nano science and nano technology

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Information about nano science and nano technology
Education

Published on December 16, 2008

Author: anmolbagga

Source: slideshare.net

ASHOK KUMAR DIVYA BISHT KAVITA TIWARI NANOTECHNOLOGY

CONTENTS Introduction Origin and the history of the nanotechnology Theory Vision Applications Health and Environment The Future of Nanotechnology NANOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Origin and the history of the nanotechnology

Theory

Vision

Applications

Health and Environment

The Future of Nanotechnology

INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science that deals with structures devices100 nanometers or smaller in size. To give you an idea of how small that is, it would take eight hundred 100 nanometer particles side by side to match the width of a human hair. 1 nanometer (nm) =10 -9 meter (m). NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science that deals with structures devices100 nanometers or smaller in size. To give you an idea of how small that is, it would take eight hundred 100 nanometer particles side by side to match the width of a human hair.

1 nanometer (nm) =10 -9 meter (m).

Origin And The History Of The Nanotechnology The first use of the concepts in 'nano-technology' (but predating use of that name) was in "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959 . The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in1974. Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

The first use of the concepts in 'nano-technology' (but predating use of that name) was in "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959 .

The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in1974.

Dr. K. Eric Drexler promoted the technological significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices through speeches and the books Engines of Creation:The Coming Era of Nanotechnology in 1986. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Dr. K. Eric Drexler promoted the technological significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices through speeches and the books Engines of Creation:The Coming Era of Nanotechnology in 1986.

NANOTUBE A nanotube is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure. It may refer to: Carbon nanotube Inorganic nanotube DNA nanotube Membrane nanotube NANOTECHNOLOGY

A nanotube is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure. It may refer to:

Carbon nanotube

Inorganic nanotube

DNA nanotube

Membrane nanotube

CARBON NANOTUBE Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

CARBON NANOBUD NANOTECHNOLOGY

DNA NANOTUBE The first layered nanotubes composed almost entirely of DNA have been created. Layers of DNA in the nanotubes are held together by hybridization of a series of DNA strands. The nanotubes fall apart when heated, releasing single-stranded DNA. NANOTECHNOLOGY

The first layered nanotubes composed almost entirely of DNA have been created. Layers of DNA in the nanotubes are held together by hybridization of a series of DNA strands. The nanotubes fall apart when heated, releasing single-stranded DNA.

A Researcher researching on the Nanotube NANOTECHNOLOGY

VISION There are two types of approaches used in nanotechnology: TOP DOWN BOTTOM UP Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

There are two types of approaches used in nanotechnology:

TOP DOWN

BOTTOM UP

TOP-DOWN APPROACH These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly. Many technologies descended from conventional solid-state silicon methods for fabricating microprocessors are now capable of creating features smaller than 100 nm, falling under the definition of nanotechnology. Giant magnetoresistance -based hard drives already on the market fit this description, as do atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. Solid-state techniques can also be used to create devices known as nanoelectromechanical systems or NEMS, which are related to microelectromechanical systems or MEMS. Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale "write head" to deposit a chemical upon a surface in a desired pattern in a process called dip pen nanolithography . This fits into the larger subfield of nanolithography. Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

Many technologies descended from conventional solid-state silicon methods for fabricating microprocessors are now capable of creating features smaller than 100 nm, falling under the definition of nanotechnology. Giant magnetoresistance -based hard drives already on the market fit this description, as do atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques.

Solid-state techniques can also be used to create devices known as nanoelectromechanical systems or NEMS, which are related to microelectromechanical systems or MEMS.

Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale "write head" to deposit a chemical upon a surface in a desired pattern in a process called dip pen nanolithography . This fits into the larger subfield of nanolithography.

BOTTOM-UP APPROACH These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies. DNA nanotechnology utilizes the specificity of Watson-Crick basepairing to construct well-defined structures out of DNA and other nucleic acids . Approaches from the field of "classical" chemical synthesis also aim at designing molecules with well-defined shape (e.g. bis-peptides. More generally, molecular self-assembly seeks to use concepts of supramolecular chemistry, and molecular recognition in particular, to cause single-molecule components to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation. NANOTECHNOLOGY

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

DNA nanotechnology utilizes the specificity of Watson-Crick basepairing to construct well-defined structures out of DNA and other nucleic acids .

Approaches from the field of "classical" chemical synthesis also aim at designing molecules with well-defined shape (e.g. bis-peptides.

More generally, molecular self-assembly seeks to use concepts of supramolecular chemistry, and molecular recognition in particular, to cause single-molecule components to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation.

Nanotechnology is Multidisciplinary Electrical Engg. Info. tech Mechanical Engg . chemistry Physics Biology Nanotechnolgy Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

Applications AEROSPACE MEDICINE CONSUMER GOODS ELECTRONICS ENERGY CHEMICAL SENSOR AIR WATER NANOTECHNOLOGY

AEROSPACE

MEDICINE

CONSUMER GOODS

ELECTRONICS

ENERGY

CHEMICAL SENSOR

AIR

WATER

Health & Environment Concerns Silver nanoparticles, which are bacteriostatic, may then destroy beneficial bacteria which are important for breaking down organic matter in waste treatment. It could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Silver nanoparticles, which are bacteriostatic, may then destroy beneficial bacteria which are important for breaking down organic matter in waste treatment.

It could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities.

The Future of Nanotechnology NANOTECHNOLOGY Cont...

Bibliography From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia www.understanding nano .com How stuff works . www. Nanotech-now.com NANOTECHNOLOGY

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

www.understanding nano .com

How stuff works .

www. Nanotech-now.com

MEDICINE Diagnostics Drug delivery :Iron nanoparticles are used in cancer treatment,nanomedicine also greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patient's healthy cells. Tissue engineering NANOTECHNOLOGY

Diagnostics

Drug delivery :Iron nanoparticles are used in cancer treatment,nanomedicine also greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patient's healthy cells.

Tissue engineering

ELECTRONICS Applications under development:- Improving display screens on electronics devices. Increasing the density of memory chips. Reducing the size of transistors used in integrated circuits. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Applications under development:-

Improving display screens on electronics devices.

Increasing the density of memory chips.

Reducing the size of transistors used in integrated circuits.

Membrane Nanotubes Membrane nanotubes are long and thin tubes formed from the plasma membrane that connect different cells over long distances. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Membrane nanotubes are long and thin tubes formed from the plasma membrane that connect different cells over long distances.

Inorganic Nanotube An inorganic nanotube is a cylindrical molecule often composed of metal oxides, and morphologically similar to a carbon nanotube. Inorganic nanotubes have been observed to occur naturally in some mineral deposits. Inorganic nanotubes are heavier than carbon nanotubes and not as strong under tensile stress, but they are particularly strong under compression, leading to potential applications in impact resistant applications such as bullet proof vests. NANOTECHNOLOGY

An inorganic nanotube is a cylindrical molecule often composed of metal oxides, and morphologically similar to a carbon nanotube. Inorganic nanotubes have been observed to occur naturally in some mineral deposits.

Inorganic nanotubes are heavier than carbon nanotubes and not as strong under tensile stress, but they are particularly strong under compression, leading to potential applications in impact resistant applications such as bullet proof vests.

Space Advancements in nanomaterials make lightweight solar sails. Nanotechnology helps to reduce the size of equipments used . NANOTECHNOLOGY

Advancements in nanomaterials make lightweight solar sails.

Nanotechnology helps to reduce the size of equipments used .

Food Nanotechnology can be applied in the production, processing, safety and packaging of food. Nanomaterials can improves the taste of food. Nanocomposite coating can improve food packaging. Nanomaterials can improve health benefits that food delivers. Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology can be applied in the production, processing, safety and packaging of food.

Nanomaterials can improves the taste of food.

Nanocomposite coating can improve food packaging.

Nanomaterials can improve health benefits that food delivers.

Textile Nanofibers makes clothes water- and stain-repellent or wrinkle-free. Textiles with a nanotechnological finish can be washed less frequently and at lower temperatures. Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanofibers makes clothes water- and stain-repellent or wrinkle-free.

Textiles with a nanotechnological finish can be washed less frequently and at lower temperatures.

Optics For optics, nanotechnology also offers scratch resistant surface coatings. Nano-optics could allow for an increase in precision of pupil repair and other types of laser eye surgery. NANOTECHNOLOGY

For optics, nanotechnology also offers scratch resistant surface coatings.

Nano-optics could allow for an increase in precision of pupil repair and other types of laser eye surgery.

Solar Cells Companies have developed nanotech solar cells that can be manufactured at significantly lower cost than conventional solar cells. Commercially available solar cells have much lower efficiencies (15-20%). Nanotechnology could help increase the efficiency to around 40 percent. Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

Companies have developed nanotech solar cells that can be manufactured at significantly lower cost than conventional solar cells.

Commercially available solar cells have much lower efficiencies (15-20%). Nanotechnology could help increase the efficiency to around 40 percent.

FUEL CELLS Nanotechnology is used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells. Cont... NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology is used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells.

Nanobatteries Nanobatteries are the rechargeable batteries with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful for the battery disposal problem. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanobatteries are the rechargeable batteries with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful for the battery disposal problem.

Better Air Quality Nanotechnology can improve the performance of catalysts used to transform vapors escaping from cars or industrial plants into harmless gasses. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology can improve the performance of catalysts used to transform vapors escaping from cars or industrial plants into harmless gasses.

Cleaner Water Nanotechnology is used to develop solution of problems in water quality: It helps in the removal of industrial wastes from water. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology is used to develop solution of problems in water quality:

It helps in the removal of industrial wastes from water.

Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless.

Chemical Sensors Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors. NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors.

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