Published on February 6, 2012
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National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Logo of NABARD Headquarters in Mumbai Headquarters Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Established 12 July 1982 Managing Director Dr K G Karmakar Currency Reserves 81,220crore (US$ 18.11 billion) (2007) Website www.nabard.org NABARD is the apex development bank in India
Contents Acknowledgement Introduction History Rural Innovation References
AcknowledgementMy deepest thanks to Sanjay Rode sir for guiding us throughthis project and for supporting us through out. Sirssuggestions and recommendations have been invaluable forthis project. Then I would like to thank my teacher, forguiding me and my friends throughout this project. We hadsome difficulties in doing this task, but she taught uspatiently until we knew what to do.Last but not least, my friends who were doing this projectwith me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that whenwe combined and discussed together, we had this task done.I would also like to thank the college and MumbaiUniversity for providing me with the opportunity to do thisproject.
IntroductionNational Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development(NABARD) is an apex development bank in India based inMumbai, Maharashtra. It has been accredited with “mattersconcerning policy, planning and operations in the field ofcredit for agriculture and other economic activities in ruralareas in India”.NABARD or National Bank for agriculture and RuralDevelopment is the apex institution accredited with allmatters concerning policy, planning, and operations in thefields of credit for agriculture and other economic activities inthe rural areas in India.NABARD is committed to rural prosperity by promotingsustainable and equitable agriculture and rural developmentthrough effective credit support, related services,institutional building and other innovative initiatives.NABARD is set up by the Government of India as adevelopment bank with the mandate of facilitating creditflow for promotion and development of agriculture andintegrated rural development. The mandate also coverssupporting all other allied economic activities in rural areas,promoting sustainable rural development and ushering inprosperity in the rural areas.With a capital base of Rs 2,000crore provided by theGovernment of India and Reserve Bank of India, it operatesthrough its head office at Mumbai, 28 regional officessituated in state capitals and 391 district offices at districts.NABARD is set up as an apex Development Bank with amandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and
development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottageand village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts. Italso has the mandate to support all other allied economicactivities in rural areas, promote integrated and sustainablerural development and secure prosperity of rural areas. Indischarging its role as a facilitator for rural prosperityNABARD is entrusted with1. Providing refinance to lending institutions in rural areas 2. Bringing about or promoting institutional development and 3. Evaluating, monitoring and inspecting the client banks Besides this pivotal role, NABARD also: • Acts as a coordinator in the operations of rural credit institutions • Extends assistance to the government, the Reserve Bank of India and other organizations in matters relating to rural development • Offers training and research facilities for banks, cooperatives and organizations working in the field of rural development • Helps the state governments in reaching their targets of providing assistance to eligible institutions in agriculture and rural development • Acts as regulator for cooperative banks and RRBs • Extends assistance to the government, the Reserve Bank of India and other organizations in matters relating to rural development • Offers training and research facilities for banks, cooperatives and organizations working in the field of rural development • Helps the state governments in reaching their targets of providing assistance to eligible institutions in agriculture and rural development
• Acts as regulator for cooperative banks and RRBsSome of the milestones in NABARDs activities are: • Refinance disbursement under ST-Agri & Others and MT- Conversion/ Liquidity support aggregated Rs.19452 crore during 2009-10. • Refinance disbursement under Investment Credit to commercial banks, state cooperative banks, state cooperative agriculture and rural development banks, RRBs and other eligible financial institutions during 2009- 10 aggregated Rs.12009.08 crore. • Through the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) Rs.12387.54 crores were disbursed during 2009-10. With this, a cumulative amount of Rs.86939.74 crore has been disbursed as on 31 March 2010 covering irrigation, rural roads and bridges, health and education, soil conservation, drinking water schemes, flood protection, forest management and the Bharat Nirman Project (BNP). • Under Watershed Development Fund with a corpus of Rs.1102 crore as on 31 March 2008, 513 projects in 14 states have benefited. • Farmers now enjoy hassle free access to credit and security through 906.40 lakh Kisan Credit Cards that have been issued through a vast rural banking network. • Under the Farmers Club Programme, a total of 54805 clubs covering 104648 villages in 587 districts have been formed, helping farmers get access to credit, technology and extension services.
Functions•NABARD is an apex institution accredited with all matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas.•It is an apex refinancing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting the various developmental activities in rural areas•It takes measures towards institution building for improving absorptive capacity of the credit delivery system, including monitoring, formulation of rehabilitation schemes, restructuring of credit institutions, training of personnel, etc.•It co-ordinates the rural financing activities of all the institutions engaged in developmental work at the field level and maintains liaison with Government of India, State Governments, Reserve Bank of India and other national level institutions concerned with policy formulation.•It prepares, on annual basis, rural credit plans for all districts in the country; these plans form the base for annual credit plans of all rural financial institutions•It undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects refinanced by it.•It promotes research in the fields of rural banking, agriculture and rural development
MissionPromoting sustainable and equitable agriculture and ruraldevelopment through effective credit support, relatedservices, institution building and other innovative initiatives.In pursuing this mission, NABARD focuses its activities on:Credit functions, involving preparation of potential-linkedcredit plans annually for all districts of the country foridentification of credit potential, monitoring the flow ofground level rural credit, issuing policy and operationalguidelines to rural financing institutions and providing creditfacilities to eligible institutions under various programmesDevelopment functions, concerning reinforcement of thecredit functions and making credit more productiveSupervisory functions, ensuring the proper functioning ofcooperative banks and regional rural banks
HistoryNABARD was established on the recommendations ofShivaraman Committee, by an act of Parliament on 12 July1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture andRural Development Act 1981. It replaced the AgriculturalCredit Department (ACD) and Rural Planning and Credit Cell(RPCC) of Reserve Bank of India, and Agricultural Refinanceand Development Corporation (ARDC). It is one of thepremiere agencies to provide credit in rural areas.
ObjectivesNABARD was established in terms of the Preamble to the Act,"for providing credit for the promotion of agriculture, smallscale industries, cottage and village industries, handicraftsand other rural crafts and other allied economic activities inrural areas with a view to promoting IRDP and securingprosperity of rural areas and for matters connectedtherewith in incidental thereto".The main objectives of the NABARD as stated in thestatement of objectives while placing the bill before the LokSabha were categorized as under :1. The National Bank will be an apex organization in respect of all matters relating to policy, planning operational aspects in the field of credit for promotion of Agriculture, Small Scale Industries, Cottage and Village Industries, Handicrafts and other rural crafts and other allied economic activities in rural areas.2. The Bank will serve as a refinancing institution for institutional credit such as long-term, short-term for the promotion of activities in the rural areas.3. The Bank will also provide direct lending to any institution as may be approved by the Central Government.4. The Bank will have organic links with the Reserve Bank and maintain a close link with in.
RoleNABARDs refinance is available to State Co-operativeAgriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDBs), StateCo-operative Banks (SCBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs),Commercial Banks (CBs) and other financial institutionsapproved by RBI. While the ultimate beneficiaries ofinvestment credit can be individuals, partnership concerns,companies, State-owned corporations or co-operativesocieties, production credit is generally given to individuals.NABARD has its head office at Mumbai, IndiaNABARD operates throughout the country through its 28Regional Offices and one Sub-office, located in the capitals ofall the states/union territories. Each Regional Office[RO] hasa Chief General Manager [CGMs] as its head, and the Headoffice has several Top executives like the ExecutiveDirectors[ED], Managing Directors[MD], and the Chairperson.It has 336 District Offices across the country, one Sub-officeat Port Blair and one special cell at Srinagar. It also has 6training establishments.NABARD is also known for its SHG Bank Linkage Programmedwhich encourages Indias banks to lend to self-help groups(SHGs). Because SHGs are composed mainly of poor women,this has evolved into an important Indian tool formicrofinance. As of March 2006 2.2 million SHGsrepresenting 33 million members had to been linked to creditthrough this programmed.NABARD also has a portfolio of Natural ResourceManagement Programmes involving diverse fields like
Watershed Development, Tribal Development and FarmInnovation through dedicated funds set up for the purpose.
Major Activities• Preparing of Potential Linked Credit Plans for identification of exploitable potentials under agriculture and other activities available for development through bank credit.• Refinancing banks for extending loans for investment and production purpose in rural areas.• Providing loans to State Government/Non Government Organizations (NGOs)/Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) for developing rural infrastructure.• Supporting credit innovations of Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and other non-formal agencies.• Extending formal banking services to the unreached rural poor by evolving a supplementary credit delivery strategy in a cost effective manner by promoting Self Help Groups (SHGs)• Promoting participatory watershed development for enhancing productivity and profitability of rainfed agriculture in a sustainable manner.• On-site inspection of cooperative banks and Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and iff-site surveillance over health of cooperatives andRRBs.
Rural InnovationNABARDs role in rural development in India is phenomenal.National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development(NABARD) is set up as an apex Development Bank by theGovernment of India with a mandate for facilitating creditflow for promotion and development of agriculture, cottageand village industries. The credit flow to agriculture activitiessanctioned by NABARD reached Rs 1,574,800 million in 2005-2006. The overall GDP is estimated to grow at 8.4 per cent.The Indian economy as a whole is poised for higher growth inthe coming years. Role of NABARD in overall development ofIndia in general and rural & agricultural in specific is highlypivotal.Through assistance of Swiss Agency for Development andCooperation, NABARD set up the Rural InfrastructureDevelopment Fund. Under the RIDF scheme Rs. 512830million have been sanctioned for 2,44,651 projects coveringirrigation, rural roads and bridges, health and education, soilconservation, water schemes etc. Rural Innovation Fund is afund designed to support innovative, risk friendly,unconventional experiments in these sectors that would havethe potential to promote livelihood opportunities andemployment in rural areas. The assistance is extended toIndividuals, NGOs, Cooperatives, Self Help Group, andPanchayati Raj Institutions who have the expertise andwillingness to implement innovative ideas for improving thequality of life in rural areas. Through member base of 250million, 600000 cooperatives are working in India at grassroot level in almost every sector of economy. There arelinkages between SHG and other type institutes with that ofcooperatives.
The purpose of RIDF is to promote innovation in rural &agricultural sector through viable means. Effectiveness of theprogram depends upon many factors, but the type oforganization to which the assistance is extended is crucialone in generating, executing ideas in optimum commercialway. Cooperative is member driven formal organization forsocio-economic purpose, while SHG is informal one. NGOhave more of social color while that of PRI is political one.Recently in 2007-08, NABARD has started a new directlending facility under Umbrella Programme for NaturalResource Management (UPNRM). Under this facility financialsupport for natural resource management activities can beprovided as a loan at reasonable rate of interest. Already 35projects have been sanctioned involving loan amount ofabout Rs 1000 million. The sanctioned projects include honeycollection by tribals in Maharashtra, tussar value chain by awomen producer company (MASUTA), eco-tourism inKarnataka etc.
NABARD and its Role in TrainingThe provisions of the Act as stated below very clearly indicatethe nature and scope of the developmental mandate of theBank and its role in training and capacity building with theunderlying belief that the process of development cannot beaccomplished by credit/refinance alone.Section 38 of the NABARD Act provides that the Bank shall:•maintain expert staff to study all problems relating to agriculture and rural development and be available for consultation to the Central Government, the Reserve Bank, the State Governments and the other institutions engaged in the field of rural development.•Provide facilities for training, for dissemination of information and the promotion of research including the undertaking of studies, researches, techno-economic and other surveys in the field of rural banking, agriculture and rural development.•provide technical, legal, financial, marketing and administrative assistance to any person engaged in agriculture and rural development activities;•may provide consultancy services in the field of agriculture and rural development and other related matters in or outside India, on such terms and against such remuneration, as may be agreed upon;In this context, the role of training in NABARD and the roleplayed by it for capacity building in client institutions, partner
agencies and other developmental agencies are important.For maintaining Expert Staff, the bank needs to providecontinuous exposure to its officers and staff for up scalingtheir knowledge and skills in core areas. However, in theinitial years the Bank had recruited expert staff from varioustechnical disciplines and created a separate cadre of officers.These officers were involved in formulating, appraising,monitoring and evaluating different agricultural projectsimplemented by different credit agencies. These officers,irrespective of their academic background, were impartedsimilar type of training as all other officers. Their placementsand the regular job rotations helped in grooming them totake up assorted assignments get involved in a variety ofroles and functions including credit, developmental,promotional, supervisory and necessary support andinformation for decision making. The Bank also had access totheir specialized skills which were utilized whenever needed.In pursuance of the Banks mandate as stated in the Act, theBank provides training facilities for the RFIs and agenciesinvolved in rural development through BIRD and the twoRTCs. With a view to broad base the training and capacitybuilding efforts, the Bank encourages the RFIs to set up theirown training systems and provides these training institutesthe necessary support to conduct meaningful and qualitytraining. Options and avenues for strengthening the traininginterventions at the client level are continuously examined sothat the human resources in these institutions are developedto take on the challenges, reckon with the competition,
improve customer service, expand outreach, develop suitableproducts and thereby contribute to rural development.As NABARD primarily functions through other agencies, theneeds of the client institutions largely determine theknowledge and skill requirements of NABARD officers.NABARD endeavors to blend the experiences of client banktraining with the training for NABARD officers so as to maketraining meaningful and relevant to their roles. Efforts arealso made to blend the study findings with the outcome fromtraining to periodically measure the overall impact of theinvestments made in the training efforts.
NABARD today25 YEARS OF DEDICATION TO RURAL PROSPERITY Initiates measures toward institution-building for improving absorptive capacity of the credit delivery system, including monitoring, formulation of rehabilitation schemes, restructuring of credit institutions, training of personnel, etc.NABARD completed 25 years of its eventful and trailblazingexistence on 12 July 2007. Established in 1982, by an Act ofParliament, NABARDs mandate was to provide focused andundivided attention to the development of rural India byfacilitating credit flow for promotion of agriculture and ruralnon farm sector. Emphasizing this in no uncertain terms, itsmission statement underscores NABARDs goal to "promotesustainable and equitable agriculture and rural prosperitythrough effective credit support, related services, institutiondevelopment and other innovative initiatives".NABARDs functions can be classified into 4 major categoriesviz. Credit Planning, Financial Services, Promotion andDevelopment, and Supervision. Under Credit PlanningNABARD prepares Potential Linked Credit Plan (PLP) annuallyfor each district of the country by assessing potentialavailable in agriculture and rural sector. This serves as aguide for banks and Government agencies to prepare theirown investment and credit plans in the district and state.Under its Financial services, it refinances commercial, co-operative and regional rural banks for lending to on farm andnon-farm activities. This includes farm activities like minorirrigation, animal husbandry, farm mechanization, forestry,
fisheries, land development, horticulture, plantation andmedicinal crops and non-farm like rural industries, artisans,handicrafts, handlooms, rural housing, rural tourism and agroprocessing. Refinance is provided by NABARD for both longterm investment credit as well as short term productioncredit for crop loans and working capital for non-farmactivities. A nationwide network of 28 regional offices at thestate capitals, a sub-office at Port Blair and 391 districtdevelopment offices are at hand to cater to this awesometask.Clearly NABARDs benevolent hand has been silently at workin supporting rural resurgence in various ways and its stakesare quite enormous. A glance at the figures will give a fairidea. It has channelized a whopping Rs. 1, 21,000 crore underits investment credit programme and RIDF since inception,which includes Rs. 8795 crore disbursed during 2006-07.Under production credit the Bank sanctioned limits of Rs.12570 crore during 2006-07.NABARD has effectively brought in a number of innovationsin the rural credit domains. To quote a few: Formation andLinkage of Self Help Groups, Farmers Clubs, RuralInfrastructure Development Fund, Watershed Development,Kisan Credit Card, District Rural Industries Project, ClusterDevelopment Programme and Rural Innovation Fund. Coordinates the rural financing activities of all the institutions engaged in developmental work at the field level and maintains liaison with the government of India , State governments, the Reserve Bank of India and other national level institutions concerned with policy
formulationSelf Help Groups (SHGs) Farmers ClubsRural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)WatershedDevelopmentTribal Development and WADI approachWomen and DevelopmentDistrict Rural Industries Project (DRIP)Rural Entrepreneurship Development Programme (REDP)Rural MarketingRevival of Short-Term Rural Co-operative Structure (STCCS)Rural Innovation FundNABARD Consultancy Services (NABCONS)Co-Financing Prepares, on annual basis, rural credit plans for all the districts in the country. These plans form the base for annual credit plans of all rural financial institutionsSelf Help Groups (SHGs):One of the major success stories of NABARD, the SHG Banklinkage programme started as a pilot project in 1992 with 500SHGs. SHGs comprise homogeneous groups of poor peoplewho have voluntarily come together mainly with the idea ofovercoming their common problems of low social andeconomic status. SHGs enable the poor, especially thewomen from the poor households, to collectively identify,prioritize and tackle the problems they face in their socioeconomic environment. By pooling their meager resourcesand using them for lending among themselves, they developthe habit of thrift and the skill of credit appraisal, beforegetting mature enough to access a loan from banks, which is
called credit linkage. Starting with small loans forconsumption they soon graduate to bigger loans for settingup of income generating micro-enterprises. Today, NABARDsSHG Bank Linkage Programme boasts of over 26 lakh SHGsand 3.9 crore households influencing the lives of over 16crore poor population. During the year 2006-07 alone, asmany as 458591 groups were credit linked.Farmers Clubs A popular intervention among both farmersand Bankers, the farmers Club concept was envisaged as anexperiment in social engineering, a forum to bring the ruralbanker and the borrower closer and to propagate theprinciples of development through credit. Farmers Club is aninformal group of 15-20 farmers, one per village, which actsas a medium for accessing and disseminating awareness ofmodern methods of farming and technological advancementsin agriculture in its area. Financial support is provided byNABARD for opening and maintenance of Clubs as well as fororganizing training programmes in the respective villages.With corporate and food chains looking for supply chainlinkages of farm produce, Farmers Clubs may have animportant role to play in joint production and marketing offarm produce. As on 31 March 2007, there were FarmersClubs in 534 districts covering 48763 villages.Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF):Deficient Rural infrastructure hinders both social andeconomic development. Economists have explicitlyemphasized on the direct correlation between the index ofinfrastructure development and rural development.NABARDs support to State Governments through RIDF since
1995-96 has brought about a sea change in the shape ofupgraded infrastructure in rural areas. Rural roads andbridges under RIDF have improved market access to farmers;check dams and irrigation structures have augmented theirwater resources. Even drinking water projects and healthcentres have been supported under the Fund. NABARD so farhas sanctioned Rs. 61539 crore for 2, 44,025 projects underthe Fund. A cumulative position of sector-wise sanctions ason 31 st March 2007 : Irrigation: Rs. 20637 crore, Ruralconnectivity: Rs. 26935 crore for rural road network andbridges, Power: Rs. 1434 crore Social Sector: Rs. 6988 croreOthers: Rs. 5547 crore. A separate window has been createdfor rural connectivity with villages of population less than500, with a corpus of Rs. 4,000 crore to support the BharatNirman project.Watershed Development:In a comprehensive effort to enhance productivity of drylandthrough conserving soil, rainwater and irrigation, NABARDembarked on perfecting its experiments in creating asustainable cost effective solution to the water harvestingtechniques in rural areas. Building on its experience with theKFW funded watershed development programme inMaharashtra , NABARD established a WatershedDevelopment Fund with an initial corpus of Rs. 200 crore in1999-2000 which now stands at Rs. 602.76 crore. Theprogramme is now being replicated in 124 districts of 14States.Tribal Development and WADI approach :With over 8% of the population comprising tribal’s largelydependent on forests, livestock and agriculture, NABARDfound a holistic approach by addressing production,
processing and marketing of the produce with WADI as thecore of the programme. WADI (small orchard) was found tobe an effective tool for arresting migration of tribal’s fromtheir native habitat. The WADI model evolved out ofconcerted efforts made in association with Bhartiya AgroIndustries Foundation (BAIF). The project also envisagesother development interventions like environment, genderand health. Having completed 10 years in Gujarat and 5 yearsin Maharashtra, the programme has touched 275111 familiesin 410 villages.Women and DevelopmentWomen constitute one third of the labour force. In order togive focus to women in various development activities andincrease their access to Bank credit, schemes like Assistanceto Rural women in Non-farm Development (ARWIND),Assistance for Marketing of Non- Farm Products of RuralWomen (MAHIMA), Development of Women through AreaProgramme (DEWTA) have been designed to provideexclusive support to women in rural areas.District Rural Industries Project (DRIP):NABARD launched DRIP, an integrated area-based creditintensification programme, in collaboration withGovernment, banks and other development agencies withdistrict specific focus. It was introduced in 1993-94 with theobjective of creating sustainable employment opportunitiesin 106 districts all over the country.Rural Entrepreneurship Development Programme (REDP):In order to generate employment in rural areas, it was feltnecessary to develop the entrepreneurial skills of the ruralyouth. REDP is a promotional programme supported byNABARD to motivate and train educated unemployed rural
youth, to set up their own enterprises. So far, 2.32 lakhpersons have been trained under the programme under 7792REDPs.Rural Marketing:A number of marketing interventions have been made formarketing of rural non-farm products since marketing is a keyfactor in the sustainability of any such endeavour. With thefinancial support of NABARD under its promotionalprogrammes like Rural Haats, Rural Marts, participation infairs, exhibitions and marketing meals, rural artisans andentrepreneurs can get a larger market for their produce andshowcase their talent to urban and upcountry markets.Revival of Short-Term Rural Co-operative Structure (STCCS)NABARD is the implementing agency for the Revival packagefor the STCCS which mean the State Coop. Banks, DistrictCoop. Banks and the Primary Agricultural Coop. Societies.(PACS). The revival package has been approved by the Govt.of India based on the recommendations of the VaidyanathanCommittee. NABARD has had dialogues with State Govts. andso far 10 states have executed MOU with GoI and NABARD.Apart from being on the national, state and district levelimplementing committees, NABARD has designed guidelinesand training manuals for the special audit of PACS under thePackage.Rural Innovation Fund:In association with Swiss Agency for Development andCooperation (SDC), NABARD has constituted the “NABARDSDC Rural Innovation Fund (RIF)” to support innovativeprojects in Farm, Non-Farm and Micro-Finance Sectorsleading to creation of livelihood opportunities for the poor.
Government and Non-Government Institutions, corporatebodies, financial institutions and individuals can avail fundingsupport for activities involved in development of newproducts, processes, prototypes, technology etc. which havethe poor in their focus.NABARD Consultancy Services (NABCONS) NABCONS is awholly owned subsidiary of NABARD, which has establisheditself as a dependable and professional consultancy servicesprovider in agriculture and allied activities. As on 31 March2007 , it has cumulatively contracted 487 national andinternational assignments involving consultancy fee ofRs.25.49 crores.Co-Financing It has been the experience that Banks are waryof taking credit risk of financing high tech/large scale/ exportoriented agricultural projects or those involving sunrisetechnologies. To instill confidence in banks and ensure creditflow to such projects, NABARD has entered into agreementsfor co-financing with 14 commercial banks. During 2006-07,seven projects were sanctioned with bank loan of Rs. 145.03crore and NABARDs share of Rs. 72.42 crore. Floriculture,organic farming, milk processing, ethanol production andagro processing are among the projects sanctioned so far.
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