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NATSC 123- Weather and Climate

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Information about NATSC 123- Weather and Climate
Education

Published on October 1, 2008

Author: thefutureeducator

Source: authorstream.com

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Chapter 14: Weather and Climate : Chapter 14: Weather and Climate (NATSC 003 Report) Introduction : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 2 Introduction Weather and Climate affects our Earth’s atmosphere. Different phenomena occurs with regards to them. Sometimes, weather and climate are classified as the same because it has referred to as a change in atmospheric condition. But, what is really a WEATHER and a CLIMATE? Weather and Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 3 Weather and Climate Air Mass Cold, Warm and Occluded Fronts Stationary and Moving Fronts The Weatherman’s Tool Recording Weather A Storm Develops Formation and Movements of Storms Weather Causing Phenomena in the Philippines Types of Climate Climates in the Philippines Air Mass : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 4 Air Mass Air mass is the body of air that is carried by prevailing winds. It moves as a unit and it is really a body of air that moves. Air mass is large and extends for several kilometers. It’s homogeneous and it’s approximately the same amount of moisture. Air Mass : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 5 Air Mass Forms of Air Mass 1. Continental Air Mass 2. Maritime Air Mass 3. Polar Air Mass 4. Tropical Air Mass Origin and Characteristics of Air Masses : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 6 Origin and Characteristics of Air Masses Air Masses Are Classified by Region : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 7 Air Masses Are Classified by Region Fronts : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 8 Fronts Front is a boundary surface that separates air masses of different densities, one warmer and usually higher in moisture content than the other. It is also the boundary between a mass of warmer air and a mass of colder air. Type of Fronts : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 9 Type of Fronts 1. Cold Front -forms when a cold air mass pushes up a warm air mass ahead of it. Formation of a Cold Front : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 10 Formation of a Cold Front Type of Fronts : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 11 Type of Fronts 2. Warm Front -forms when warm air mass pushes cold air mass ahead of it. Formation of a Warm Front : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 12 Formation of a Warm Front Type of Fronts : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 13 Type of Fronts 3. Occluded Front -forms when a cold front overtakes a warm front and its able to lift the warm air mass. Formation of an Occluded Front : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 14 Formation of an Occluded Front Stationary and Moving Fronts : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 15 Stationary and Moving Fronts Stationary front occurs when the boundary between a cold air mass and a warm air mass is not moving. Moving fronts is already classified as the cold, warm, and occluded fronts. The Weatherman’s Tools : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 16 The Weatherman’s Tools The weatherman’s forecast is educated guesswork, based on the accurate observation obtained by man and machine. The weatherman, like any other professional, needs certain instruments to assist him in performing his work. Basic Weather Instruments : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 17 Basic Weather Instruments Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Wind Velocity Humidity Precipitation Clouds Temperature : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 18 Temperature 1. Thermometer -it measures the degree of hotness and coldness of a given substance. Temperature : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 19 Temperature 2. Thermograph -it records air temperature on graphing paper. It consists of a cylinder made to revolve once each week by means of clockworks inside. Atmospheric Pressure : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 20 Atmospheric Pressure 1. Mercury Barometer -made by filling a glass tube 32 in. long with a mercury and inverting it so that the open end of the tube is below the surface of mercury in a cistern. Atmospheric Pressure : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 21 Atmospheric Pressure 2. Aneroid Barometers -made by exhausting the air from a thin circular, metallic box. Atmospheric Pressure : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 22 Atmospheric Pressure 3. Barograph -it is a recording barometer and it is similar to a thermograph in construction. Wind Velocity : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 23 Wind Velocity 1. Wind Vane -it is used to indicate wind direction. Wind Velocity : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 24 Wind Velocity 2. Anemometer -it measures the wind speed and its made of propeller cups, which are rotated by the motion of the wind. Wind Velocity : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 25 Wind Velocity 3. Aerovane -it indicates both the wind direction and the wind speed or simply the wind velocity. It is shaped like an airplane minus the front and the tail wings. Humidity : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 26 Humidity 1. Psychrometer -it consists of a dry and wet-bulb thermometer which is use to measure relative humidity. Humidity : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 27 Humidity 2. Hair Hygrometer -it uses human hair fro which the oil has been removed by using ether. The hair becomes longer as the relative humidity of the air increases. Precipitation : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 28 Precipitation 1. Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge -it records air temperature on graphing paper. It consists of a cylinder made to revolve once each week by means of clockworks inside. Clouds : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 29 Clouds 1. Clinometer -it records the base height of the clouds. Special Weather Instruments : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 30 Special Weather Instruments 1. Pilot Balloon -it determine the speed and direction of winds at different levels of the atmosphere. Special Weather Instruments : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 31 Special Weather Instruments 2. Radiosonde -it is attached to the pilot balloon to measure pressure, temperature, and relative humidity in the upper air. Special Weather Instruments : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 32 Special Weather Instruments 3. Station Model -it is used by weatherman or meteorologist to forecast weather. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 33 Recording Local Weather Conditions How a Weather Forecast is Made? Step 1: Observation The meteorologist use his instincts to obtain weather forecasts. He also uses weather instruments to state a certain observation on the existing weather condition in a large area. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 34 Recording Local Weather Conditions How a Weather Forecast is Made? Step 2: Collection/ Transmission of Data These weather observations made by meteorologists are condensed into coded figures, symbols and numerals are transmitted to designated collection centers for further transmission to local forecasting centers. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 35 Recording Local Weather Conditions How a Weather Forecast is Made? Step 3: Plotting and Analysis of Data Upon receipt of data to forecasting centers, they are decoded and each set of observations is plotted in symbols on weather charts over respective areas in which they were taken. The meteorologist now analyzes every detail of the data. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 36 Recording Local Weather Conditions How a Weather Forecast is Made? Step 4: The Forecast From the analysis of the different charts and graphs, definite weather systems will appear such as areas of high and low pressure centers. Weather patterns are observed with the pressure centers. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 37 Recording Local Weather Conditions Terms used in Weather Forecast a. Fine Weather It designates a weather condition of few clouds and no rain. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 38 Recording Local Weather Conditions Terms used in Weather Forecast b. Fair Weather It states that clouds are present and may produce rain in scattered patches, but the greater portion of the day is sunny or without rain. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 39 Recording Local Weather Conditions Terms used in Weather Forecast c. Rainy Weather It refers to a condition in which rain occurs during a greater portion of the day but the winds are mostly light to moderate. Recording Local Weather Conditions : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 40 Recording Local Weather Conditions Terms used in Weather Forecast d. Stormy Weather It refers to a weather condition characterized by rains and strong winds. Storms : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 41 Storms Weatherman use the name vortex to describe a phenomenon in the atmosphere in which the wind blows around a low-pressure area. Whirlwinds or dust devils, tornadoes, waterspouts and typhoon all belong to the family of vortices. The typhoon is considered as the king of all vortices because it is largest in point of breadth and height and therefore the most destructive. Types of Vortices : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 42 Types of Vortices Dust Devils Waterspouts Typhoon Tornadoes Tropical Cyclone : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 43 Tropical Cyclone The term tropical cyclone or tropical storms are used to denote the bigger types of vortices characterized by a low pressure at the center with circular wind motion which blows counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in Southern Hemisphere. Tropical Cyclone : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 44 Tropical Cyclone Tropical storms includes: Formation of Storms in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 45 Formation of Storms in the Philippines Two regions of Formation: In the Pacific Ocean between the Philippines and the Caroline- Marianas Island. In the South China Sea between the Philippines and the Asiatic Mainland. Movements of Storms in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 46 Movements of Storms in the Philippines Two Directions: Storms that form from the East of the Philippines move towards the West-Northwest direction. Storms forming over the South China Sea usually move towards the North-Northeast direction. Factors that Affects the Formation of Storms : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 47 Factors that Affects the Formation of Storms A warm ocean surface with a sea temperature of at least 26 degrees Centigrade (26°). A thick layer of moist air which extends to a height of 3 kilometers or more. Sufficient latitude. Tropical storms cannot form at the equator, and rarely form within 5° of the equator. Weather : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 48 Weather Weather is a general condition of the atmosphere over a specified area within a brief period of time. Weather Causing Phenomena in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 49 Weather Causing Phenomena in the Philippines Rainfalls Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Monsoons Local Disturbances Rainfalls : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 50 Rainfalls Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 51 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) It is the region where the Northern Hemisphere trades meet the Southern Hemisphere trades. Monsoons : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 52 Monsoons Local Disturbances : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 53 Local Disturbances Thunderstorm -is a storm that generates lightning and thunder. Thunderstorms frequently produce gusty winds, heavy rain, and hail. -at any given time, there are an estimated 2000 thunderstorms in progress on Earth. The greatest number occur in the tropics where warmth, plentiful moisture, and instability are common atmospheric conditions. Stages in the Development of a Thunderstorm : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 54 Stages in the Development of a Thunderstorm Weather Modification : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 55 Weather Modification In the earliest times, people have used prayers, wizardry, dancing, and even black magic to change the weather. Today, man has attempted to modify weather but much of it is still experimental. Weather Modification : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 56 Weather Modification Weather Modification includes: 1. Cloud Seeding -is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Dry ice (solid CO2) and silver iodide are two agents used in cloud seeding. Cloud Seeding : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 57 Cloud Seeding Weather Modification : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 58 Weather Modification Weather Modification includes: 2. Frost Prevention -is the attempt to hinder frosting among crops by using devices like wind machines, heaters and sprinkling of warm water. Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 59 Climate is the average condition of the atmosphere over a long period of time. Climate General Types of Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 60 General Types of Climate 1. Tropical Climate -this kind of climate has the highest temperature. The average temperature during the coldest month does not go below 18°. General Types of Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 61 General Types of Climate 2. Polar Climate -this kind of climate has the coldest average temperature. The average temperature during its warmest month does not rise above 10°. General Types of Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 62 General Types of Climate 3. Temperate Climate -this kind of climate has the moderate temperature, that is, in between the average temperatures of the tropical and polar zones. General Types of Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 63 General Types of Climate Two kinds of air masses that affect the amount of precipitation/ rainfall an area will receive: Marine/ Oceanic Climate- maritime air masses are located near the bodies of water. More precipitation will receive within areas near bodies of water Continental Climate- continental air masses are found in these areas. Their climate is drier than the marine climate. Earth's Major Climate Zones : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 64 Earth's Major Climate Zones Factors Affecting Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 65 Factors Affecting Climate 1. Temperature Altitude- the higher the altitude, the colder the air within the area. Ocean Currents- Cool water will cool the air and warm water will warm the air. Factors Affecting Climate : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 66 Factors Affecting Climate 2. Moisture/ Precipitation Prevailing Winds- air that blows from water to land will have more moisture and air that blows from land to water will have less moisture. Mountain Ranges- mountains cause air to rise. As air rises, it cools and most of its moistures condenses, falling to the ground as precipitation. Climates in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 67 Climates in the Philippines The Philippines has a tropical marine climate dominated by a rainy season and a dry season. The summer monsoon brings heavy rains to most of the archipelago from May to October, whereas the winter monsoon brings cooler and drier air from December to February. Manila and most of the lowland areas are hot and dusty from March to May. Climates in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 68 Climates in the Philippines Even at this time, however, temperatures rarely rise above 37 °C. Mean annual sea-level temperatures rarely fall below 27 °C. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous east coast section of the country, but less than 1,000 millimeters in some of the sheltered valleys. Prevailing Wind System in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 69 Prevailing Wind System in the Philippines Northeast Monsoons (hanging amihan) which prevail from months of November to February. Southwest Monsoons (hanging habagat) which prevail from the months of July, August, and September Trade winds which is the prevailing wing over the tropics. It prevails during the rest of the year and whenever the Northeast and Southwest monsoons are weak. They generally comes from the East. Climatic Types in the Philippines : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 70 Climatic Types in the Philippines End of Report : NATSC 003 Weather and Climate 71 End of Report

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