Nationalism & Revolutions 1800s

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Information about Nationalism & Revolutions 1800s

Published on February 15, 2008

Author: Mr.J

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This is three units combined into one rather long slide show. It covers the basics behind France from 1815-1850, as well as German unification and Italian unification movements.

Revolutions and Unification Europe from 1815-1850

Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 Revolutions break out in many nations Caused by Liberals wanting changes Industrial Revolution – low wage workers wanting changes Intellectuals (teachers) wanting changes Nationalism – people want to create new countries for their ethnic groups / nationalities

Revolutions break out in many nations

Caused by Liberals wanting changes

Industrial Revolution – low wage workers wanting changes

Intellectuals (teachers) wanting changes

Nationalism – people want to create new countries for their ethnic groups / nationalities

Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 Almost all of these revolutions are unsuccessful Liberal Revolutionaries can not agree on their goals Conservatives are unified / more organized – thus monarchs stay in power

Almost all of these revolutions are unsuccessful

Liberal Revolutionaries can not agree on their goals

Conservatives are unified / more organized – thus monarchs stay in power

Lets look at some examples France – 1815-1850

France After Congress of Vienna Louis XVIII installed as new king of France Conservative – but also a realist Agreed to keep French Parliament / Limited Monarchy Nobody Happy Liberals say he is not liberal enough Conservatives want to go back to an Absolute Monarch

Louis XVIII installed as new king of France

Conservative – but also a realist

Agreed to keep French Parliament / Limited Monarchy

Nobody Happy

Liberals say he is not liberal enough

Conservatives want to go back to an Absolute Monarch

Charles X Takes over after Louis XVIII dies in 1824 Even more conservative than Louis Wants an Absolute Monarchy again Gets rid of Parliament 1830 Passes the July Ordinances No freedom of press Restrictions on rights to vote Liberals revolt against the July Ordinances Charles forced to flee to England

Takes over after Louis XVIII dies in 1824

Even more conservative than Louis

Wants an Absolute Monarchy again

Gets rid of Parliament

1830 Passes the July Ordinances

No freedom of press

Restrictions on rights to vote

Liberals revolt against the July Ordinances

Charles forced to flee to England

Louis Phillip “The Bourgeoisie Monarch” Presents himself as more liberal In reality, he must keep the support of conservatives. Favors the wealthy / Upper middle class Middle class gets right to vote Against Socialism 1848 – Liberals revolt – Led by Socialists Factory Workers and Intellectuals (Professors)

“The Bourgeoisie Monarch”

Presents himself as more liberal

In reality, he must keep the support of conservatives.

Favors the wealthy / Upper middle class

Middle class gets right to vote

Against Socialism

1848 – Liberals revolt – Led by Socialists

Factory Workers and Intellectuals (Professors)

Louis Blanc 1848 - comes to power Only lasts a few months Socialist Establishes “workhouses” Government controlled businesses Everyone guaranteed a job “ Busywork” type of jobs Must raise taxes to pay for these workhouses Middle Class (conservatives) revolts Louis Flees to England

1848 - comes to power

Only lasts a few months

Socialist

Establishes “workhouses”

Government controlled businesses

Everyone guaranteed a job

“ Busywork” type of jobs

Must raise taxes to pay for these workhouses

Middle Class (conservatives) revolts

Louis Flees to England

Louis Napoleon Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Takes advantage of the family name Elected, sets himself up as Emperor – just like his old uncle did Passed some reforms Male suffrage (voting) Promotes railroads and work programs Cracks down on dissent (disagreement) Censors newspapers, professors, Outlaws other political parties

Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte

Takes advantage of the family name

Elected, sets himself up as Emperor – just like his old uncle did

Passed some reforms

Male suffrage (voting)

Promotes railroads and work programs

Cracks down on dissent (disagreement)

Censors newspapers, professors,

Outlaws other political parties

Louis Napoleon Tries to make France great again Gains colonies in North and West Africa Builds Suez Canal Tries to gain Mexico Unsuccessful Gets involved in Crimean War against Russia Does not get much out of it Ends up in a war with Prussia in 1870 Franco-Prussian War Disaster for France Loses Alsace and Lorraine territories

Tries to make France great again

Gains colonies in North and West Africa

Builds Suez Canal

Tries to gain Mexico

Unsuccessful

Gets involved in Crimean War against Russia

Does not get much out of it

Ends up in a war with Prussia in 1870

Franco-Prussian War

Disaster for France

Loses Alsace and Lorraine territories

Next Up - Germany From 1815-1870 green book p 464-465, 537-540

Germany in 1815 There is no Germany in 1815 Just a collection of independent German kingdoms and principalities and baronies Prussia is the largest and most powerful German kingdom German states organized into a loose Confederation under the supervision of Austria

There is no Germany in 1815

Just a collection of independent German kingdoms and principalities and baronies

Prussia is the largest and most powerful German kingdom

German states organized into a loose Confederation under the supervision of Austria

Obstacles to German Unity Austria, France and Russia all feared a unified German would be a powerful threat Smaller German states feared a unified Germany would mean Prussian control Catholic German states in the south feared Protestant Lutheran states in the north would dominate

Austria, France and Russia all feared a unified German would be a powerful threat

Smaller German states feared a unified Germany would mean Prussian control

Catholic German states in the south feared Protestant Lutheran states in the north would dominate

 

 

Prussian Leadership A strong Prussian Army dominated the German states Junkers (wealthy German Nobles) and Capitalists (businessmen) dominated the German Parliament Prussian ownership of the Ruhr and its coal fields fueled the economic growth of Prussia during the Industrial Revolution

A strong Prussian Army dominated the German states

Junkers (wealthy German Nobles) and Capitalists (businessmen) dominated the German Parliament

Prussian ownership of the Ruhr and its coal fields fueled the economic growth of Prussia during the Industrial Revolution

Prussian Leadership continued Prussia was an authoritarian state. Believed in Militarism Strong army Army would carry out the needs of the government

Prussia was an authoritarian state.

Believed in Militarism

Strong army

Army would carry out the needs of the government

Germany 1848 Liberals demand reforms. Constitution Workers rights Revolt suppressed by Fredrick Wilhelm IV – emperor of Prussia 1849 – German Parliament tries to unify German States into one country Offer the crown of the new Germany to Fredrick Wilhelm IV. He turns them down and disbands Parliament German unification put on hold

Liberals demand reforms.

Constitution

Workers rights

Revolt suppressed by Fredrick Wilhelm IV – emperor of Prussia

1849 – German Parliament tries to unify German States into one country

Offer the crown of the new Germany to Fredrick Wilhelm IV.

He turns them down and disbands Parliament

German unification put on hold

Prussia under Bismarck 1860s – Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck Prime minister of Prussia Unite Germany with “Blood and Iron” Believed in “Realpolitik” Politics of reality – not idealism. Best way to unify people? A good old fashioned war

1860s – Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck

Prime minister of Prussia

Unite Germany with “Blood and Iron”

Believed in “Realpolitik”

Politics of reality – not idealism.

Best way to unify people?

A good old fashioned war

Franco – Prussian War Both Prussia and France saw war as a great way of uniting their populations in a common cause Fought over – of all things- who should be king of Spain. (go figure) Prussia wins big time Emperor William I named Kaiser of a united Germany – dominated by Prussia Bismarck turns Germany into an efficient, military and industrial giant.

Both Prussia and France saw war as a great way of uniting their populations in a common cause

Fought over – of all things- who should be king of Spain. (go figure)

Prussia wins big time

Emperor William I named Kaiser of a united Germany – dominated by Prussia

Bismarck turns Germany into an efficient, military and industrial giant.

Unification of Italy

Italy in early 1800s Obstacles to Unity Italy is a collection of separate kingdoms Most kingdoms ruled by outside powers Naples – Spain Venice & Lombardy – Austria Papal states – Pope / Church

Obstacles to Unity

Italy is a collection of separate kingdoms

Most kingdoms ruled by outside powers

Naples – Spain

Venice & Lombardy – Austria

Papal states – Pope / Church

                                                                                                                          

The Leaders Giuseppe Mazzini The “soul” of Italian unity Leads a secret nationalistic movement “ Young Italy Society” Wanted unified Italy Wanted Italy to be a democracy / republic Viktor Emmanuel II and Camillo Cavour Led the “Resorgimento” (revival) Cavour is the “brains” behind the operation King Victor Emmanuel is the “Heart”

Giuseppe Mazzini

The “soul” of Italian unity

Leads a secret nationalistic movement

“ Young Italy Society”

Wanted unified Italy

Wanted Italy to be a democracy / republic

Viktor Emmanuel II and Camillo Cavour

Led the “Resorgimento” (revival)

Cavour is the “brains” behind the operation

King Victor Emmanuel is the “Heart”

 

1848 Revolution Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia stood up to Austria Fought Austria to aid other Italian states under control of Austria Lost – but gained the respect of all Italians King of Piedmont forced out, but his son Viktor Emmanuel II and Cavour step in to take over – good move

Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia stood up to Austria

Fought Austria to aid other Italian states under control of Austria

Lost – but gained the respect of all Italians

King of Piedmont forced out, but his son Viktor Emmanuel II and Cavour step in to take over – good move

 

1859 Things looking up France and Austria go to war. Piedmont, allies with France. When France wins, Piedmont gets Lombardy from Austria. Piedmont now seen as most influential Italian kingdom. People in other kingdoms rise up and join Piedmont. Tuscany, Modena, Parma

France and Austria go to war.

Piedmont, allies with France.

When France wins, Piedmont gets Lombardy from Austria.

Piedmont now seen as most influential Italian kingdom.

People in other kingdoms rise up and join Piedmont.

Tuscany, Modena, Parma

Piedmont

Enter Garibaldi Giuseppe Garibaldi The “Sword” of Italian unity Formed a volunteer army of nationalists “ 1,000 Red Shirts” Sailed to Sicily and took it over. Sailed to Southern Italy Moved up through Italy conquering and unifying Ended up unifying nearly all of Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi

The “Sword” of Italian unity

Formed a volunteer army of nationalists

“ 1,000 Red Shirts”

Sailed to Sicily and took it over.

Sailed to Southern Italy

Moved up through Italy conquering and unifying

Ended up unifying nearly all of Italy

Garibaldi continued Good general, lousy politician – and he knew it. After unifying most of Italy, he turned control over to Viktor Emmanuel. Knew Emmanuel was a better politician who could lead all of Italy Not all is perfect – but Italy is beginning to look like the Italy we know today

Good general, lousy politician – and he knew it.

After unifying most of Italy, he turned control over to Viktor Emmanuel.

Knew Emmanuel was a better politician who could lead all of Italy

Not all is perfect – but Italy is beginning to look like the Italy we know today

 

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