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Published on October 13, 2007

Author: Heather

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NANOTECHNOLOGY:  NANOTECHNOLOGY An Overview Definition:  Definition How was a meter defined historically? Definition:  Definition "When they planned it, the French first set the meter to be one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole." quote & graphic from www.dmturner.org/Teacher/Library/4thText/MatPart2.html At the Nano-Level:  At the Nano-Level “At the nanoscale, where the mind-bending principles of quantum physics can apply, the characteristics of materials change: Carbon is 100 times stronger than steel Aluminum turns highly explosive Gold melts at room temperature.” Consumer Reports, July 2007 Slide5:  A Brief History of Nanotechnology Nanotechnology in Nature:  Nanotechnology in Nature Nanoparticles have existed for billions of years: Salt crystals in ocean breezes Terpene: hydrocarbons in the essential oils and resins of trees (turpentine) Volcanic ash Consumer Reports, July 2007 Nanotechnology in Nature:  Nanotechnology in Nature “When a gull lands on the deck of an aircraft carrier, the vessel sinks by one nanometre.” www.gresham.ac.uk Nanotechnology in Nature:  Nanotechnology in Nature “Geckos hang upside down on the ceiling by nanotechnology; on each toe they have millions of tiny hairs, and each hair has a minute force which holds on to the ceiling.” quote from www.gresham.ac.uk picture from http://homepage.mac.com/derya Nanotechnology in Nature:  Nanotechnology in Nature “When there are millions of these hairs the creature can in fact support 200 times its own weight hanging from the ceiling.” www.gresham.ac.uk Richard Feynman:  Richard Feynman Shared Nobel in Physics in 1965 for his “fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.” nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1965/index.html Richard Feynman:  Richard Feynman Feynman: “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” (1959). “There’s plenty of room ...”:  “There’s plenty of room ...” Outlined idea to copy the Encyclopedia Britannica (24 vol) onto a pin head using letters 1/25,000th their original size using 1959 technology. More History:  More History Binnig & Rohrer (1981) Scanning Tunneling Microscope 1986 Nobel Prize (Physics) picture from www.research.ibm.com/about/top_innovations_history.shtml Scanning Tunneling Microscope:  Scanning Tunneling Microscope “The invention ... allowed scientists to view the world from an atomic perspective for the first time. The revolutionary microscope ... revealed the topography of surfaces, atom by atom.” www.research.ibm.com/about/top_innovations_history.shtml Scanning Tunneling Microscope:  Scanning Tunneling Microscope This technology evolved to allow the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules. paraphrase from www.research.ibm.com/about/top_innovations_history.shtml Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology Six examples of nanotechnology available today or in the next five years: Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology A washing machine that inhibits bacterial growth on the clothes it washes. It is on the market today. Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology A washing machine that inhibits bacterial growth on the clothes it washes. “Samsung's SilverCare™ technology harnesses the antimicrobial properties of silver, releasing 100 quadrillion silver ions into your cold-water wash.” [$1,300] www.samsung.com Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology Silver is toxic to aquatic life, so Samsung has been notified by the EPA that their washing machine may be regulated as a pesticide. They make a refrigerator, too. Consumer Reports, July 2007 Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology “Intelligent” nanocoatings for windows that reflect solar heat in the summer and transmit it in winter. On the market today according to Consumer Reports, but I couldn’t find them yet. Consumer Reports, July 2007 Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology Contact lens that let you check your blood sugar level by looking in a mirror. Coming in about five years. Consumer Reports, July 2007 Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology A nano-improved golf ball that increases the efficiency of the transfer of energy from the club to the ball and reduces off-axis rotation for greater control. It is on the market today. Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology NDMXTM HM-S110 Golf Balls [3 for $19.95] www.ndmxgolf.com Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology Nanoshells that imbed only with tumors and can be heated by infrared radiation to destroy the cancer and leave the healthy cells unharmed. Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. has applied to the FDA to begin clinical trials. Scientific American, April 2007 Applications of Nanotechnology:  Applications of Nanotechnology Automobile fuel lines made with carbon nanotubes that inhibit static electricity and reduce the risk of explosions. These are on the market today, and 60% of cars have these fuel lines. Consumer Reports, July 2007 Advantages & Opportunities:  Advantages & Opportunities Conductive – most conductors are metal; not transparent Flexible Lightweight Transparent – thin films are ~ insulators Scientific American, May 2007 Disadvantages & Risks:  Disadvantages & Risks “Nanoparticles can enter the body and its vital organs [through the skin & nasal passages], including the brain, much more easily than can larger particles.” Consumer Reports, July 2007 Disadvantages & Risks:  Disadvantages & Risks “Some nanomaterials seem to linger in the environment.” How do you clean up particles 1/100,000th the size of a human hair? Consumer Reports, July 2007 Disadvantages & Risks:  Disadvantages & Risks “Of the more than $1 billion the federal government spent last year on nanotech research, at most only 4 percent went to risk assessment.” Consumer Reports, July 2007 Disadvantages & Risks:  Disadvantages & Risks “Some nanoparticles are extremely combustible . . . [and can] spontaneously burst into flames.” Consumer Reports, July 2007 Disadvantages & Risks:  Disadvantages & Risks “Manufacturers aren’t required to disclose the presence of nano-materials in their labeling.” Consumer Reports, July 2007 Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology No one knows for sure. History shows that science and technology impact society, but there is no way to predict: what new scientific discoveries are next how technology will be used Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology Two great TV series about the history of science are: Connections The Day the Universe Changed Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology Some things will probably stay the same, e.g., Development through government-industry-academia collaborations – IMPORTANT! Warfare – war and conflict are constants in history Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology Some things will probably stay the same, e.g., Mistakes & disasters nuclear power: Three Mile Island & Chernobyl thalidomide you give me an example Initial costs will be high & products will be exclusive; eventually prices fall Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology Nanonets – networks of carbon nanotubes enable numerous basic electronic functions at low cost. The durable nature of nanonets make them suitable to portable devices, like: electronic paper flexible touch screens solar cells sensors Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology Plasmons – waves of electrons that propagate along the interface between a metal and a nonconductive material, like air or glass. Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology “Plasmonic materials could alter the electromagnetic field around an object” and make it invisible. quote from Scientific American, April 2007 Future of Nanotechnology:  Future of Nanotechnology “Plasmonic materials could alter the electromagnetic field around an object” and make it invisible. The Lycurgus Cup (circa 4th Century AD) picture from www.timkelf.com/Research.html quote from Scientific American, April 2007 Jobs with Nanotechnology:  Jobs with Nanotechnology nypost.com nypost.com Nanotechnology Economy:  Nanotechnology Economy Consumer Reports, July 2007 Questions?:  Questions? Ask your professors! They’re experts! References:  References Atwater, H. A. (2007, April). The promise of plasmonics. Scientific American, 296, 4, 56-63. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database. Dicker, F. U. (2007, June 5). Million-$$ professor: Highest salary on state payroll just the beginning. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.nypost.com/seven/06052007/news/regionalnews/million__professor_regionalnews_fredric_u__dicker.htm References:  References Gruner, G. (2007, May). Carbon nanonets spark new electronics. Scientific American, 296, 5, 76-83. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database. Kelf. T. (n.d.). Research. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.timkelf.com/ Research.html References:  References Nanotech in pictures. (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://homepage.mac .com/derya/iblog/B1572608245/C99306960/E611680500/index.html Nanotechnology: Untold promise, unknown risk. (2007, July). Consumer Reports, 72, 7, 40-45. References:  References NDMX technology. (2007). Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.ndmxgolf.com Nobel prize in physics 1965. (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http:// nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1965/index.html References:  References Research history highlights. (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.research.ibm .com/about/top_innovations_history.shtml SilverCare technology completes the cycle. (2007). Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.samsung.com/products/laundry/washingmachine/index.asp References:  References Smith, A. (n.d.). Nanotechnology--are the promises of it being the next industrial revolution being realised? Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.gresham.ac.uk/event.asp?EventId=550&PageId=108 Turner, D. M. (2002, August 15). Part 2: Measuring matter. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.dmturner.org/Teacher/ Library/4thText/MatPart2.html Caveat Emptor:  Caveat Emptor Nothing in this presentation is original work. All I’ve done is pull information together from published sources and cite those sources. Ron Foster

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