in Obvara Ivan Dashkoy Master Artist in Obvara All screen shots from vk.com

Sergey Zatsarensky Ceramic Technologist-South Russian University Painter on porcelain & earthenware Was a shaper, pattern maker, now free artist Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Perhaps started by accident. Hot pot falls from the oven into the waste water container Like Kitchen Recipes Different kitchens - Different ingredients - boiled water from potatoes, old milk, beet juice, saurkraut, crushed plants from milling Early Obvara used medicinal herbs, spices, yeast Rural magic - maintain good health and wealth

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Sergey Zatsarensky Ceramic Technologist-South Russian University Painter on porcelain & earthenware Was a shaper, pattern maker, now free artist Obvara found in craft fairs...no censorship 1960’s Folk Arts began to flourish in Russia ...as did Obvara Obvara is popular, it is affordable, green, with a touch of culture Shared a news video with me. I needed a translator.

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Sergey Zatsarensky Ceramic Technologist-South Russian University Painter on porcelain & earthenware Was a shaper, pattern maker, now free artist Obvara is in museums and vaults in Moscow & St. Petersburg...as part of history Obvara NOT taken seriously in Russia Rare to see in Art Exhibits or Galleries Insight to Life in Russia “People do not have time for art; they are too busy making a living.”

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, Sergey Zatsarensky Ceramic Technologist-South Russian University Painter on porcelain & earthenware Was a shaper, pattern maker, now free artist Sergey Suggests Experimentation Try organic additives bran, husks, seeds, straw tea leaves anything that will prompt the imagination Diversify the decor Try milk or yogurt If all else fails - have a beer and include one in solution

Pottery by Vitaly Shepelvich Photo by artist, vk.com Few Masters left Secrets may never be revealed Tradition of Obvara almost forgotten with newer technologies of glazed ceramics

Daniil Pavelchuk Master Artist in Obvara Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist,

Daniil Pavelchuk states, “Obvara comes back to us from ancient times, bringing into our homes the ancient secrets of health and longevity. There is an inextricable link between man and their traditions, and the creativity and the power of our land.” Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Consistent “eye” Pattern

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Simple, traditional forms

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Used different colored clays

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Protects pottery with bees wax.

Pottery may be by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com Posted by Daniil, not sure if it is his work. Pattern is different.

Vitaly Shepelevich Master Artist in Obvara Pottery by Vitaly Shepelvich, Photo by artist, vk.com

Pottery by Vitaly Shepelvich, Photo by artist, vk.com

Ivan Dashkoy Master Artist in Obvara Pottery by Ivan Dashkoy, Photo by artist, vk.com

Pottery by Ivan Dashkoy, Photo by artist, vk.com Ivan Dashkoy Master Artist in Obvara

Evgeny Pakhtusov Doing Obvara 3 yrs. Pottery by Evgeny Pakhtusov, Photo by artist, vk.com

Evgeny Pakhtusov Doing Obvara 3 yrs. Pottery by Evgeny Pakhtusov, Photo by artist, vk.com

Pottery by Evgeny Pakhtusov, Photo by artist, vk.com

Screen Shot of website www.gonchar29.narod.ru/index.html Ivan from vk.com guided me to this website. Michael Sumilov produces black- polished ware. He has pages from Bobrinskiy’s book, giving the archeological proof of Obvara

About Old Russian Obvara Ceramics A.A.Bobrinsky The History I got this from Ivan Dashkoy http://www.gonchar29.narod.ru/page45.html Translated by Iryna Pastavalava Obvara widely used by village potters of Northern regions of Eastern Europe, first 30 yrs. of 20th century Tells the process - hot pot in special liquid - Obvara Assume practiced in ancient Russia Exterior coloring similar to medieval ceramics Yet...No Direct Archaeological Proof Opinion that Obvara increased durability and raise water resistance Two components needed for Obvara warm water & flour rye & oat flour....article lists the areas barley... article lists the areas flax seed added - ground and sieved in with flour Potters prefer flour from germinated seeds like to make malt for beer 18-22 oz flour bucket of water some use denser solution

Obvara by modern potters (Mylnikova village in the Pskov region) Pulling red hot pots from the oven with pole. I got this from Ivan Dashkoy http://www.gonchar29.narod.ru/page45.html Translated by Iryna Pastavalava

Evidence from ethnographic & archeological sources Wooden Tools found 60”-78” long 23”-27” long 15”-19” long 3-5 cm diameter charred end - or two ends Goes by many names-depending on region Wooden Pliers 15”-19” long 2-4cm Discusses how the tools were used During excavations-drew no attention Purpose unknown I got this from Ivan Dashkoy http://www.gonchar29.narod.ru/page45.html Translated by Iryna Pastavalava

I got this from Ivan Dashkoy http://www.gonchar29.narod.ru/page45.html Translated by Iryna Pastavalava

I got this from Ivan Dashkoy http://www.gonchar29.narod.ru/page45.html Translated by Iryna Pastavalava Bobrinskiy cited book: Peasants’ Food and Beverages as Well as the Ritual Beliefs Believed Obvara practiced by house wives Tradition in Ukraine in 19th century *Introduce new pot to home Wash inside and out Sift rye flour in it Make a paste and spread on pottery In heated oven overnight, then made soup Peasants had similar practices *Heat a pot in the oven Cover it with a flour/water paste. Let cool-Mark it with a cross Widespread belief that dark patterns in Obvara dishes gave an abundance of food. More cream, more cereal

Screen Shot of website www.gonchar29.narod.ru/index.html Michael Sumilov produces black- polished ware He speaks of the care and maintenance of his wares and Obvara ware HOW TO USE THIS POTTERY Porous...yet intended for kitchen use Pots do not like uneven heating Wood stove-Suggests where to place it in the Russian wood stove (burn coals down, push coals to the side) Electric ovens-have uniform heat Gas- Equip with a lower divider to prevent contact with the naked flame/coals Dishes will serve you a long time if you follow the rules TO CLEAN No modern detergents - they will be absorbed in the dish Presoak in hot water 15-20 minutes Wipe with a baby soap Frequent use and hot oven support healthy state for pottery

http://teapot.su Iryna, my translator found this site.

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com info from http://teapot.su Foods roasted without adding oils...preserving natural, nutritional values Absorbs moisture so baked goods have a delicious crusty top

Pottery by Daniil Pavelchuk Photo by artist, vk.com info from http://teapot.su Because its porous, people know that each dish was for one kind of food No cross contamination

Essential - Burn off pot to eliminate odors and bacteria Pottery by Evgeny Pakhtusov, photo by artist, vk.com info from http://teapot.su

Pottery by Evgeny Pakhtusov, photo by artist, vk.com info from http://teapot.su Obvara ware used to preserve grains and flour no bugs in obvara ware preserved the temperature of foods milk stays cooler roasted food warm longer

Master potters have rounded patches of natural colors, resembling eyes. According to Ancient Beliefs the eyes protect the food from evil spirits Food tastes better in this pottery The Magic of the “Eye” vk.com

Жыве БеларусьЖыве Беларусь БІБЛІЯТЭКА ГІСТАРЫЧНЫХ АРТЫКУЛАЎ АБ ПРАЕКЦЕ МАПА САЙТА СЯБРЫ КАНТАКТЫ ФОРУМ БАНЕРЫ Галоўная / Вучням і студэнтам / Археалогія Беларусі. Энцыклапедыя / А Абвара Н.І. Здановіч 25.10.2009 АБВАРА, рошчына на аснове пшанічнай ці жытняй мукі на вадзе ці з дабаўленнем бурачнага альбо капуснага расолу, якой абліваюць (ці апырскваюць) гарачую кераміку з мэтай яе хіміка-тэрмічнай апрацоўкі (загартоўвання). Гэта павялічвае трываласць і памяншае порыстасць чарапка глінянага кухоннага посуду, надае вырабам дэкаратыўную афарбоўку (плямы абвары розных памераў і формы ці яе пацёкі маюць колер ад цёмна-карычневага да чорнага). У некаторых мясцовасцях такая кераміка называлася "гартаваная", "рабая". Абвара вядома з 12 ст. па матэрыялах археалагічных раскопак на тэрыторыі Панямоння, Падзвіння, цэнтральнага рэгіёна Беларусі і Падняпроўя. Спадабаўся матэрыял? Падзяліцеся з сябрамі! Page from Ivan Obvara known since 12th century Excavations in Neman, Move, and central Belarus Mentioned not just flour, but also beet or cabbage fermented in water Solution sprayed poured or sprayed on Important to preserve the technique and the rich history of the area Ivan from vk.com gave me this site

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/about

Origins of Obvara Belarus-Hartavanaia or abvarnaia Estonia-Poripott Latvia-Hardened ceramics or blackened pots Lithuania-Sourdough or yeast pottery Russia-scalded ceramic, abvarnaia, seasoned, speckled, rabaia, padzhoha or pazhoha, Information from Baltic Raku http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku and Russian names through a variety of sources Five different countries - Each having their own language

Screen shot of

Screen shot from Ilona Sausa’s Report on Baltic Raku

Highlights from Ilona Sausa’s Report Latvian Library collections have only one book on Obvara Latavian Folk Art Article titled Pottery, by Feldman states that samples of Obvara found from 16th century National History Museum of Archaeology states Obvara only known through ethnographic sources. They have identified 7 vessels. Difficult to determine century of ceramics Organic content which comes from rye or oat flour requires expensive expertise Cheap porridge pots have never been prized

From Illona Screen shot from Ilona Sausa’s Report on Baltic Raku Screen shot from Ilona Sausa’s Report on Baltic Raku

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku Text

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku Text

Screen shot of

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku I will show many of the videos - with screen shots, to make it quicker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXXqt8C_up0

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXXqt8C_up0

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LIg738ueVU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LIg738ueVU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri2ib5iGuyM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri2ib5iGuyM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri2ib5iGuyM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri2ib5iGuyM

Screen shot of

Screen shot of

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku

Screen shot of http://www.balticraku.eu/en/balticraku

Screen shot of

Screen shot of Baltic Raku’s Facebook page

Jane Jermyn started her Facebook site in June 2012, after demonstrating at a craft fair and there was so much interest.

Screen shot from Facebook, Obvara Firing Technique Contemporary Development Over 1000 likes to date Text For many, it all started with this Facebook page, the page that was created by Jane Jermyn of Ireland. Jane Jermyn is responsible for the revival of Obvara in the Western World.

Places that Jane Jermyn has introduced Obvara Through workshops and her Facebook page

Jane Jermyn, not Obvara fired Pods. Jane Jermyn, Photos by artist Jane Jermyn, Obvara fired Jane Jermyn, Ireland

Jane Jermyn Sue Mifsud Jane Jermyn ran a series of workshops that Sue organized in Malta in 2010, one being Obvara firing. This is Sue’s pot that went into the 'mix'. It's a stoneware clay with a fine grog that was burnished at leather hard and biscuit fired to 980C. Pods. Jane Jermyn, Photos by artist Note the white edges

I am going to share with you the work of several artists that learned of Obvara from Jane Jermyn, through her workshops or her Facebook page.

Ulla Harju, Finland Ulla Harju, The Path Exhibit, Photo by

Ulla Harju, No Growth, Photo by artist

Ulla Harju, Enchantment, Photo by artist

Ulla Harju, Are They Blooming, Photo by artist

Ulla Harju, Press, Scan by

Ulla Harju, Treasure Boxes, Photo by artist

Judi Smith, New Zealand Obvara Birds, Judi Smith, photo by artist “Ceramists spend much time and effort perfecting a finish and then finalizing a glaze that can be repeated reliably which is necessary for making goods to sell. Obvara is random and each piece is unique... It is like a holiday or an escape adventure away from the constraints of production and consistency.”

Obvara Flowers, Judi Smith, photo by artist

Obvara Birds, Judi Smith, photo by artist

same mix, different affect... Obvara Birds, Judi Smith, photo by artist

Obvara Geese, Janice Chassier, photos by artist Janice Chassier, USA

Obvara Geese, Janice Chassier, photos by artist

Obvara Geese, Janice Chassier, photos by artist

Metin Erturk, Turkey 2013 - 8th International Muammer Caki Students Competition, the Prof. Dr. Cemeal CINGI Special Award, Metin Erturk, photos by artist

Closeup of Gourd, Metin Erturk, Photo by artist

Metin did a workshop at Hacettepe University Macsabal Symposium with Jane Jermyn Gourd, Metin Erturk, Photo by artist

Metin Erturk’s New Year 2013 Gourds for his friends. These gourds these are famous in Turkey for decoration in homes. I love that Metin took a form from his culture, added the simple black letters....to give a message, and then used the unpredictable process of Obvara. Organic form, organic firing process. Reminds me of a message in a bottle and a New Years gift. The New Year is always so unpredictable!

Gourd,s Metin Erturk, Photo by artist

Barba Niko Stembergar Zupan, Slovenia Obvara Slabs, Barba Niko Stembergar Zupan, Photo by artist

Obvara Slabs, Barba Niko Stembergar Zupan, Photo by artist

Jose Ramos, Portugal Obvara Form, Jose Ramos, photo by artist

Kelsey Schroeder, USA Vase, Kelsey Schroeder, Photo by artist

Vase, Kelsey Schroeder, Photo by artist

Chad & Kiesha Dykstra, USA Vases, Chad & Kiesha Dykstra, Photos by artist

Vases, Chad & Kiesha Dykstra, Photos by artist

Marcia Selsor-USA Marcia Selsor, USA Vessels, Marcia Selsor, Photos by artist

Vessels, Marcia Selsor, Photos by artist

Glazed Bowl, Cathi Newlin, Photos by artist Cathi Newlin, USA

Frog, Cathi Newlin, Photos by artist

Freeman Loughridge, USA Obvara Sculpture, Freeman Loughridge, photo by artist

Anna Couper, South Australia Obvara Sculptures, Anna Couper, photo by artist

Zlatko Bogetic, Turkey Obvara vessel and wall piece, Zlatko Bogetic, photos by artist

Mustafa Karakuş, Turkey Obvara Forms, Mustafa Karakus, photo by artist

Obvara Forms, Mustafa Karakus, photo by artist

Nadiya Miniakhmetova, who took part in the symposium in Belarus Nadiya Miniakhmetova, Russia

Sheep, Unknown Artist from symposium in Belarus

Found on vk.com, artist unknown

Found posted on vk.com Tatyana Savvateeva, Russia

Screen shot, You Tube, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0ON9-hBvGg

Screen shots, You Tube, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0ON9-hBvGg

Frick by Janice Chassier Frick by Janice Chassier Adult Swim by Janice Chassier Swimming Gosling by Janice Chassier Thanks to Iryna, my interpreter. I found Iryna by chance...through a tutoring site. With her assistance, the doors in Europe opened. Thanks to my family, who have labeled me the Hobbit, since I have gotten lost in the computer room. Thanks to Ann Hobart who saw a door to open, that I did not see. She has encouraged me to travel to uncharted territories. Thanks to Joyce Michaud,Program Director of Ceramic Arts at Hood College. Joyce approved this research. I wanted to research the history...Joyce wanted more - the history, preservation and contemporary development. With her high expectations, I have gone beyond what I believed was possible. thanks Thank you Maria Green Cowles, Dean of the Graduate School at Hood College for approving research funds and having excellent programs in studio ceramics. Hood offers an 18 credit certificate, the MA in Studio Ceramics and an MFA in Ceramic Arts. I am thankful for their programs. Closeup of Chickenpox by Janice Chassier

chassier4@comcast.net 856-305-7561 www.janicechassier.com

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