Published on March 11, 2014
Naming Compounds What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii)
• We can determine the formula of a compound by completing Lewis diagrams or via “valence” • Valence is “the number of electrons an atom must gain, lose, or share to complete its octet” • For representative elements valence starts at 1 (IA), climbs to 4 (IVA) and falls back to 1 (VIIA) • By knowing the valence of elements you can determine the formula of compounds • E.g. what compound would form from C + S? Step 1 - write valences: C4S2 Step 2 - cross down valences: C2S4 Background: valences and formulas Step 3 - simplify formula: CS2 a) Al,Br b) K,S c) Zn,O d) Mg,N e) C,Cl f) Cu,O AlBr3 K2S ZnO Mg3N2 CCl4 CuO or Cu2O
Ionic compounds (metal with 1 valence) Rules for naming • Names end in -ide. Example: sodium chloride • Metal (+ve ion) comes 1st (not chorine sodide) • Use the group valence for nonmetals • Do not capitalized unless starting a sentence Give formulae & name: Ca + I, O + Mg, Na + S = Ca2I1 = CaI2 = calcium iodide = Mg2O2 = MgO = magnesium oxide = Na1S2 = Na2S = sodium sulfide
Multiple valence: Latin naming • When the metal in an ionic compound is multi- valent there are 2 methods: Latin or IUPAC • Latin is older (not useful for some compounds) • As before, the name ends in -ide & +ve is first • The metal is named with it’s Latin or English root and ends in -ic or –ous to denote valence • E.g. Cu1 is cuprous, E.g. Cu2 is cupric • Lower = ous, Higher = ic • Give formulas and Latin names for: Cu2 + Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = cupric chloride Co2 + Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobaltous chloride • For latin naming: know rules, remember Hg is an exception, do not memorize Latin names
Element (valence) English name Latin Name Higher valence Lower valence Metals that have and use latin names Cu (1,2) Copper Cuprum Cupric Cuprous Fe (2,3) Iron Ferrum Ferric Ferrous Pb (2,4) Lead Plumbum Plumbic Plumbous Sn (2,4) Tin Stannum Stannic Stannous Metals that do not have latin names Co (2,3) Cobalt - Cobaltic Cobaltous Cr (2,3) Chromium - Chromic Chromous Mn (2,3) Manganese - Manganic Manganous Metals that have latin names but use english root Hg (1,2) Mercury Hydrargyrum Mercuric Mercurous
• Name ends in -ide, positive/metal comes first • The valence of the metal is indicated in brackets using roman numerals • E.g. Cu1 is copper(I), Cu2 is copper(II) • Numbers refer to valences not to #s of atoms • Try: Cu2+Cl, Zn2 + Cl, Co2+Cl, Hg+S (do both) Cu2+Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = copper(II) chloride Zn2+Cl = Zn2Cl1 = ZnCl2 = zinc chloride Co2+Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobalt(II) chloride Hg+S = Hg1S2 = Hg2S = mercury(I) sulfide Hg+S = Hg2S2 = HgS = mercury(II) sulfide Multiple valence: IUPAC naming
• Groups of atoms can also have valences • “Polyatomic ions” are groups of atoms that interact as a single unit. For valence see p95. • E.g. OH1, (SO4)2. Ba3(PO4)2 = Compounds containing polyatomic ions • So far we have given valences to single atoms Li + O Li1O2 Li2O barium phosphate • Naming compounds with polyatomic ions is similar to naming other ionic compounds • You should note that compounds with polyatomic ions have names ending in -ate or -ite not -ide • Note that most are negative, except ammonium • Name: Ca(OH)2, CuSO4, NH4NO3, Co2(CO3)3
- calcium hydroxide - copper(II) sulfate - ammonium nitrate - cobalt(III) carbonate Ca(OH)2 CuSO4 NH4NO3 Co2(CO3)3 Compounds containing polyatomic ions
Naming covalent compounds • -ide ending, each element has “prefix”1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca • prefix refers to # of atoms - not valence N2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxide • Exception: drop mono for first element CO2 = carbon dioxide • The first vowel is often dropped to avoid the combination of “ao” or “oo”. CO = carbon monoxide (monooxide) SO2= sulfur dioxide (doxide) • Name: CCl4, P2O3, IF7 P4O10= tetraphosphorus decoxide
Write and name the following covalent compounds (IUPAC) carbon tetrachloride diphosporus trioxide iodine heptafluoride CCl4 P2O3 IF7 For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com
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