Nationalwatergrid28oct04

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Information about Nationalwatergrid28oct04

Published on August 22, 2007

Author: kalyan97

Source: slideshare.net

National Water Grid, Peninsular Water Grid Dr. S. Kalyanaraman Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank Sarasvati Nadi Research Centre 3 Temple Avenue, Srinagar Colony,Chennai 600015 [email_address] http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati Oct. 2004

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman

Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank

Sarasvati Nadi Research Centre

3 Temple Avenue, Srinagar Colony,Chennai 600015

[email_address]

http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati Oct. 2004

Inter-linking? Not an end in itself Needed: National Water Grid (Peninsular Grid) Potential for drinking water supplies to coastal towns/cities/industrial towns such as Tiruppur by desalination of sea-water Imperative of re-charging and sustaining ground-water tables, tank-networks Restoring kudi-maraamattu (Peoples’ self-help) Forestation of uplands (Sahyadri ranges) Sharing of scarcity? Needed National Water Grid, to bring Brahmaputra to Kanyakumari 7 Peninsular rivers: 45 mhm (rains) 8.75 lakh sq. km. (delta area) Brahmaputra: 53.7 mhm (glaciers) 1.94 lakh sq. km. (delta area) Potential for adding 11 m. ha. Under command area of irrigation (4.5 m. ha. directly through canal network; 6.5 m. ha. through tank network) Hydro-power generation: 2754 MW National Waterway, Peninsular component: 1,000 kms. Need for bringing waters from Hoganekal to the uplands of TN, Karnataka, Kerala Need for a contour canal on Sahyadri ranges (paralleling the Konkan Railway) Water management by peoples’ participation, designed as Peoples’ Project

Potential for drinking water supplies to coastal towns/cities/industrial towns such as Tiruppur by desalination of sea-water

Imperative of re-charging and sustaining ground-water tables, tank-networks

Restoring kudi-maraamattu (Peoples’ self-help)

Forestation of uplands (Sahyadri ranges)

Sharing of scarcity? Needed National Water Grid, to bring Brahmaputra to Kanyakumari

7 Peninsular rivers: 45 mhm (rains) 8.75 lakh sq. km. (delta area)

Brahmaputra: 53.7 mhm (glaciers) 1.94 lakh sq. km. (delta area)

Potential for adding 11 m. ha. Under command area of irrigation (4.5 m. ha. directly through canal network; 6.5 m. ha. through tank network)

Hydro-power generation: 2754 MW

National Waterway, Peninsular component: 1,000 kms.

Need for bringing waters from Hoganekal to the uplands of TN, Karnataka, Kerala

Need for a contour canal on Sahyadri ranges (paralleling the Konkan Railway)

Water management by peoples’ participation, designed as Peoples’ Project

Kerala watershed: water, water everywhere, not a drop to drink Desiccation of kulam-s surrounding each settlement Sand-mining on river run-offs Conversion of kulam-s into real estate plots and residencial areas; resultant depletion of the ground water table without provision for recharging groundwater Suggestions for watershed management Regulation of groundwater use, regulation of sand-mining on river beds Contour canals on Sahyadri ranges Traditional knowledge systems for eco-friendly water harvesting

Desiccation of kulam-s surrounding each settlement

Sand-mining on river run-offs

Conversion of kulam-s into real estate plots and residencial areas; resultant depletion of the ground water table without provision for recharging groundwater

Suggestions for watershed management

Regulation of groundwater use, regulation of sand-mining on river beds

Contour canals on Sahyadri ranges

Traditional knowledge systems for eco-friendly water harvesting

Grain problem of Bharat 2134 kg/ha yield: India; 4664 kg/ha yield: China 3 ton/ha 1 ton/ha 2.1 ton/ha 0.75 ton/ha Irrigated Unirrigated Productivity 175 m.ha. 90 m. ha. 22.6 m. ha. Irrig. area 400 m.t. 200 m.t. 65 m.t. Agri. Prod. 150 crores 100 crores 33 crores Population Vision 2020 2001 1951

Water Resources of Bharat Glaciers 1.725% Groundwater .775% Rivers, tanks, swamps .025% Sea water (7500 km. coastline) 97.475% Fresh water: Glaciers 68% Groundwater 31% Rivers, tanks, etc. 1% 70% water is used for agriculture

Glaciers 1.725%

Groundwater .775%

Rivers, tanks, swamps .025%

Sea water (7500 km. coastline) 97.475%

Fresh water:

Glaciers 68%

Groundwater 31%

Rivers, tanks, etc. 1%

70% water is used for agriculture

Interlinked tanks: satellite view

Cooler temperatures at higher elevations thoughout the globe

Glacial Inventory Glacial ice currently covers 10 percent (16 million km 2 ) of the earth's surface. To grow a glacier , annual snow accumulation must be greater than the annual summer melt. Most glaciers outside polar regions occur in mountains resulting from collisions between tectonic plates.

Water fetishism: water as a commodity Water shortages (rather than land shortage) are affecting growth in food production Ground-water tables in Tamilnadu have dropped 30 metres in 30 years, dangers of ingress of sea water , dangers of arsenic poisoning Need to maintain minimum flow levels in rivers Water has become a commodity, is more expensive than milk http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldsummit2002/earth/story/0,12342,777661,00.html Concepts of virtual water (Import water? Import food!)

Water shortages (rather than land shortage) are affecting growth in food production

Ground-water tables in Tamilnadu have dropped 30 metres in 30 years, dangers of ingress of sea water , dangers of arsenic poisoning

Need to maintain minimum flow levels in rivers

Water has become a commodity, is more expensive than milk

http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldsummit2002/earth/story/0,12342,777661,00.html

Concepts of virtual water (Import water? Import food!)

Rights Vs. Responsibilities Right to life = Right to Water Water Resource should be conserved and perpetual access to water ensured for people, for food production and for the environment Water as a resource to be conserved for future generations

Right to life = Right to Water

Water Resource should be conserved and perpetual access to water ensured

for people,

for food production and

for the environment

Water as a resource to be conserved for future generations

Water Grid vs. Power Grid Power Grid is a network -- When a consumer puts on an electric switch, power flows Source can be from any part of India, from hydro-, thermal-, nuclear-power Water Grid is a network -- When a consumer opens a water-tap or switches on a bore-pump, water flows Source can be from any part of India, from desalinated sea-water, from glaciers, from river run-offs, from swamps, from groundwater

Power Grid is a network --

When a consumer puts on an electric switch, power flows

Source can be from any part of India, from hydro-, thermal-, nuclear-power

Water Grid is a network --

When a consumer opens a water-tap or switches on a bore-pump, water flows

Source can be from any part of India, from desalinated sea-water, from glaciers, from river run-offs, from swamps, from groundwater

SEASONAL RAINFALL: JULY 2002 Drought Relief : Rs. 15000 crores p.a. Flood relief : Rs.30000 crores p.a. Avoiding these recurring expenses alone will justify the Grid investment

 

HIMALAYAN COMPONENT  It will have 14 Links  Construction of Dams on Tributaries of Ganga and Brahmaputra Rivers in India, Nepal & Bhutan  Linking of Brahmaputra and its Tributaries with Ganga and Ganga with Mahanadi Benefiting Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand & Orissa  Interlinking Canal Systems to Transfer Surplus Flows of Eastern Tributaries of Ganga to the West Benefiting U.P., Uttaranchal, Haryana, Rajasthan & Gujarat HIMALAYAN COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY) NEPAL BHUTAN

PENINSULAR COMPONENT  It will have 16 Links Transferring Mahanadi & Godavari Surpluses to Deficit Basins of Krishna, Pennar, Cauvery & Vaigai Benefiting Orissa, A.P., Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry (with 9 Link Canals) Lift Essential for Transfer of Water From Godavari to Krishna – Proposed in one of the above 9 Links (to lift 1,200 cumec over 116 m) PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)

PENINSULAR COMPONENT

 It will have 16 Links

Transferring Mahanadi &

Godavari Surpluses to Deficit

Basins of Krishna, Pennar,

Cauvery & Vaigai Benefiting

Orissa, A.P., Karnataka,

Tamil Nadu &

Pondicherry (with 9 Link

Canals)

Lift Essential for Transfer

of Water From Godavari to

Krishna – Proposed in one of

the above 9 Links (to lift 1,200

cumec over 116 m)

PENINSULAR COMPONENT Transferring Water From West Flowing Rivers of Western Ghats to the East to benefit Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Kerala  Transferring Water From Ken River to Betwa River to Benefit M.P. & U.P.  Inter linking Parbati, Kalisindh & Chambal rivers to benefit M.P. & Rajasthan Interlinking of West Flowing Rivers, North of Bombay & South of Tapi, to benefit Maharashtra & Gujarat PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)

PENINSULAR COMPONENT

Transferring Water From West Flowing Rivers of Western Ghats to the East to benefit Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Kerala

 Transferring Water From Ken River to Betwa River to Benefit M.P. & U.P.

 Inter linking Parbati,

Kalisindh & Chambal rivers to benefit M.P. & Rajasthan

Interlinking of West Flowing Rivers, North of Bombay & South of Tapi, to benefit Maharashtra & Gujarat

LINKS IDENTIFIED FOR PREPARATION OF FEASIBILITY REPORTS 1. Mahanadi (Manibhadra) – Godavari (Dowlaiswaram) 2. Godavari (Inchampalli) - Krishna (Nagarjunasagar) 3. Godavari (Inchampalli Low Dam) – Krishna (Nagarjunasagar Tail Pond) 4. Godavari (Polavaram) – Krishna (Vijayawada) 5. Krishna (Almatti) – Pennar 6. Krishna (Srisailam) – Pennar (Prodattur) PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)

7. Krishna (Nagarjunasagar) - Pennar (Somasila) 8. Pennar (Somasila) – Cauvery (Grand Anicut) 9. Cauvery (Kattalai) – Vaigai – Gundar 10. Ken – Betwa Link 11. Parbati – Kalisindh – Chambal 12. Par – Tapi – Narmada 13. Damanganga – Pinjal 14. Bedti – Varda 15. Netravati – Hemavati 16. Pamba – Achankovil – Vaippar PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)

BENEFITS FROM PENINSULR COMPONENT  13 Million Ha of Additional Irrigation  4,000 Mega Watt of Power Drought Mitigation to Some Extent in the States of A.P., Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & M.P. Flood Control to Some Extent in Mahanadi & Godavari basins PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)

BENEFITS FROM

PENINSULR COMPONENT

 13 Million Ha of

Additional Irrigation

 4,000 Mega Watt of

Power

Drought Mitigation to

Some Extent in the

States of A.P.,

Karnataka,

Tamil Nadu & M.P.

Flood Control to Some

Extent in Mahanadi &

Godavari basins

At the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project in Kalpakkam. S.R. Jayaraman, Project Engineer (Civil), is seen. Use of semi-permeable membrane and pressurised sea-water

At the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project in Kalpakkam. S.R. Jayaraman, Project Engineer (Civil), is seen.

Use of semi-permeable membrane and pressurised sea-water

Desalination using nuclear power Water is abundant on planet earth and in coastal cities of Bharat, with a long coastline of 7517 kms.; about 97.3 percent occurs as sea-water. “ Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has successfully developed technologies of Multi-stage Flash and Reverse Osmosis (MSF-RO) for desalination of water. The MSF and RO pilot plants set up by BARC have been operated to study operational parameters. A 6300 cubic metre/day combined MSF-RO Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant is to be set up at Kalpakam.” The cost of desalination will be 4.5 paise per litre of pure, distilled water. By using advanced techniques for use of permeable membranes, which can be developed indigenously, further efficiencies can be achieved. http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/powerrevolution1.htm

Water is abundant on planet earth and in coastal cities of Bharat, with a long coastline of 7517 kms.; about 97.3 percent occurs as sea-water.

“ Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has successfully developed technologies of Multi-stage Flash and Reverse Osmosis (MSF-RO) for desalination of water. The MSF and RO pilot plants set up by BARC have been operated to study operational parameters. A 6300 cubic metre/day combined MSF-RO Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant is to be set up at Kalpakam.” The cost of desalination will be 4.5 paise per litre of pure, distilled water. By using advanced techniques for use of permeable membranes, which can be developed indigenously, further efficiencies can be achieved.

http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/powerrevolution1.htm

National Water Grid Authority; Peninsular Grid, Regional and sub-regional Grids Autonomous, statutory bodies (like Konkan Railway Corpn.) Self-financing, with peoples’ participation Replace the River Board Act 1956 with Water Security Act enacted under Entry 56 of List I (Central List) because Control and development of a River Valley (Entry 56 List I) is integrally linked to the four major sources: glaciers, groundwater, run-offs and sea-water

Ecological, Social Issues, Peoples’ Participation Fragmentation of Water management Vacuum at peak; confusion at bottom Climate changes impact rivers People-centred water management, transparency issues 40% evaporation loss from reservoirs, canals With and without Grid: desalination, recycling of water Watering the land? Supplying water for growth of crops!

Fragmentation of Water management

Vacuum at peak; confusion at bottom

Climate changes impact rivers

People-centred water management, transparency issues

40% evaporation loss from reservoirs, canals

With and without Grid: desalination, recycling of water

Watering the land? Supplying water for growth of crops!

Flood control Positive impacts of Flood control Wildlife habitat management Greenways and trails Water Storage, Groundwater recharge Erosion and sediment control Sand and gravel deposits Problems to be addressed Pollution propagation Subsidence Glacial outbursts, floods Sea-level rise Episodic and chronic erosion

Positive impacts of Flood control

Wildlife habitat management

Greenways and trails

Water Storage, Groundwater recharge

Erosion and sediment control

Sand and gravel deposits

Problems to be addressed

Pollution propagation

Subsidence

Glacial outbursts, floods

Sea-level rise

Episodic and chronic erosion

Areas of eco-importance & Challenges Draining of Wetlands Avoidance of water-logging Land degradation; conversion of land for agriculture Ecological development institutional arrangements Introduction of exotic species of plants and animals Dredging for river navigation has exacerbated problems of river-bank erosion Challenges Use of natural resources to alleviate poverty, the greatest polluter Involving civil society on right levels; resettlement of people Incentives for cooperation Aquatic ecosystems, pushing out ingress of sea-water

Draining of Wetlands

Avoidance of water-logging

Land degradation; conversion of land for agriculture

Ecological development institutional arrangements

Introduction of exotic species of plants and animals

Dredging for river navigation has exacerbated problems of river-bank erosion

Challenges

Use of natural resources to alleviate poverty, the greatest polluter

Involving civil society on right levels; resettlement of people

Incentives for cooperation

Aquatic ecosystems, pushing out ingress of sea-water

Co-operation imperatives Co-operation with Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan Co-operation among States within Bharat Co-operation among Centre, States and Panchayats Co-operation between National Waterways and National Highways to minimise land-acquisition and bridge construction costs Conflict resolution and environmental impact analyses through arbitration procedures in-built with National Water Grid

Co-operation with Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan

Co-operation among States within Bharat

Co-operation among Centre, States and Panchayats

Co-operation between National Waterways and National Highways to minimise land-acquisition and bridge construction costs

Conflict resolution and environmental impact analyses through arbitration procedures in-built with National Water Grid

3-D Satellite radar topography *Superimpose GIS data, to expedite choice of optimal waterways *To monitor waterflows Available from NASA for the globe, 90m. resolution Blues and greens are lower elevations, rising through yellows and browns to white at the highest elevations.

Get on a bike, Bhagiratha, Gangaikonda Chola! 5000 engineering students on motorbikes to design alternative networks of the National Water Grid superimposing GIS data on 3-D Radar Topographs - from Brahmaputra to Kanyakumari - from Sharada River to Sabarmati River

Financial arrangements: options Konkan Railway model: Floating Mahanadi-Kaveri Bonds Distribution of 11 m. ha. (2.75 crore acres of land to 2.75 crore poor families); distribution of loans, pricing each acre at Rs. 25,000 this will fetch Rs. 69,000 crores from the financial system, to cover the cost of Peninsular Water Grid and the initial capital cost of Peninsular Grid Authority repayable over 20 years with 5 year grace period Rehabilitation of about 5 lakh people (or, 1 lakh families) Restoration of submerged forests (43000 ha) by afforestation in uplands Levy of cess for new irrigated lands Surcharge on fuel to fund the cost of canal- and tank-networks No need for foreign loans, no need for foreign technology, no need for Govt. budget support Finance Commission can be asked to study the financing arrangements to Panchayati Raj Institutions for maintaintenance and day-to-day operations of the Grid

Konkan Railway model: Floating Mahanadi-Kaveri Bonds

Distribution of 11 m. ha. (2.75 crore acres of land to 2.75 crore poor families);

distribution of loans, pricing each acre at Rs. 25,000

this will fetch Rs. 69,000 crores from the financial system, to cover the cost of Peninsular Water Grid and the initial capital cost of Peninsular Grid Authority

repayable over 20 years with 5 year grace period

Rehabilitation of about 5 lakh people (or, 1 lakh families)

Restoration of submerged forests (43000 ha) by afforestation in uplands

Levy of cess for new irrigated lands

Surcharge on fuel to fund the cost of canal- and tank-networks

No need for foreign loans, no need for foreign technology, no need for Govt. budget support

Finance Commission can be asked to study the financing arrangements to Panchayati Raj Institutions for maintaintenance and day-to-day operations of the Grid

Social Cost-Benefit Analysis: National Water Grid Increase in foodgrain production (Addl. 200 m.t.) Increase in forest cover from 19% to 33% Enhanced livelihood for 60% agricultural population 15000 kms. of National Water Way (Multiplier Economic effects) Savings in imported fossil fuels due to Water Way (Rs. 3,000 crores per annum) Social Cost avoidance Flood damages (Rs. 30,000 crores per annum) Drought relief (Rs. 15,000 crores per annum) Water-sharing disputes (denting national unity)

Increase in foodgrain production (Addl. 200 m.t.)

Increase in forest cover from 19% to 33%

Enhanced livelihood for 60% agricultural population

15000 kms. of National Water Way (Multiplier Economic effects)

Savings in imported fossil fuels due to Water Way (Rs. 3,000 crores per annum)

Social Cost avoidance

Flood damages (Rs. 30,000 crores per annum)

Drought relief (Rs. 15,000 crores per annum)

Water-sharing disputes (denting national unity)

Potential waterways GANGA: BETWEEN ALLAHABAD AND HALDIA (1620 KM.) BRAHMAPUTRA: BETWEEN SADIYA AND DHUBRI (891 KM.) WEST COAST CANAL, KERALA: BETWEEN KOLLAM AND KOTTAPPURAM (168KM.); CHAMPAKARA CANAL (14 KM.); UDYOGMANDAL CANAL (22 KM.) BUCKINGHAM CANAL SUNDERBANS BRAHMANI EAST COAST CANAL DVC CANAL

GANGA: BETWEEN ALLAHABAD AND HALDIA (1620 KM.)

BRAHMAPUTRA: BETWEEN SADIYA AND DHUBRI (891 KM.)

WEST COAST CANAL, KERALA: BETWEEN KOLLAM AND KOTTAPPURAM (168KM.); CHAMPAKARA CANAL (14 KM.); UDYOGMANDAL CANAL (22 KM.)

BUCKINGHAM CANAL

SUNDERBANS

BRAHMANI EAST COAST CANAL

DVC CANAL

National waterways of National water grid 14,500 KM. OF INLAND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS (2002) CANALS, BACKWATERS (KERALA), CREEKS, RIVERS (GANGA-BHAGIRATHI-HOOGHLY, BRAHMAPUTRA, BARAK, GODAVARI, KRISHNA RIVERS AND RIVERS IN GOA 3,700 KM. USE MECHANISED CRAFTS 18 M. TONNES CARGO

14,500 KM. OF INLAND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS (2002)

CANALS, BACKWATERS (KERALA), CREEKS, RIVERS (GANGA-BHAGIRATHI-HOOGHLY, BRAHMAPUTRA, BARAK, GODAVARI, KRISHNA RIVERS AND RIVERS IN GOA

3,700 KM. USE MECHANISED CRAFTS

18 M. TONNES CARGO

1760-1840 - The Canal Age in Britain 2000 Canal age dawns anew in UK The Waterways Trust was set up by the operator of the UK's 2,000-mile national canal network, British Waterways, but is now an independent charity. A Pickfords canal barge around 1800. .

A Pickfords canal barge around 1800.

There are multitudes of old native works in various parts of India . . . these are noble works, and show both boldness and engineering talent. They have said, we are a kind of civilised savages, wonderfully expert at fighting, but so inferior to their great men, that we would not even keep in repair the works they had constructed, much less even imitate them in extending the system . . . it was from the native Indians we learnt how to secure a foundation in loose sand of unmeasured depth. With this lesson about foundations, we built bridges, weirs, aqueducts and every kind of hydraulic work . . . we are thus deeply indebted to the native engineers. Sir Arthur Cotton Founder Modern Irrigation Programme,1784.

There are multitudes of old native works in various parts of India . . . these are noble works, and show both boldness and engineering talent.

They have said, we are a kind of civilised savages, wonderfully expert at fighting, but so inferior to their great men, that we would not even keep in repair the works they had constructed, much less even imitate them in extending the system . . . it was from the native Indians we learnt how to secure a foundation in loose sand of unmeasured depth.

With this lesson about foundations, we built bridges, weirs, aqueducts and every kind of hydraulic work . . . we are thus deeply indebted to the native engineers.

Sir Arthur Cotton

Founder Modern Irrigation Programme,1784.

Greening of the desert: Sarasvati Mahanadi Rupa Nahar, Mohangarh, 55 km. west of Jaisalmer, 40 ft. wide, 12 ft. deep (Feb. 2002)

Sarasvati River valley at Adi Badri (May 2004) Sarasvati Sarovar at Adi Badri (October 2004) Vedic herbal garden; water harvesting with 11 check-dams; afforestation

Great Water Tower for 250 crore people Himalaya is the source of major rivers for 2.5 billion people; Manasarovar in Tibet yields Sindhu, Sutlej, Sarasvati, Mahakali-Karnali-Sharada and Tsangpo-Lohitya-Brahmaputra rivers; other rivers flowing from eastern Himalaya are: Irawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yangtse and Huanghe. Precipitation levels increase along the Himalaya from Karakorm (250 cm. per annum) to Cherrapunjee, Assam (1410 cm p.a.) registering the highest rainfall regions of the world. Since 1959, Chinese government estimates that they have removed over $54 billion worth of timber.

Gangaikonda Chola, 11 th cent. Tribute of Ganga water into Chola ganga water tank

Kallanai, Grand Anicut: 2000 years’ old engineering marvel of Karikala Chola An engineering model which is also found in Southern Africa L-shaped Gabar bands on River Sindhu as Anicuts

An engineering model which is also found in Southern Africa

L-shaped Gabar bands on River Sindhu as Anicuts

Dholavira: Rock-cut reservoir The largest measures 263 feet by 39 feet and 24 feet in depth; reservoirs together held more than 325,000 cubic yards of water.

The largest measures 263 feet by 39 feet and 24 feet in depth; reservoirs together held more than 325,000 cubic yards of water.

A profile of a Gabarband, on river Hab. At Mehergarh Period II (Burj Basket Market period): "The charred seeds of wheat and barley belonging to the species triticum sphaerococcum and hordeum phaerococcum that, according to L. Costantini, grow only on irrigated fields, also were collected from the ashy layers" of P:eriod II (Jarrige, Jarrige, Meadow and Quivron, 1995, Mehrgarh: Field Reports 1974-1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus Civilization, Karachi, Department of Culture and Tourism of Sindh, Pakistan, Department of Archaeology and Museums, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 318-19)"

At Mehergarh Period II (Burj Basket Market period): "The charred seeds of wheat and barley belonging to the species triticum sphaerococcum and hordeum phaerococcum that, according to L. Costantini, grow only on irrigated fields, also were collected from the ashy layers" of P:eriod II (Jarrige, Jarrige, Meadow and Quivron, 1995, Mehrgarh: Field Reports 1974-1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus Civilization, Karachi, Department of Culture and Tourism of Sindh, Pakistan, Department of Archaeology and Museums, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 318-19)"

MOHENJODARO:PUSHKARINI, WITH STEPS & DRAIN Floor of the tank is water tight due to finely fitted bricks laid on edge with gypsum plaster and the side walls were constructed in a similar manner. To make the tank even more water tight, a thick layer of bitumen (natural tar) was laid along the sides of the tank.

Bhandara Khadin Johad Kere

Bhandara

Khadin

Johad

Kere

Kul Kuis Kund

Kul

Kuis

Kund

Naula Pat

Naula

Pat

Singaverapura, Allahabad

Singaverapura, Allahabad

The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra, Gujarat (Western India). According to Saka King Rudradaman I of 150 BCE a beautiful lake called 'Sudarshana' was constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya's time.

Adilaj Baoli, Ahmedabad Surangam: Kerala

WATER TEMPLES Panna Mia stepped-pond; Vasant Garh stepped-pond, Rajasthan; Rani-ki-vav, Patan, Gujarat Hadi Rani Well, Toda Raisingh, Rajasthan; Nimrana stepwell, Rajasthan Stepped well in S’iva vadi temple, Bikaner; Cistern, Nahgarh fort, Jaipur [After Morna Livingstone, Milo Beach, 2002, Steps to Water; The Ancient Stepwells of India . ]

WATER TEMPLES

Panna Mia stepped-pond; Vasant Garh stepped-pond, Rajasthan; Rani-ki-vav, Patan, Gujarat

Hadi Rani Well, Toda Raisingh, Rajasthan; Nimrana stepwell, Rajasthan

Stepped well in S’iva vadi temple, Bikaner; Cistern, Nahgarh fort, Jaipur [After Morna Livingstone, Milo Beach, 2002, Steps to Water; The Ancient Stepwells of India . ]

Major dams resulting in increase in irrigated area rom 22.6 mha (1951) to 90 mha (2001) [Sources: Bandyopadhyay J. and D. Gyawali, 1994, Himalayan Water Resources in: Mountain Research and Development 14 (1); Central Statistical Office, Royal Govt. of Bhutan, 1987, Statistical yearbook of Bhutan, Thimpu; UNDP, 1991, Bhutan. Development Cooperation Report, 1990, New York]. Constraints with dams: tectonic impact; generation of electricity remote from beneficiaries; silting reduces life-span of dams; resettlement of people; shifts in transportation routes.

 

Water Security is integrally linked to Gender equality (35% of India’s population is less than 15 years of age: 2001 census) Women in the workforce: girls should go to school, that should be our Sarasvati Vandana This will happen when water is available at the turn of a tap or turn of a bore-pump-switch (water + energy = Bharat Vision 2020)

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