NASA Great Observatories

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Information about NASA Great Observatories
Science-Technology

Published on October 14, 2008

Author: aSGuest930

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: NASA’s Great Observatories “an astronomical Mount Rushmore” Spitzer Chandra Compton Hubble Gains in orbit : Gains in orbit No atmospheric blurring Wider accessible wavelength range Instrumental stability No clouds/daylight (timing) Slide 3: HUBBLE Past …future? Some HST Science highlights : Some HST Science highlights Structures of distant galaxies Some HST Science highlights : Some HST Science highlights Structures of distant galaxies Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars Some HST Science highlights : Some HST Science highlights Structures of distant galaxies Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei Some HST Science highlights : Some HST Science highlights Structures of distant galaxies Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei Protoplanetary material near young stars Some HST Science highlights : Some HST Science highlights Structures of distant galaxies Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei Protoplanetary material near young stars Gravitational lenses Some HST Science highlights : Some HST Science highlights Structures of distant galaxies Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei Protoplanetary material near young stars Gravitational lenses Intergalactic gas and its history Stuff scattered all the way through the textbooks Supernova progenitor in M51 : Supernova progenitor in M51 Slide 12: (Li et al. in press) Gravitational microlensing in NGC 3314 : Gravitational microlensing in NGC 3314 Instrument history : Instrument history 1990: FGS HSP FOS GHRS FOC WF/PC 1993: FGS CoSTAR FOS GHRS FOC WFPC2 : FGS CoSTAR NICMOS STIS FOC WFPC2 2002: FGS CoSTAR NICMOS STIS ACS WFPC2 200? COS, WFC3 Hubble status, August 2005 : Hubble status, August 2005 Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph dead (only high-res/small-region spectrometer) 3 of 6 gyros (RSUs) functional (3 normally needed, 2-gyro mode successful in tests) Battery capacity decreasing (will be useless circa 2010) Estimated 50% failure time on above: 2007 Instrument/transmitter power cycling now reduced by rescheduling/eliminating parallel imaging UPDATE 31 AUG 05 – 2 GYROS : UPDATE 31 AUG 05 – 2 GYROS DAILY REPORT     # 3934 PERIOD COVERED: UT August 29, 2005 (DOY 241) All commanding for the transition to Two Gyro Science mode was successful. Commanding included modifying control law gains for T2G, loading FSW support files for TGS, modifying +D SPA commanding in new TGS safemode macros, transitioning to TGS mode, and performing a full RAM dump. Transition to TGS mode took place at 241/0217. The first FGS guide acquisition at 0812 was successful, as have all subsequent acquisitions. Jitter in F2G (FGS/2 Gyro mode) was measured at approximately 3 milliarcseconds. All three acquisitions performed have been successful with no LOL. Options : Options Shuttle SM4 (O’Keefe ruled out, CAIB concerns, Griffin optimistic) Replace the whole thing (HOP proposal to refly COS/WFC3) Shuttle? : Shuttle? “Safe haven” would mean standby orbiter Limited remaining flights earmarked to ISS Need for independent orbital inspection Victim of the Vision? Orbital mechanics: 28.5-degree inclination, getting heaviest payloads highest from Cape Canaveral, restricts options now Servicing non-options : Servicing non-options Prohibitive energy requirements to co-orbit with ISS in reach of astronauts 28-degree orbit out of reach from Baikonur (ITAR restrictions aside) Ion thrusters would take the estimated telescope lifetime for orbit change ~2015-30 estimated deorbit without boosting Replace capabilities? : Replace capabilities? Technology since 1980: lots cheaper. Thin flexible mirrors, lightweight structures, stabilize mirrors rather than structure… Unique access to optical/UV range Plan on table to fly 2.4m mirror with existing HST instruments (Hubble Origins Probe or HOP); could be as low as $250M. Need to decide who gets the instruments! Final servicing status : Final servicing status Current policy: do not preclude Depends on next (2?) STS flight results COS, WFC3, STIS repair, batteries, gyros Deorbit module status unclear Target: late 2007 Next up: JWST : Next up: JWST James Webb Space Telescope : James Webb Space Telescope Launch 2011, on Ariane V, to L2 region 6.5m deployable primary 0.6-20 microns (far red to mid-IR) Key problems: formation of galaxies, first stars, maybe planets Spacecraft weight/mirror area ratio roughly that of Hubble mirror alone! Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory : Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory : Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Deployed April 1991 by Atlantis crew. Deorbited mid-2000. Distribution, distance of gamma-ray bursts Gamma-ray blazars, relativistic beaming Microquasars Radioisotopes in interstellar medium Successors: Swift, INTEGRAL, GLAST Slide 28: And at other wavelengths… Chandra and its complement XMM-Newton The galactic-center black hole and its attendants : The galactic-center black hole and its attendants Hot gas between galaxies : Hot gas between galaxies The chemistry of a supernova : The chemistry of a supernova Fireball impact in Supernova 1987A : Fireball impact in Supernova 1987A The history of black holes – a Chandra deep field : The history of black holes – a Chandra deep field Spitzer Space Telescope : Spitzer Space Telescope Spitzer Space Telescope : Spitzer Space Telescope Warm launch, radiative cooling Cryogen management, 2 years of 5+ so far Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit 2 cameras, 2 spectrographs, 3.6-160 mm Temperatures of extrasolar planets : Temperatures of extrasolar planets Direct detection of IR from two “hot Jupiters” during eclipses, two wavelengths give temperature estimates Looking into dusty star cradles : Looking into dusty star cradles Slide 40: Across the spectrum - now FarIR MidIR nearIR opt UV farUV X-ray gamma Spitzer Hubble Chandra GALEX FUSE INTEGRAL WMAP Multispectral Greatest Hits : Multispectral Greatest Hits Intergalactic gas Starburst galaxies High-redshift galaxies Evaporating planets Protoplanetary disks Growth of black holes Complexity of stardeath Gamma-ray bursts Supernova chemistry Quasar jets Stripped galaxies Pregalactic lumps Galaxy history Relativistic jets A panchromatic view -spiral galaxy M81 : A panchromatic view -spiral galaxy M81 ROSAT GALEX Kitt Peak Spitzer VLA Slide 43: Across the spectrum - soon FarIR MidIR nearIR opt UV farUV X-ray gamma Spitzer Hubble? Chandra and XMM GALEX? FUSE? INTEGRAL Planck Herschel Swift SIM TPF? JWST A new Universe to explore : A new Universe to explore The full electromagnetic spectrum Open international competition for observations Public data archives (without mailing tapes!) The beginnings of the Virtual Observatory But astronomers think about facilities differently from NASA and ESA…

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