advertisement

Nationalist China and Democracy in Japan

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Nationalist China and Democracy in Japan

Published on April 3, 2008

Author: vtucker

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Developments in Nationalist China, the rise of Communism in China, and Japan's era of transformation from Taisho democracy to growing militarism.
advertisement

Nationalism in China & Japan

I. Appeal of Communism in Asia Many in Asia felt that Marxism was irrelevant b/c it was based on an overthrowing of capitalism and they supported nationalism and religion Lenin and the Bolshevik rise to power proved to Asians that a corrupt system could be overthrown and replaced by a Marxism

Many in Asia felt that Marxism was irrelevant b/c it was based on an overthrowing of capitalism and they supported nationalism and religion

Lenin and the Bolshevik rise to power proved to Asians that a corrupt system could be overthrown and replaced by a Marxism

I. Appeal of Communism in Asia 1920, Lenin began a program of spreading Communism to non-Western countries Remove colonies from capitalist powers to weaken imperialist power – raw resources/material goods kept capitalism alive Many of the nationalist leaders in colonial countries were against possible egalitarianism Working with nationalists, Communist parties established with help of nationalist & middle-class - overthrow capitalist imperialist powers and traditional leaders– afterwards Communists takes power

1920, Lenin began a program of spreading Communism to non-Western countries

Remove colonies from capitalist powers to weaken imperialist power – raw resources/material goods kept capitalism alive

Many of the nationalist leaders in colonial countries were against possible egalitarianism

Working with nationalists, Communist parties established with help of nationalist & middle-class - overthrow capitalist imperialist powers and traditional leaders– afterwards Communists takes power

I. Appeal of Communism in Asia 1919- Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, to spread Communism – trained agents from around the world and then sent them back to their countries Lower middle class/intellectuals attracted to Communism - felt Marxism could modernize society and remove the colonial powers, and provided a “here and now” secular ideology – many tried to adapt it to traditional thinking

1919- Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, to spread Communism – trained agents from around the world and then sent them back to their countries

Lower middle class/intellectuals attracted to Communism - felt Marxism could modernize society and remove the colonial powers, and provided a “here and now” secular ideology – many tried to adapt it to traditional thinking

II. China After Sun Yat-Sen’s failed Revolution of 1911, the president of the new Chinese republic was Yuan Shikai, a man who had the support of the military – Yuan was a dictator Yuan Shikai and Sun’s party, the Guomingdang (Nationalist Party) split – Nationalists launched a failed rebellion

After Sun Yat-Sen’s failed Revolution of 1911, the president of the new Chinese republic was Yuan Shikai, a man who had the support of the military – Yuan was a dictator

Yuan Shikai and Sun’s party, the Guomingdang (Nationalist Party) split – Nationalists launched a failed rebellion

Primary Source: Yuan Shikai

II. China Peking University intellectuals studied Western models and writers because they believed that change could not come until Chinese shed tradition and brought in Western values and institutions New Culture Movement – stress on Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy No real support outside of urban areas

Peking University intellectuals studied Western models and writers because they believed that change could not come until Chinese shed tradition and brought in Western values and institutions

New Culture Movement – stress on Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy

No real support outside of urban areas

II. China Japan attempted 21 Demands (Japanese expansion into China)– at Paris Peace Conference, former German territory in China given to Japan for supporting the Allies in WWI 21 Demands rejected – reduced to 13 and accepted May 4, 1919- May 4 th Movement – Protest of students and urbanites in Beijing over China’s acceptance of the Paris Peace Conference terms

Japan attempted 21 Demands (Japanese expansion into China)– at Paris Peace Conference, former German territory in China given to Japan for supporting the Allies in WWI

21 Demands rejected – reduced to 13 and accepted

May 4, 1919- May 4 th Movement – Protest of students and urbanites in Beijing over China’s acceptance of the Paris Peace Conference terms

Primary Source: May 4 th Movement

II. China Two Political forces in China Nationalist Party of Sun Yat-Sen allied with Guangdong (Kwangtung) Chinese Communist Party, CCP, formed in 1921, supported by the Comintern Nationalist Party and CCP joined together to defeated Westerners and drive out colonizers and stop warlords in China Joined together for the Northern Expedition of 1926 to seize Chinese land

Two Political forces in China

Nationalist Party of Sun Yat-Sen allied with Guangdong (Kwangtung)

Chinese Communist Party, CCP, formed in 1921, supported by the Comintern

Nationalist Party and CCP joined together to defeated Westerners and drive out colonizers and stop warlords in China

Joined together for the Northern Expedition of 1926 to seize Chinese land

II. China Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925 - Chiang Kai-shek came to control the Nationalist Party and tried to destroy the Communists in 1927, breaking their alliance and sending the CCP into hiding in Shanghai and in the mountains of Southern China Young Communist Mao Zedong led Communists into hiding in the mountains Mao gained the support of the peasants and believed in peasant revolution

Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925 - Chiang Kai-shek came to control the Nationalist Party and tried to destroy the Communists in 1927, breaking their alliance and sending the CCP into hiding in Shanghai and in the mountains of Southern China

Young Communist Mao Zedong led Communists into hiding in the mountains

Mao gained the support of the peasants and believed in peasant revolution

Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Primary Source: Chiang Kai-shek & Mao Zedong

Chiang Kai-shek

Mao Zedong

II. China The Nanjing Republic Founded in 1928 in Nanjing by Chiang Kai-shek Based on Sun Yat-Sen’s Three People’s Principles (nationalism, democracy, livelihood) Wanted to take China to the final stage of constitutional government Appealed to Westernized middle class, not peasants – programs like land reform that would appeal to peasants weak

The Nanjing Republic

Founded in 1928 in Nanjing by Chiang Kai-shek

Based on Sun Yat-Sen’s Three People’s Principles (nationalism, democracy, livelihood)

Wanted to take China to the final stage of constitutional government

Appealed to Westernized middle class, not peasants – programs like land reform that would appeal to peasants weak

II. China New Life Movement, 1934, championed Confucian values of integrity, propriety, righteousness, and hard work; also rejected Communism and individualism/Western greed Confucian ideas no longer appealing to many – traditional system had failed Founded an underground fascist style society of personal followers called the Blue Shirts

New Life Movement, 1934, championed Confucian values of integrity, propriety, righteousness, and hard work; also rejected Communism and individualism/Western greed

Confucian ideas no longer appealing to many – traditional system had failed

Founded an underground fascist style society of personal followers called the Blue Shirts

II. China Programs challenged by Japanese and Great Depression Industrialization slow, a lot of money going to the military, most of the money in the hands of the elite Mechanization began to replace manual labor Textile industry growing The Long March 1934-1935- Chiang Kai-shek surrounded Communists in southern China, including Mao’s People’s Liberation Army Communists sent on a long march 200 miles north to Yan’an with Nationalists chasing them – of 90,000, 10,000 survived

Programs challenged by Japanese and Great Depression

Industrialization slow, a lot of money going to the military, most of the money in the hands of the elite

Mechanization began to replace manual labor

Textile industry growing

The Long March

1934-1935- Chiang Kai-shek surrounded Communists in southern China, including Mao’s People’s Liberation Army

Communists sent on a long march 200 miles north to Yan’an with Nationalists chasing them – of 90,000, 10,000 survived

Map- The Long March

II. China Social changes Rejected of Confucian filial piety and subordination of women Women demanded right to choose mates and careers Progressives wanted to end the hold of traditional ‘duty’ Western literature, fashion, and culture become popular in urban areas Little changed in villages where women stayed largely subordinate, duty was emphasized, and marriages were arranged – conservatives wanted to retain tradition

Social changes

Rejected of Confucian filial piety and subordination of women

Women demanded right to choose mates and careers

Progressives wanted to end the hold of traditional ‘duty’

Western literature, fashion, and culture become popular in urban areas

Little changed in villages where women stayed largely subordinate, duty was emphasized, and marriages were arranged – conservatives wanted to retain tradition

III. Japan Taisho Democracy Health of Emperor Taisho Yoshihito was poor – shift from genro to the Diet and democratic parties Beginning of military control in Japan – army and navy outside of the Diet, answered directly to Emperor – if they did not get what they wanted for the military, they’d resign from the cabinet (headed by the Prime Minister) and it would collapse Privy Council, the advisory board of the Emperor, made of up genro/oligarchs

Taisho Democracy

Health of Emperor Taisho Yoshihito was poor – shift from genro to the Diet and democratic parties

Beginning of military control in Japan – army and navy outside of the Diet, answered directly to Emperor – if they did not get what they wanted for the military, they’d resign from the cabinet (headed by the Prime Minister) and it would collapse

Privy Council, the advisory board of the Emperor, made of up genro/oligarchs

III. Japan Emperor sacred and public expected him to be ‘apart’ from politics 1925- Universal male suffrage granted and labor laws begun – military budget reduced Marxist labor movements and militant nationalists who wanted to reject Western models of development caused trouble

Emperor sacred and public expected him to be ‘apart’ from politics

1925- Universal male suffrage granted and labor laws begun – military budget reduced

Marxist labor movements and militant nationalists who wanted to reject Western models of development caused trouble

Primary Source: Emperor Taisho

III. Japan Zaibatsu Economy Economy strong – rich in exports Zaibatsu were financial cliques, essential monopolies, made up of already existing companies and enterprising samurai Economic dichotomy- modern industry vs. traditional small scale manufacturing Zaibatsu supported political parties and political representation – tension between zaibatsu and military

Zaibatsu Economy

Economy strong – rich in exports

Zaibatsu were financial cliques, essential monopolies, made up of already existing companies and enterprising samurai

Economic dichotomy- modern industry vs. traditional small scale manufacturing

Zaibatsu supported political parties and political representation – tension between zaibatsu and military

III. Japan Shidehara Democracy Pre-WWI- To find markets and raw materials, Japan seized territory in Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria – West concerned by Japanese aggression Washington Conference, 1922- “Four Power Pact” and the “Nine Power Pact,” Open Door Policy in China, Naval Limitation Treaty of 5 : 5 : 3 : 1.75 : 1.75 Increasing demand for resources from industry – China seen as a solution – Kwantung Army stationed in China became more aggressive Japanese government more military and ultranationalist

Shidehara Democracy

Pre-WWI- To find markets and raw materials, Japan seized territory in Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria – West concerned by Japanese aggression

Washington Conference, 1922- “Four Power Pact” and the “Nine Power Pact,” Open Door Policy in China, Naval Limitation Treaty of 5 : 5 : 3 : 1.75 : 1.75

Increasing demand for resources from industry – China seen as a solution – Kwantung Army stationed in China became more aggressive

Japanese government more military and ultranationalist

Primary Source: Washington Conference

Traditional Japan New Japan Primary Source: Japan in Transition

Traditional Japan

New Japan

Add a comment

Related pages

Nationalist Party | Chinese political party | Britannica.com

Nationalist Party, ... nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood. ... After the defeat of Japan in 1945, ...
Read more

Nationalism in China - Council on Foreign Relations

Nationalism in China, ... a surge in national ... century of humiliation at the hands of the West and Japan. China expert Peter ...
Read more

{ IN SEARCH OF CHINESE DEMOCRACY: CIVIL OPPOSITION IN ...

Edmund S K Fung - { IN SEARCH OF CHINESE DEMOCRACY: CIVIL OPPOSITION IN NATIONALIST jetzt kaufen. Kundrezensionen und 0.0 Sterne. ...
Read more

Democracy in China - Documents - docslide.us

Nationalist China and Democracy in Japan Developments in Nationalist China, the rise of Communism in China, and Japan's era of transformation from Taisho ...
Read more

China: Wealth and Democracy | The Diplomat

Will Western levels of income mean that China adopts Western models of democracy? Home. ... a Gross National ... anger at Japan or the huge crowds that ...
Read more

Clash of National Identities: China, Japan ... - Wilson Center

clash of national identities: ... 37 can JaPanese democracy coPe with china’s rise? ... China and Japan share a cultural bond that
Read more

ON NEW DEMOCRACY - Marxists Internet Archive

ON NEW DEMOCRACY. January 1940 I ... But China's national bourgeoisie has a ... someone wants to come into the "fight Japan" camp of the people but ...
Read more

From Reform to Revolution, 1842 to 1911 | Asia for ...

From Reform to Revolution, 1842 to 1911: ... , Japan, did not ... Discos & Democracy: China in the Throes of Reform ...
Read more

Is lack of democracy a problem for China? - BBC News

Is lack of democracy a problem for China? ... the only quasi-free national elections ever held in China were in 1912 and ... This is not democracy, ...
Read more