NASA ARC Director's Colloquium 16 Nov 2006 - Luna Gaia: a closed loop habitat for the Moon

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Published on November 3, 2008

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NASA Ames Research Center, Director's Colloquium, 16 Nov 2006 Moffett Field - 'Luna Gaia: a closed loop habitat for the Moon' ISU/NASA presentation

LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON LUNA GAIA: A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON NASA Ames Research Center Director’s Colloquium Thursday 16th November 2006 1 Presenter: Mr. James CHARTRES (AU)

LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON MISSION STATEMENT “To create a responsible framework for the establishment of a long-term lunar settlement, functioning as an efficient self-sustained closed-loop system with potential Earth applications.” 2

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA: PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Requirements and Operations Tracy Gill Location and Power Jeroen Vandersteen A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Architectural Design Francesc Betorz Closed Loop Life Support Nil Garcia Human Health Erin Tranfield 3

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA: PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Framework Enablers Jean-Francois Gauthier Philosophy, Ethics & Society Sarah Jane Pell A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Legal Framework Kwan Ting Ho Risk & Further Research Jessica Scott Earth Applications & Conclusions James Chartres Communication & Education Sara Poirier 4

LUNA GAIA ASSUMPTIONS • Functional crew size of 11 with a nominal crew size of 12 • Utilization of established and short term technologies A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON • Establishment of a permanent habitat as progress towards the Human exploration of Mars • Duration of 36 months to simulate Martian exploration missions • Establishment of a permanent habitat by the year 2030 5

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS • C.L.L.S.S The proposed design for a lunar habitat shall make every effort to use a fully closed loop life support system • LOCATION The location for the Moon settlement shall be A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON chosen to maximize in situ resource utilization (ISRU), use of terrain and exposure to sun • DESIGN ARCHITECTURE The habitat shall be modular to increase redundancy, facilitate construction and expansion • TRANSPORT The proposed strategy for launching shall consider and make use of existing or near-term solutions from a variety of sources 6

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS • POWER & DESIGN ARCHITECTURE The concept shall balance risk by using existing or near term solutions as the baseline while recommending research on areas with a potential to improve feasibility and reduce cost, mass and schedule A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON • RISK/ FURTHER RESEARCH The habitat shall provide adequate protection for its inhabitants against radiation and contaminants such as lunar dust • LEGAL FRAMEWORK The proposed concept shall include recommendations for establishing a policy legal framework to appropriately regulate all aspects of the project • BUDGET The proposed concept shall have a realistic and responsible budget based on current assumptions 7

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS • HUMAN HEALTH The habitat shall be designed to maintain and support the physical and psychological health of settlers • ETHICS & PHILOSOPHY The concept shall explore the ethical and philosophical considerations associated with establishing a responsible lunar settlement A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON • POLICY ENABLERS The proposed concept shall explore the inner workings of private-public partnership (PPP) and International cooperation • EARTH The habitat shall be designed with an emphasis on identifying, and developing, technologies with applications and benefits on Earth and to promote sustainability • MARS & BEYOND The proposed concept shall be a stepping stone to permanent human presence in space in the form of colonies and further exploration of Mars and beyond 8

LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS • OPERATIONS TIMELINE • PHASED MISSIONS • TRANSPORTATION 9 Presenter: Mr. Tracy GILL (USA)

LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS Preliminary Phase (2007-2019) Research Launch Vehicle Planned Lunar 4 Specific Robotic and Lander Observation Precursor Development Development Missions Missions Construction Phase (2019-2029) Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Robotic Human and Bio regenerative Module Robotic Systems support Assembly Assembly 4 then up to 12 Operations Phase (2029-?) 18 month crew 36 month crew rotations rotations 10

LUNA GAIA PRELIMINARY PHASE (2007-2019) MISSIONS LUNAR-A & SELENE 2007 (L) Images Courtesy of JAXA. Preliminary Planned missions • NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission planned for October 2008 • INDIA Chandrayaan scientific spacecraft planned for September 2007 A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON • CHINA Chang’e in 2008 • JAXA Selene in 2007 Luna Gaia precursor missions Image courtesy of NASA 1. Solar Thermal Power demonstrator 2. First mini-rover mission 3. Second mini-rover mission 4. ISRU/drilling technology mission 11

LUNA GAIA CONSTRUCTION (2019-2029) & OPERATIONS PHASES (2029+) Artists Impression of Lunar Precursor Mission Activities. Construction 1. Deployment and robotic assembly to launch, pre-stage, and assemble as much mass as possible without human intervention. 2. Assembly requiring human support will occur at a solar minimum to minimize A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON the radiation risk of the lunar expedition crew. 3. Four crew member operations in physicochemical environmental systems, to implement and maintain the regenerative systems that allow long- term sustainability. Images courtesy of NASA Operations 4. Permanent occupation of a fully operational settlement occurs with the operational crew of eleven & maximum operational capacity of twelve. 12

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA TRANSPORTATION LSAM Earth to Moon: Crew & Cargo • Nominally use Ares I for crew launches CEV • Ares V for cargo launches • Seek cost and risk mitigation by expanding A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON beyond NASA Constellation options (See Operations Concept Recommendations) .Images courtesy of NASA & JAXA Lunar Transportation • Fuel Cell powered rovers • Space suits using docking Rescue vehicles mechanisms and/or mechanical counter pressure Fuel Cell powered lunar rovers 13

LUNA GAIA OPERATIONS CONCEPT RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS WITH BUDGET PRIORITIES Safety Risk Mitigation Soyuz : Image AGI • Develop an interface adapter between Soyuz and the planned LSAM to allow an alternate crew rescue vehicle. • Develop another human-rated Lunar Lander to provide an alternate to LSAM and to act as a lunar A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON rescue/emergency vehicle alternative to the LSAM. Cost Risk Mitigation • Develop a standard commercial Lunar Lander and transfer stage to get cargo from LEO to the lunar surface to allow for commercial and international launch options at a lower cost than human-rated vehicles incur. • Invest in inflatable habitat technology to significantly reduce launch mass (requires packaging scheme for LSAM cargo version launch) TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT • Develop suitable space suits for lunar environment use 14

LUNA GAIA LOCATION & POWER Considering the location and power possibilities to enable the lunar habitat as independent from Earth as possible, thus reducing the cost of re-supply and increasing the long-term sustainability – Luna Gaia A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 15 Presenter: Mr. Jeroen VANDERSTEEN (BE)

LUNA GAIA LOCATION CONSIDERATIONS • Available resources (O, H, Si, Ti, Al, Mg, Fe, …) • Temperature variation • Availability of sunlight (and darkness) • Line of sight with earth A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON (communications, psychological) ESA Smart One image of the Moon • Environmental conditions Credits: Clementine, BMDO, NRL, LLNL (radiation, topology, surface composition) Polar Non-polar North pole South pole Earth side Far side Data from: Apollo (1969-1972), Russian sample return missions, Lunar Prospector (1989- 1990), Clementine (1994), Smart-1 (2006), Gallileo (1990-1992) 16

LUNA GAIA LOCATION RECOMMENDATION North Pole: Peary Crater (88° x 75° N E) – Peaks of Eternal Light (PELs) due to higher altitude (compared to South Pole) – Solar energy is a viable A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON and constant power source – Increased number of craters of eternal darkness – Availability of varied in situ resources (i.e. high concentrations of Hydrogen) – Recent observations: no water ice is present (D. Campbell, D. Page) – Continuous communications with Earth (may require relay node) 17

LUNA GAIA LUNAR RESOURCES/ ISRU To make the habitat as independent from Earth as possible, reduce the cost of re-supply and increase long term sustainability OXYGEN • Breathable atmosphere • Fuel (power generation, transportation systems) • Through Ilmenite reduction, Oxide melt, Pyrolysis METALS (Fe) A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON • By-product with Oxygen production • Infrastructure, tools, machinery, electrical distribution HYDROGEN • combined with O2 to form water • Fuel • Through heating above 700° C SILICON • Glass and fiberglass • Through heating above 1050° C REGOLITH • Construction • Radiation protection SUNLIGHT 18

19 LUNA GAIA POWER BUDGET NOMINAL LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON

LUNA GAIA POWER GENERATION Primary Power • NUCLEAR FISSION – High power density • Political/social issues • Radiation protection needed • Large area required for heat dissipation • SOLAR THERMAL A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON – Scalable – Source of heat for habitat • Large area required Nuclear: Submerged in water, the fuel element is removed • Complex infrastructure from the reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (Reproduced by permission of Photo Researchers, Inc.) Secondary Power • PHOTOVOLTAIC – Scalable, reliable, proven technology • Large area required • Degrades over time Photovoltaic cells ©Total 20

LUNA GAIA POWER STORAGE & REGULATION Primary Power Storage & Regulation • FLYWHEELS – High-speed lightweight carbon flywheels – 1825 kg can provide minimum power for one hour – Operate in vacuum to reduce drag A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Secondary Power Storage • FUEL CELLS – Fuel can be used for rovers – 2307 kg of cells provide nominal power – 39 tons of fuel per year: provide 14 days nominal power 21

LUNA GAIA DESIGN ARCHITECTURE • Construction Type • Configuration • Radiation Shielding • Life Support System • Further Research A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 22 Presenter: Mr. Francesc BETORZ (ES)

LUNA GAIA DESIGN ARCHITECTURE KEY OBJECTIVES • Create comfortable living and working spaces for long duration off-world activity, which maximize benefits for the inhabitants • Create an integrated environment to effectively sustain a closed-loop ecosystem A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Environmental / Size & Type of Location Protection Construction Health & ISRU / Power Countermeasures 23

24 STRUCTURE LOCATION CONSTRUCTION TYPE LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON

LUNA GAIA CONFIGURATION + COVER + LOCATION = PROTECTION A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 25

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA CONSTRUCTION TYPE • Earth - like environment • Adaptable & Expandable design • Modular CFRP • Inflatable Technologies • Lunar Concrete A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 26

LUNA GAIA INCORPORATION OF CLLSS WATER & AIR CYCLE Key: D = Dormitory F = Fish tanks D/F A = Algae ponds P = Plant fields P A/L L = Lab/Work Areas A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON SF = Social Focus Area A/L P D/F 27

LUNA GAIA FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Accurate lunar topography for site selection 2. Research and development of inflatable technologies 3. Characterize the composition of the regolith for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 4. Development of Artificial Intelligence to enable robotic assembly works 5. Build and test the proposed lunar habitat on Earth 6. Test the proposed building materials in lunar environment 7. Identify and study the minimal capabilities required for a self- sustainable lunar settlement 8. Research and develop Lunar Concrete as a construction material for further expansion of the base 28

LUNA GAIA CLOSED LOOP LIFE SUPPORT Identifying proven past technologies Extending previous research Combining, improving and hybridizing A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON systems Proposing a new robust and efficient solution Making recommendations of further research 29 Fish Beijing, 2006 Photo Lawrence English Presenter: Mr. Nil GARCIA (ES) SergeSpitzer_Re-Search1996-2002

LUNA GAIA LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Life Support Considerations Life Support Considerations • Missions of 18 – 36 months • Missions of 18 – 36 months • Mars exploration planning • Mars exploration planning • Capacity: 12 crew members • Capacity: 12 crew members A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Philosophy of Luna Gaia Philosophy of Luna Gaia • Mostly bio-regenerative • Mostly bio-regenerative • Physico-chemical support/ • Physico-chemical support/ back-up system back-up system • Minimal re-supply • Minimal re-supply • Energetically open • Energetically open 30

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM MELiSSA Black water and wastes efficient treatment ALL IN BIOS 3 Incorporation of microalgaes (chlorella and spirulina) in a photoreactor: •Oxygen A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON •Food •Water purification NASA JSC ONE Advanced Aquatic plants and fish Life Support LuGaLiSuS initiatives: •Including insects CEBAS •Methane fuel for machines 31

32 LUNA GAIA LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM LuGaLiSuS LUNA GAIA A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON

LUNA GAIA LuGaLiSuS CHAMBERS Micro algal cultivator Aquatic plant, fish, insects Aquatic and Cyanobacteria, chamber invertebrates Chlorella and Spirulina A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Photoheterotrophic 3 Bacterial Higher Plants chamber Compartments compartment Nitrifying chamber Liquefying chamber Wheat, crops, etc 33

LUNA GAIA ATMOSPHERE LOOP PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIOREGENERATIVE SYSTEM SUPPORT SYSTEM CO2 Algae 2BMS Molecular Sieve Aquatic plants CO2 Sabatier Reactor A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON H2O & CH4 Higher SPE Water Electrolysis plants CO2 O2 & H2 O2 Settlers & Crew 34

LUNA GAIA WATER & WASTE LOOP Liquefying Photo heterotrophic compartment compartment MELiSSA technology Nitrifying compartment Settlers & Preprocessing of wastes by using MELiSSA, Bios 3 & Crew A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Fungi JSC technology Algal cultivator (Cyanobacteria, some Chlorella and Spirulina) Charcoal, UV Treatment, Reverse Osmosis Aquatic plants compartment. WATER Fish, insects & Vegetables and invertebrates GREY WATER higher plants compartment CEBAS technology35 BLACK WATER

LUNA GAIA LuGaLiSuS FOOD CYCLE • 20m2 per person growth area • All food groups covered: Algae: Cyanobacteria Spirulina Fruits and Vegetables: Soybeans 100g A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Peanuts 100g Wheat 400g Carrots 300g Lettuce 200g Tomatoes 100g Protein & Essential Oils: Tilapia (Fish) 50g • Re-supply Luxury Items (processed foods) Vitamin & Mineral Supplements 36 Images © NASA

LUNA GAIA FURTHER RESEARCH • Plant crop optimization – Lighting systems – Growth mediums – Algal growth solutions – Nutrient enriched A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON growth beds • Supplements storage • Minimizing Re-supply • Merging such different technologies in one • Fish and insects stability in the system • Contamination technologies & prevention • Optimization of the overall performance 37 Images © NASA

LUNA GAIA HUMAN HEALTH Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON infirmity (WHO) 38 Presenter: Ms. Erin TRANFIELD (CA)

LUNA GAIA PROVIDING PHYSICAL HUMAN HEALTH NEEDS Architecture Fresh Air, Fresh Air, Food and Water Food and Water Countermeasure Protection and Rest and Training A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Safety Recovery Bio Monitoring Asphyxiation Famine & Dehydration Radiation Exposure Contingency Lunar Dust Fire Prevention Temperature Extremes System Failure Reverse Contamination Further Research 39

LUNA GAIA KNOWN BIOMEDICAL RISKS Effects of Radiation Medical Practice Issues • Carcinogenesis • Trauma & acute medical • Synergistic effects with problems microgravity or • Illness & ambulatory environmental factors health problems, renal • Late degenerative tissue stone formation effects • Toxic exposure A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Physiological Changes Behavior and • Carcinogenesis due to Performance Problems immune system changes • Disorientation and • Cardiac dysrhythmia inability to perform landing, egress, or other • Acceleration of age- physical tasks, especially related osteoporosis during /after • Manifestation of G-level changes previously asymptomatic • Poor psychosocial cardiovascular disease adaptation • Toxic exposure • Sleep & circadian rhythm problems 40

LUNA GAIA A RISK REDUCTION STRATEGY FOR LUNA GAIANS 1. Further explore pharmacological countermeasures 2. Develop countermeasures specific for the 1/6 g environment 3. Define hardware requirements for exercise countermeasure and A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON monitoring hardware 4. Research acceptable radiation levels 5. Study the physiological and pathological effects of lunar dust 6. Further materials research, space suit technologies and habitat architectures 41

LUNA GAIA HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT COUNTERMEASURES Simulated weight-bearing exercise in space – Bungee treadmill – Inertia reel rowing machine – Russian penguin suit A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON – Stationary cycle – Exercise devices + LBNP Pharmacologic treatment – Osteoporosis – Cardiovascular – Vitamin and nutrient supplements 42

LUNA GAIA LUNA GAIA COUNTERMEASURES Luna Gaia proposes a critical and timely opportunity to test human responses, and further develop innovative countermeasures, for long duration human habitation of space A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Dr. Sarah Jane Pell 2004 © Aquabatics Research Australia Hydro-therapy Tank provides a vibration and radiation protected environment to perform omni-directional resistive exercises and stretching Centrifuge Induced Artificial Gravity Device David Blaine ‘Drowned Alive’ 2006 43 ‘108 hours in the little house under Lincoln Centre, New York. Image APA the sea’, Italy 2005 Image APA

LUNA GAIA PROVIDING PSYCHO/ SOCIAL HUMAN HEALTH NEEDS IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE Health is state of complete physical, mental, and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO) A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Personal and Social Physical Well-being Well-being of of the Crew the Crew Group Behavior Develop Performance Shaping Counter- Challenges Constraints measures and risks 44

LUNA GAIA SOCIAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH RISKS Behavior Shaping Constraints in the Closed-loop • High potential hazards Habitat and • Isolation Moon Environment • Artificial environment for working and living A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Humans’ Behavior and Impaired human Group Performance Challenges and risks performance due to: • Poor psychosocial adaptation • Neurobehavioral problems • Group conflicts • Mismatch between workers cognitive capabilities and task demands 45

LUNA GAIA PSYCHO/ SOCIAL COUNTERMEASURES 1. Further explore crew selection criteria 2. Conduct ground-based training studies to develop effective psychological countermeasures 3. Develop psychological support and monitoring A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 4. Interfaces Design/ User-centered design 5. Assess workload and function allocation 6. Reduce uncertainty and increase the familiarity (e.g., earth Resemblance simulations in habitats) 46

LUNA GAIA RISK & FURTHER RESEARCH “Discovery consists in seeing what everyone else has seen and thinking what no one else has thought.” Albert Szent-Gyorgi A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 47 Presenter: Ms. Jessica SCOTT (CA)

LUNA GAIA FUTURE RESEARCH: RADIATION MITIGATION 1. Delineate radiation exposure limits 2. Formalize alert/warning communications infrastructure 3. Determine appropriate materials for active and passive shielding A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 4. Examine the potential use of storm shelters • Emergency Inflatable Radiation Shelter (EIRS) • Shield Chambers 5. Identify potential nutritional/pharmacological countermeasures 6. Consider issues surrounding 48 prescreening for radiation tolerance

LUNA GAIA FUTURE RESEARCH: LUNAR DUST MITIGATION 1. Characterize the shape, surface area, and composition of dust particles 2. Determine the potential for human exposure to dust A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON within the habitat 3. Examine the consequences of size distribution and reduced gravity on dispersion into lung 4. Investigate the potential for translocation of particles to other sites within the body 49

LUNA GAIA FUTURE RESEARCH: MCP SUIT 1. Continue research into: • Advanced material technology • Lines of non extensions and areas of concavity • Advanced seals and joints A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON 2. Analyze the effects of electrostatic charging • Use dust properties to repel rather than attract dust 3. Examine the use of disposable covers 4. Determine influence of long term operation on human health 50

LUNA GAIA FUTURE RESEARCH: CONTAMINATION MITIGATION 1. Develop superior sterilization techniques to prevent forward contamination 2. Develop protocols and facilities for: • the quarantine of extraterrestrial samples A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON • the detection of microbial structures 3. Assess the possibility of Helium 3 extraction from lunar regolith 4. Examine the use of bioengineered bacteria to liberate oxygen from regolith 51

LUNA GAIA FUTURE RESEARCH: PREPARING FOR MARS EXPLORATION • Technology advancement can reduce mission costs and support expanded human exploration • Systems testing and technology test beds can develop reliability in harsh environments • Common investments in hardware systems for A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Moon, Mars and other space objectives • Human and machine collaboration: Machines serve as an extension of human explorers, together achieving more than either can do alone • Breaking the bonds of dependence on Earth 52

LUNA GAIA FRAMEWORK ENABLERS We are at a point in history where a proper attention to space, and especially near space, may be absolutely crucial in bringing the world together. - Margaret Mead A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON ISS Astronaut Panel, SSP06 Photo: Jean-Francois Gauthier 53 Presenter: Mr. Jean-Francois GAUTHIER (CA)

LUNA GAIA TIMELINE: CRITICAL PATH FOR POLICY • •Need: Framework required to enable Need: Framework required to enable international cooperation Governing Governing international cooperation Body • •Recommendation: Inter-governmental Recommendation: Inter-governmental Body Agreement (basic backbone like ESA) Agreement (basic backbone like ESA) Political Political • •Need: Attracting Industry to play aasignificant Need: Attracting Industry to play significant role in the development of Luna Gaia role in the development of Luna Gaia Incorporating Incorporating • •Recommendation: Recommendation: A CLOSED LOOP HABITAT FOR THE MOON Industry Industry • •Enable property rights Enable property rights Economic Economic • •Export Controls: Review of ITAR Export Controls: Review of ITAR • •Need: Forward and backward protection of Need: Forward and backward protection of celestial bodies from contamination celestial bodies from contamination Scientific Scientific Planetary Planetary • •Recommendation: Use/improve on policy Recommendation: Use/improve on policy Protection guidelines from International Council for Protection guidelines from International Council for Science Committee on Space Research Science Committee on Space Research Societal Societal • •Need: Nuclear fission reactor Need: Nuclear fission reactor R

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