Published on March 18, 2014
History Definition Acculturation Poverty & Economic Concerns History of Oppression Language & the Arts Racism & Prejudice Sociopolitical Factors Child-Rearing Practices Sexual Intercourse Religious Practices Family Structure & Dynamics Cultural Values & Attitudes Implications Native American Indians
Native Americans Indians throughout America found themselves virtually stripped of their cultural identities and relegated to land unwanted by Whites. Believed: Native Americans Indians migrated from Asia over a land bridge at the Bering Strait during a recent ice age, sometime about 20,000 to 27,000 years ago. History
Amerind or Amerindian has been used to designate the 2.5 million nomadic people who lived in the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans. Historically, the name Indian was used, followed by American Indian, and more recently, Native American and Native American Indian. History
History Constitute less than 1% of the U.S. population, numbering 1.9 million in 1990. Population increased nearly 65% from 1980 to 1990. Geographically dispersed group speaks 150 tribal languages in 505 federally recognized & 365 state recognized tribal groups (BIA, 1988).
History Largest Tribe Navajos of Arizona Navajos of New Mexico (approximately 160,000) Smallest Tribe Chumash of California Modocs of Oklahoma (fewer than 100)
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) (1998) defines a Native American Indian as a person who is a registered or enrolled member of a federally recognized tribe or whose blood quantum is one fourth or more Indian, genealogically derived, and who can legally demonstrate that fact to the BIA. BIA makes Native American Indians the only LEGALLY defined ethnic group living in the U.S. Definition
Despite the assault by the overarching dominant U.S. culture on Native American Indian life, many Native American Indians have not become acculturated. The clash of cultures has caused many Native American Indians to experience a general lack of self-confidence and a sense of helplessness. Acculturation 10/17/2012
The dominant culture has forced Native American Indians to become intimate with the concept of poverty. Suffers in: Employment, Education, Income, and Health. Unemployment, poverty, and lack of education are all symptoms of the cultural alienation that Native American Indians experience when trying to live in a dominant culture. Poverty & Economic Concerns
Native American Indians have a long history of oppression at the hands of European settlers. Early 1524, Indians were seized by European settlers and sold as slaves in the West Indies; in additionally, expected to adhere to European standards of conduct, cultural values. Continual of Oppression: Native American Indians was given land that was believed to be useless. History of Oppression
Rich heritage in NONVERBAL Language, such as using: body language, eye movement, silence, and tone of voice. 300 Tribal languages. The Cherokee were the only tribe to develop written language. Holistic lifestyle is reflected in their arts, such as: tradition of music, dance, and crafts. (Religious Values) Language & the Arts 10/17/2012
Manifest Destiny The Loss of Native American Indians’ citizenship rights of voting. Bearing arms under the 1835 North Carolina state constitution. Relocation of Native American Indians under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Racism & Prejudice
Most Tribes ruled by Chiefs with matriarchal lines of succession. The Red Power movement: put more power into the hands of Native American Indians, through three (3) organizations: the National Indian Youth Council, the National Congress of American Indians, and the American Indian Movement. Sociopolitical Factors
Children are reared by the extended family, clan or tribe, with grandparents and other elders usually responsible for teaching children. Rarely discipline unless real danger exist. Indian parents are generally permissive in their training. Child-Rearing Practices
Sex is treated as a part of the natural process of life. Facts surrounding sexual intercourse are understood at an early age. Premarital sexual experiences are common in most Indian villages. No stigma attached to child(ren) born out of wedlock. Sexual Intercourse
Religion is the UNIVERSE. Four (4) valued objects: God, Self, Others, and World. Medicine men or Shamans are religious men, considered priests for the tribes. Dance, Art, and Ceremonial festivals are linked to religious beliefs. Religious Practices
Native Americans Indians believe in many gods or spirits, usually with one chief god or Great Spirit. Worship: Sun, Wind, Water, Fire, Thunder, and Lightning, as well as Animals. Some Native American Indians accepted and adopted Christianity along with their own beliefs. Religious Practices
Traditional Family form = Extended Family Clan = Basic Family Unit Female: traditionally responsible for and performed the duties necessary to preserve the “Social Organization”. Elders: responsible for educating children and the leadership in the tribe. Family Structure & Dynamics 10/17/2012
Strong Present-time Orientation. Time Consciousness defined by socially, rather than by the clock. Respect for age and for elders. Preference for cooperation over competition. Ethical concern for the natural world. Cultural Values & Attitudes
Three (3) reactions to White-dominated society: Bicultural, Traditional, and Marginal. Bicultural: emulate White pursuits. Traditional: distrust Whites in the dominant culture. Marginal: did not attempt to compete with the dominant culture. Implications
Thank you very much!!! References Locke, D., (1998). Increasing Multicultural Understanding. 2ed. pp.59-77. Native American Indians: SAGE Publications. Miracle-Josette Creighton
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