Published on March 11, 2014
Naming CompoundsNaming Compounds Day 2Day 2
Working backwards: name to formula • It’s possible to determine a formula from a name • E.g. What is the formula of sodium oxide? • To get the answer, first write the valences: Na1 O2 → Na2O • What is the formula of copper(II) oxide? Cu2 O2 → Cu2O2 → CuO • For covalent compounds, simply use the prefixes to tell you the number of each element: • What is the formula for dinitrogen trioxide? N2O3 • Give formulae for: lithium sulfide, dinitrogen monoxide, lead(IV) sulfate
Write and name the following covalent compounds (IUPAC) Li1 S2 → Li2S N2O 4 2 lithium sulfide dinitrogen monoxide lead(IV) sulfate
1. Name each according to IUPAC rules: a) ZnS, b) FeCl3, c) CaCO3, d) P2O5, e) NaCN, f) N2F2, g) MgHPO4, h) Cu(BrO3)2, i) K2O, j) BF3 1. Give the valence of a) Fe in FeO, b) Mn in MnO2 3. Write formulas for: a) sodium oxide, b) potassium iodide, c) lead(IV) sulfide, d) mercury(I) oxide, e) Iron(II) oxide, f) iron(II) phosphate, g) copper(II) fluoride, h) dichlorine monoxide, i) silver sulfide, j) magnesium nitride, k) aluminum hypochlorite, l) iodine Assignment
Complete exercises on handout Steps: 1. Determine if its ionic or covalent 2. If ionic, determine if its metal has one or more valence 3. Name according to appropriate rules
Answers – 1, 2 a) zinc sulfide b) iron(III) chloride c) calcium carbonate d) diphosporus pentoxide e) sodium cyanide f) dinitrogen difluoride g) magnesium hydrogen phosphate h) copper(II) bromate i) potassium oxide j) boron trifluoride 2 a) 2 b) 4
Answers – 3 a) Na2 O b) KI c) PbS2 d) Hg2 O e) FeO f) Fe3 (PO4)2 g) CuF2 h) Cl2O i) Ag2 S j) Mg3 N2 k) Al(ClO)3 l) IF5 m) CaCrO4 n) P2 S5
• Bases contain an OH group • C6H12O6 does not have an OH group • If an OH group is present it will be clearly indicated: e.g. NaOH, Ca(OH)2 • Also notice that bases have a metal (or positive ion such as NH4 + at their beginning) • Bases are named like other ionic compounds: • +ve is named first, followed by the polyatomic ion Naming Bases - calcium hydroxide - copper(I) hydroxide - Al(OH)3 - NH4OH Ca(OH)2 CuOH aluminum hydroxide ammonium hydroxide
• All acids start with H (e.g. HCl, H2SO4) • 2 acids types exist: binary acids and oxyacids Binary: H + non-metal. E.g. HCl Oxy: H + polyatomic ion. E.g. H2SO4 • Each have different naming rules. Binary acids: naming depends on state of acid • If it’s not aqueous: hydrogen + non-metal HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride • If it is aqueous: hydro + non-metal + ic acid HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid (aqueous hydrogen chloride) Naming Acids: Binary acids HBr(s) HI(aq) H2S(aq) H2S(g) hydrogen bromide hydr(o)iodic acid hydrogen sulfidehydrosulfuric acid
• Naming does not depend on the state (aq) • 1) name the polyatomic ion 2) replace ate with ic, ite with ous 3) change non-metal root for pronunciation 4) add “acid” to the name E.g. H2SO3 Naming Acids: Oxyacids HNO2 hypochlorous acid H3PO4(aq) carbonic acid 1) sulphite, 2) sulphous, 3) sulphurous, 4) sulphurous acid
• Naming does not depend on the state (aq) • 1) name the polyatomic ion 2) replace ate with ic, ite with ous 3) change non-metal root for pronunciation 4) add “acid” to the name E.g. H2SO3 Naming Acids: Oxyacids HNO2 hypochlorous acid H3PO4(aq) carbonic acid 1) sulphite, 2) sulphous, 3) sulphurous, 4) sulphurous acid - nitrous acid - HClO - phosphoric acid - H2CO3
a) chloric acid b) hydrosulfuric acid c) hydrobromic acid d) phosphorous acid e) iodic acid f) HCl(g) g) HCl(aq) h) H2SO4(s) i) H2SO4(aq) j) HClO2 k) HF(aq) Assignment: give formula or name a) HClO3 b) H2S(aq) c) HBr(aq) d) H3PO3 e) HIO3 f) hydrogen chloride g) hydrochloric acid h) hydrogen sulphate i) sulfuric acid j) chlorous acid k) hydrofluoric acid
• Some compounds contain H2O in their struc- ture. These compounds are called hydrates. • This is different from (aq) because the H2O is part of the molecule (not just surrounding it). • The H2O can usually be removed if heated. • A dot separates water: e.g. CuSO4•5H2O is copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate. • A greek prefix indicates the # of H2O groups. Hydrates sodium sulfate decahydrate nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate Na2CO3•H2O BaCl2•2H2O Na2SO4•10H2O NiSO4•6H2O sodium carbonate monohydrate barium chloride dihydrate For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com
Learn more about naming acids and bases in the Boundless open textbook.
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