Nadia2

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Published on March 15, 2014

Author: amerakatz

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INFORMATION TO USERS This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from anytype ofcomputerprinter. The quality ofthis reproduction is dependent upon the quality ofthe copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adverselyafreet reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. Each original is also photographed in one exposure and is included in reduced form at the back ofthe book. Photographs included in the original manuscript have been reproduced xerographically in this copy. Higher quality 6” x 9” black and white photographic prints are available for any photographs or illustrations appearing in this copy for an additional charge. Contact UMI directly to order. UMIA Bell &Howell Information Company 300 NorthZed>Road, Ann Arbor MI 48106-1346 USA 313/761-4700 800/521-0600 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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A SATURDAY YOUTH ARTS PROGRAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRESERVICE ART EDUCATION by Joy Topaz Smith Copyright © Joy Topaz Smith 1996 A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the DEPARTMENT OF ART In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS WITH A MAJOR IN ART EDUCATION In the Graduate College THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 1 9 9 6 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

UMI Number: 1383573 Copyright 1996 by Smith, Joy Topaz All rights reserved. UMI Microform 1383573 Copyright 1997, by UMI Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. UMI300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, MI 48103 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

2 STATEMENT BY AUTHOR This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library. Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder. SIGNE APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR This thesis has been approved on the date shown below: Dr. Lynn Galbraith Date Associate Professor of Art Education Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank all of my friends who stood by me throughout the researching and writing of this inquiry, especially Sara Pakkala, who was always there to listen and encourage me. I also would like to give a special thanks to the Manzanita ISR team: Gloria Hoyme, Andrea Chadwick, Elizabeth McKindley, Char Cohen and Karen Hill who continually bent over backwards to help me accomplish this goal. Thank you to the wonderful teachers who participated in this study, particularly Caryn Isom, who so graciously gave her time and effort to this project. And to Lou Garard, thank you for trusting in my ability and for sharing with me all of your best teaching secrets. I will use them wisely! Thanks to Mary Jondrow, Colleen Nichols, James Lanier and Paige Vladich for volunteering their time and their resources for this study. I would also like to express my deep appreciation for my two wonderful parents, Paul and Vicki Smith, for whom without none of this would have been possible. Their undying love and support has given me the strength to accomplish more than I ever though possible. Finally, thank you to my committee: Dr. Lynn Galbraith, for her trust, her insight and her constant encouragement; Dr. Elizabeth Garber for her willingness to find time to talk, listen and advise, and Dr. Dwaine Greer, for giving me so many opportunities to take on new challenges and for his eternal words of wisdom. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

4 DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to the one person who has been there day and night throughout this research endeavor. Robert, you have given me endless hours of patience, countless words of encouragement, and six long years of understanding. Thank you for all of your help these past months and for continuing to love me in spite of it all. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................... 8 ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. 9 1. STATEMENT OF INQUIRY................................................................10 Introduction............................................................................................10 Combining Theory and Practice........................................................ 12 Wildcat Art: A Rationale for its Implementation........................ 13 Description of Inquiry...........................................................................15 Program Description................................................................ 15 Personal Involvement................................................................17 Statement of Inquiry.................................................................18 Study Design and Methodology..........................................................20 Significance of the Study..................................................................... 22 Limitations of the Study........................................................................22 Organization of Chapters.................................................................... 23 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................24 Organization of the Chapter............................................................... 24 Introduction........................................................................................... 24 Classroom M anagement..................................................................... 26 Preventive Techniques.............................................................. 28 Reactionary Techniques.......................................................... 31 Curriculum and Lesson Planning.......................................................32 How Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan?....................... 33 What Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan?..................... 33 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE).............................. 34 DBAE: Effects on Teacher Training.......................................36 Community Outreach............................................................................37 Saturday Art Schools................................................................. 37 Advocacy......................................................................................39 Organizational Skills..............................................................................40 Field Experiences....................................................................................43 Student Teaching...................................................................... 44 Reflective Teaching.............................................................................. 47 Strategies for Teaching Art ................................................................ 48 Aesthetics.....................................................................................49 Criticism.......................................................................................50 Art History...................................................................................51 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI)................................ 52 Summary of the Literature.................................................................52 3. THE 1995 WILDCAT ART EXPERIENCE..........................................55 Organization of the Chapter...............................................................55 Introduction...........................................................................................55 Methodology..........................................................................................56 Characteristics of the Site and Sample................................. 56 The Method.................................................................................57 Background............................................................................................59 Wildcat Art: A Detailed Description of Its Structure 59 Study Results.........................................................................................66 Pre-experience Questionnaires.............................................. 66 Post-experience Questionnaire.............................................. 69 Conclusions.............................................................................................71 4. CASE STUDY OF #4..............................................................................74 Organization of the Chapter............................................................... 74 Introduction...........................................................................................75 M ethodology..........................................................................................76 Characteristics of the Site and Sample................................. 76 The Method.................................................................................76 Interviews....................................................................................78 Study Limitations.....................................................................79 The Case Study......................................................................................80 Classroom M anagement.........................................................80 Curriculum and Lesson Planning...........................................84 Community Outreach................................................................85 Organizational Skills................................................................. 87 Conclusions.............................................................................................88 5. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............................. 90 Introduction...........................................................................................90 Im plications...........................................................................................91 Recommendations For Change.........................................................91 Topics for Discussion............................................................... 92 Mandatory Classroom Observations.................................... 93 Development of Committees...................................................94 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

7 TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Conclusion.............................................................................................96 6. APPENDIX A ...........................................................................................97 Questionnaire # 1 ......................................................................98 Questionnaire # 2 ......................................................................98 Questionnaire # 3 ......................................................................99 Questionnaire # 4 ....................................................................100 Pre-experience Interview...................................................... 102 Post-experience Interview...................................................... 106 Final Interview......................................................................... 108 Interview Release Form........................................................108 7. APPENDIX B..........................................................................................112 Public Relations Committee...................................................113 Wildcat Art Site Committee...................................................116 Advertising and Design Committee.................................... 118 Community Outreach and Staff Support Committee 120 8. APPENDIX C ..........................................................................................122 Planning A Discipline-Based Art Lesson............................ 123 Wildcat Art Observer Notes................................................. 127 Wildcat Art Discipline Contract.......................................... 130 Wildcat Art Emergency Form.............................................. 131 Wildcat Art Release Form.................................................... 132 1995 Wildcat Art Brochure................................................... 133 1995 Wildcat Art Flyer...........................................................135 1995 Wildcat Art Information Sheet.................................. 136 9. APPENDIX D..........................................................................................138 10. REFERENCES........................................................................................ 142 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3.1, Completed Educational Requirements.......................68 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

9 ABSTRACT A supplemental Saturday Youth Arts Program was examined to determine whether or not its implementation into a preservice art education program better prepared students for student teaching. This work presents two case studies. Data from the first study, which looked at sixteen preservice art teachers, found that (1) students lacked adequate knowledge on how to write discipline-based lesson plans; (2) community outreach was undervalued by students and (3) there was a lack of sufficient preparation time to take on all the variables involved in operating the lab school. The second study followed one of the students into her student teaching to look for professional growth in four areas: (1) classroom management; (2) curriculum and lesson planning; (3) community outreach and (4) organizational skills. Findings indicated that students can achieve high levels of professional growth as a result of this kind of experience, thus they are better prepared for student teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

10 CHAPTER 1 STATEMENT OF INQUIRY Introduction The teaching of art is a multi-dimensional skill that requires the ability to think and act quickly to the rapidly changing dynamics of the art room. In its best form this includes the planning of sequential discipline-based (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987; Greer, 1984), multicultural (Champlin, 1995; Chanda, 1992; Stuhr, Petrovich-Mwaniki, & Wasson, 1992), age-appropriate (Eisner, 1987), creative, novel, interdisciplinary (Champlin, 1995), collaborative (Champlin, 1995; Zimmerman, 1994a), community relevant (Baker, 1990; Day in Goodwin, 1994) and evaluative (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987; Gentile, 1989; Greer, 1984) curriculum that can be modified to meet the needs of all learners in the school. An art teacher must also possess the skills, knowledge and ability needed to communicate curricular ideas and concepts to pupils in ways that create meaningful art experiences. This requires the teacher to be an efficient classroom manager who clearly outlines and reinforces expected behaviors and outcomes for each activity in the lesson. He or she needs well-established classroom procedures for everyday functions like the distribution and the collection of supplies, and to be able to anticipate and prevent potential problems before they start (Susi, 1989,1990a, 1990b, 1996). Added on to these instructional and managerial demands are requests that art teachers engage in: reflective thinking (Pultorak, 1993; Susi, 1995), action-research (Galbraith, 1988; May, 1993) and leadership opportunities (Gupton, 1995; Howey, 1988; Jeffers, 1995). Furthermore, they should be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

11 advocates for the arts in their community through workshops, presentations and regular art exhibitions. Efland asserts that in order to remain at the top of their field, art educators must be life-long learners, continually keeping abreast of national trends in art education (in Goodwin, 1993). Art teachers also take on various other roles which require highly developed interpersonal skills. An art teacher is constantly working interactively and collaboratively with a variety of people in school settings during activities like district and site committee meetings, faculty presentations, bus duty, parent-teacher conferences, open house, talent shows, plays and other school events. In addition they often become set designers for plays, display coordinators for the library or office bulletin boards, the resident artist who comes into the classroom to help with special projects, and the school’s interior designer. Participation in these kinds of miscellaneous school activities are often perceived as the "what goes without saying" job requirements of art teachers. The expectations that befall art teachers on a daily basis raise many questions about the nature of preservice art teacher education. How can we better prepare preservice art teachers to take on the disparate responsibilities of professionals in our field? Do we provide our preservice students adequate opportunities to integrate university dictated theory with professional practice? More specifically, how do we give them the skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to teach art effectively? Questions like these reflect a growing interest in the field on the nature of preservice art teacher preparation programs (Galbraith, 1990, 1995b; Zimmerman, 1994a). "Although there is a long and excellent tradition of research in art education, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

12 limited studies exist specifically on preservice art education" (Galbraith, 1990, p. 51). Therefore, comprehensive inquiries into the nature of our preservice programs seem long overdue. In partial response to the request of the National Art Education Association (NAEA) task force on teacher education which calls for research in preservice laboratory and clinical experiences (Galbraith, 1995a), this paper describes the preservice art education program offered at The University of Arizona in Tucson. While degree requirements and general descriptions of course work are discussed, this inquiry looks specifically at a Saturday Youth Arts Program. It was initiated in response to reform trends in preservice teacher education research as well as to satisfy the College of Fine Arts' desire to create outreach programs that help the university build more interactive partnerships with the Tucson community. The Saturday Youth Arts Program, hereafter referred to as Wildcat Art, has since become a vital component of our preservice program. Demonstrated through the findings of this inquiry, the Wildcat Art program helps preservice students begin to form clearer pictures of what art teaching involves and provides them a much needed opportunity to put theory into practice. Combining Theory and Practice Providing meaningful experiences where theory and practice meld in the minds of preservice art teachers is difficult at best. There is however, a common belief that the two can and do interact with one another in the day to day lives of in-service art teachers. Knowing this, how can the interaction between theory and practice best be shown in preservice art programs? Is it Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

13 possible to create more field-based opportunities in the university where theory and practice work together in a mutually interactive relationship? Nadaner (1983) suggests that "teacher education in the university begins with the recognition that practice is always permeated by some theoretical assumptions and that a more deliberate, reflective application of theory can only improve practice" (p. 66). In a program like Wildcat Art, students can begin to see connections between theory and practice when thinking reflectively about their own teaching of lessons or their observed lessons of peers. "Students thus, have the opportunity... to articulate meanings and questions that have immediate significance for them. These questions can then be related in the university to treatments of the same questions by art educators and philosophers" (Nadaner, 1983, p. 68). This is how the Wildcat Art program approaches the unavoidable collision between the relevancy of university-based theory and the everyday realities of art teaching in practice. Wildcat Art: A Rationale for its Implementation Since preservice teachers learn to teach from their experiences of actually being there to watch, interact, and make decisions in the classroom, it seems imperative to provide them these kinds of opportunities during their preservice education (Britzman, cited in Galbraith, 1995b). Realizing this, the University of Arizona, like other institutions1 began the Wildcat Art program. Wildcat Art was designed with the premise that preservice 1 Buffalo State College, City University of New York, East Carolina University, Indiana University, Purdue University, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Penn State & the University of the Pacific, for example, all have either Saturday Art programs or Summer Art programs in place. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

14 teachers in art education needed more hands-on interaction with youth and expanded opportunities to put theory into practice. Its goals are to: (1) Provide expanded field-based opportunities that meet the needs of our preservice art education students. (2) Make valuable connections between the university, the schools and the community. These connections will provide communication that may educate, inform and inspire community members to support art education in the public schools. (3) Provide an opportunity for youth from differing backgrounds and socio-economic status to come together to share creative ideas and artistic concepts. (4) Cultivate the youths' knowledge in the visual arts, including study in each of the four art disciplines of criticism, aesthetics, art history and studio. The hope is that through this broad, multi- media approach, students will deepen their understanding and appreciation of the arts. Because The University of Arizona's Art Education Department is separate from the College of Education, field experiences are difficult to provide for students. Currently, students working toward their B.F.A. in art education have their only required field experience2 through course work taken in the college of education. These experiences are almost exclusively in secondary schools and are not geared toward the specific needs of the preservice art education student receiving certification in grades K-12. Created in the Spring of 1994, Wildcat Art has operated as a three unit class3 offered to both undergraduate and graduate students seeking their teaching certification in art. The class takes students through the process of setting up a lab school including advertising and recruiting youth, finding 2 One semester, consisting of thirty hours of observation at one school site. 3 Wildcat Art is listed in the University of Arizona's general catalogue as ARE 338L: Secondary School Art, and is convened with the graduate course ARE 558L: Theories of Curriculum and Instruction in Art. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

15 adequate space to house art classes on The University of Arizona campus, ordering, inventorying and distributing supplies, writing age appropriate curriculum and comprehensive discipline-based lesson plans, establishing fair and consistent classroom management plans for each age level and finally, working collaboratively with their peers in teams to create, teach and evaluate their lessons. University students are expected to take the course as a culmination of their preservice course work. This ensures that they have taken the minimum of nine credits of secondary education course work which provides a basic knowledge of general teaching pedagogy, basic classroom management techniques, lesson and unit planning, as well as educational psychology and the nature and functions of schools in society.4 In addition, they are expected to have completed most of their studio requirements and nearly twenty credits in art education. Description of Inquiry Program Description The program is led and coordinated by a master teacher who has been an art specialist in the Tucson area for fifteen years. She has designed the course content from its inception and has worked in collaboration with the faculty of the Art Education Department to develop a community outreach program that meets the needs of the College of Fine Arts, the Art Education Department's faculty and students, Tucson area youth and the greater Tucson 4 These courses are offered in the college of education and are listed in the course catalog as TTE 300: Classroom Processes and Instruction, EDP 310: Learning in Schools and EDUC 350: Schooling in America. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

16 community. It has continued to grow, and in its third year became a money making endeavor for the department. Wildcat Art offers its patrons comprehensive discipline-based instruction in the visual arts using a variety of two-dimensional and three- dimensional media. Every lesson taught has instructional time allocated for each of the four disciplines of art history, criticism, aesthetics and studio. The youth are broken up into three age groups for instruction. These groups are referred to as being either Primary (grades 1-3), Intermediate (grades 4-7), or Secondary (grades 8-12). Each age group has a separate curriculum to allow for the differing needs of those who are more mature or more highly skilled. The program, currently offered only during the Spring semester, consists of 11 two and one-half hour lessons on Saturday mornings. This permits each grade level 4 five hour lessons and 2 shorter two and one-half hour lessons. One of the two short lessons is placed in the middle of spring semester during the University's spring break, and the other is located at the end of the program. This provides the preservice teachers one off weekend for spring break. The final Saturday is reserved for a student art exhibition which displays all the artwork produced in the ten weeks of Wildcat Art. The classes are instructed by approximately twenty preservice art teachers. During the planning of the program near the beginning of the spring semester, the preservice students break up into smaller groups of three to form teaching teams. These teams work collaboratively to develop and teach three art lessons; one art lesson to each of the three grade levels. On Saturdays when teams are not teaching, they are required to observe, evaluate and assist their peers teach their lessons. This concentration of preservice Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

17 teachers in each grade level's class provides pupils enrolled in Wildcat Art a low student-teacher ratio; roughly 6:1. Personal Involvement I became involved with Wildcat Art as an undergraduate in the program’s first year. I felt that as a result of the Wildcat Art experience, I went into student teaching with six fully developed lesson plans which included visual displays, supply lists, notes on the design and layout of supply distribution, charts for time management and activity sequencing, and I had the experience of having already pre-taught the lessons. In addition, I had an image of the nature and demands of teaching art and through reflection upon my early teaching experiences, I knew specific areas I wanted to develop and refine while student teaching. When I came back to the department the next year as a graduate student, I again became involved with the Wildcat Art program. The second year I worked closely with the instructor as the Assistant Director of Wildcat Art. From this position, I took on a variety of responsibilities which included, but were not limited to: (1) facilitating classroom discussions; (2) evaluating teaching using Madeline Hunter's Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI); (3) providing comprehensive feedback of lessons taught; (4) giving emotional support to students enrolled in the course; (5) designing the Wildcat Art logo and distribution materials and (6) supervising and overseeing the daily operations of the lab school including student drop-off and pick-up, the health room, staff lounge, three classrooms and a culminating student art exhibition. Other components of my role as Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

18 Assistant Director involved assisting preservice teachers with discipline issues, addressing parental questions and concerns and brainstorming with teaching teams to find solutions for logistical problems with space, supplies an d /o r technology. Statement of Inquiry My appreciation of the skills and practical knowledge I learned as a result of Wildcat Art inspired me to further investigate its installation in our art education program. Did it help to better prepare preservice students for their student teaching experience; If so, how? Did it aid in the translation of theory into practice by providing preservice teachers an image of discipline- based art teaching? Or was it only a means through which preservice teachers gained practical experience? What skills, if any, did it develop in preservice art education students? Specifically, did Wildcat Art increase preservice teachers' professional knowledge and competence in the areas of: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills? If relative professional growth in the four areas occurred, did that growth continue or retard during student teaching? Finally, has the installation of the Wildcat Art field-experience into our preservice art teacher education program resulted in better prepared, more competent, and highly skilled professionals? As beginning art teachers, are our graduates more likely to reach higher levels of professional development (Kagan, 1992) earlier than they might have otherwise? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

19 In choosing to focus my research around the areas of: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills, I discovered more questions which served to further define each area of inquiry. A brief list of questions for each area is listed below. Often, answers to the questions in any category could provide insight into the other three areas: Classroom Management Was the organization of the lesson and the supplies conducive to creating an environment that discouraged discipline problems? What kind of motivation was used to engage pupils in the content or ideas being taught? Did art education students develop their own management style? Curriculum and Lesson Planning Did lessons build upon prior learning? Were lessons discipline-based? Were activities and discussions relevant to the lesson’s objectives? Did pupils have an understanding of what it was that they were learning? Were lessons based on an established curriculum? How did individual lessons fit within a larger curriculum? Community Involvement In what ways did preservice students communicate with parents to share ideas, inform them of the lesson objectives an d /o r discuss discipline issues? Has Wildcat Art helped to foster a better relationship between The University of Arizona's preservice art teachers and the community? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

20 Organizational Skills Was time used effectively? How much time was given to each of the particular disciplines? Were transitions between activities in the lesson smooth and efficient? How prepared was the teacher to teach the lesson? Seeking answers to these and other questions helped to create an accurate image of Wildcat Art's place in our preservice art teacher preparation program and how effective it has been in preparing art teachers to meet the many demands of public school art education. Study Design and Methodology To attain some basic information about the students in the class, I distributed a series of three pre-experience questionnaires and one final post­ experience questionnaire to the class enrolled in the Spring of 1995 (see Appendix A for questionnaires). These helped me to better assess the preservice students’ diverse interests and learning experiences. After spending four weeks with the students, I selected5 four of the seven traditional undergraduate students in which to observe and measure professional growth in the each four areas discussed earlier: (1) Classroom Management, (2) Organizational Skills, (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills. For each subject of study, #1, #2, #3 and # 4 ,1gathered materials that would enable me to construct a clear picture of their pedagogical knowledge, teaching experience and preconceived beliefs of effective art education in practice. My data consisted of each subject's class 5 The subjects were selected based on my personal assessment of their commitment to the program and willingness to participate in a research study. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

21 notes and required journals,6 my own personal notes made while observing the subjects teaching in each of the three grade levels, the observation notes of the program Director and the required evaluation forms of peers who viewed the lesson. I then collected from each subject the lesson plan and related instructional materials for each lesson observed. In addition, I set up informal pre- and post-experience interviews7 to more thoroughly investigate my four areas of interest. The pre-experience interview attempted to assess their preconceptions about the experience, their ideas about DBAE, their level of education and their individual teaching philosophies. The post-experience interview asked the subjects to reflect on the experience and to look for change in their beliefs or ideologies. From the four case studies, I selected one student, hereafter referred to as #4, to follow through her student teaching experience.8 I observed her four times during her student teaching and on the final visit to the site, a video cassette recording of her instruction was made. To support the data collected on her teaching in the classroom, I was given copies of her lesson plans and her personal notes. Contact was made with the university student teacher supervisor who, upon request, made notes during observations with special attention to #4's skills in each of the four study areas. I also sat in on one post-observational feedback session between the university supervisor and #4 in which #4 was asked reflective questions concerning her perceived teaching strengths and possible areas for refinement. The issues from the prior 6Journals were kept as a part of course requirements up through the ninth week of classes, when the instructor no longer thought they were an essential component to the art education student's education. 7 Interview questions can be found in Appendix B. 8 #4 conducted the student teaching component of her certification requirements in the Spring of 1996. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

22 W ildcat Art experience and the student teaching experience were brought together in a final interview conducted immediately after the completion of #4's student teaching assignment. I asked questions that looked for relative professional growth and changes in her beliefs, attitudes and preconceptions in each of the four areas of interest. Significance of the Study Inquiries into the nature of Saturday Youth Arts Programs are rare. An investigation of their possible benefits to students and departments could help pave the way for more universities to provide lab school experiences for their students. Specifically, it provides The University of Arizona's Art Education Department insight into how the Wildcat Art program functions w ithin its larger art education curriculum, and provides an opportunity to further refine its overall program. An examination such as this addresses several questions: Can a supplemental program aid in the development of the professional growth in preservice art teachers? Are students better prepared for their student teaching experience as a result of the Wildcat Art program? Does the program effectively provide university students the opportunity to put theory into practice? Why or why not? W hat areas of the program need refinement? Answers to these questions will provide a variety of implications for art teacher preparation. Limitations of the Study The study is limited in its generalizations. It has been conducted at one southwestern university and discusses only two case studies which cannot be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

23 considered inclusive of all students attending this university or any university since no two experiences can be considered the same. In addition, there is the possibility of my own bias. My close affiliation with the program may have altered my objectivity when reviewing the data. It is possible that another researcher might have interpreted the same information differently than what is presented here. However, I made an effort to collect data from a variety of sources so that my personal notes were not the only place from which assumptions and generalizations were made. Organization of Chapters Chapter 2 reviews the current literature in the areas of: Classroom Management, Curriculum and Lesson Planning, Community Outreach, Organizational Skills, Field Experiences, Reflective Teaching and Strategies for Teaching Art. Chapter 3 further describes the Wildcat Art program and analyzes the research conducted through four questionnaires distributed to the Spring 1995 participants. Chapter 4 presents the case study of #4 and analyzes data collected during both her Wildcat Art and student teaching experiences. Chapter 5 discusses the implications of the findings in Chapters 3 and 4 on preservice teacher education and makes recommendations for change in the implementation and execution of future Wildcat Art sessions. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

24 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF CURRENT LITERATURE Organization of Chapter This chapter is intended to provide a comprehensive look into the research and literature that most directly relates to, influences or supports the concerns of this inquiry into Saturday school art programs. The chapter begins with a discussion on reform efforts for art teacher education. It then presents a literature review in each of the four areas central to this inquiry. These are: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach and (4) Organizational Skills. Since this inquiry focuses on the benefits of implementing a Saturday Youth Arts Program to better prepare student teachers, a separate review was done on field experiences. Finally, this review would not be complete if it did not also discuss reflective teaching practices and various strategies for teaching art. Through an examination of the research conducted in these areas, a better understanding of the interests and concerns of this inquiry will be achieved. Introduction One goal of art education departments who are involved in teacher training is to more effectively prepare their preservice teachers for the student teaching component of their education. To ensure the quality of teacher preparation programs, demands for reform have been voiced. Recently, Hutchens (1995) organized a set of four propositions for improving teacher preparation. These were: (1) the creation of a national association of Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

25 discipline-based art education programs; (2) stronger support for art education in our university governing boards and our state departments of education through "building a national corporate and governmental constituency for art education reform efforts" (Hutchens, 1995, p. 15); (3) more field-based research by faculty and doctoral students and (4) abolishment of departmental elitism in Colleges of Fine Arts so that faculty from art education, art history and studio collaborate, rather than isolate, their efforts to better prepare preservice art teachers. Meeting these goals will position art teacher preparation programs as a united front and help to overcome current deficiencies in individual universities. At a local level, art teacher educators within the institutions need to develop collaborative relationships with in-service professionals in their communities. These community-based relationships combined with improved communication between faculty in the College of Fine Arts and the College of Education could create expanded educational opportunities for preservice art teachers. However, before beneficial changes can occur, all those involved in the preparation of preservice art teachers need to come to a consensus on "...whether or not the 'education' in art education is as important as the 'art' in art education" (Champlin, 1995, p. 17). I believe faculty members who educate, train and encourage our preservice teachers, should bear in mind that "...teacher and education go hand-in-hand" when making their decision (Champlin, 1995; p. 17). Considering these requests for change, one role for art teacher educators could be to provide students opportunities to combine their knowledge in both art and education through course work offered specifically Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

26 in the practical application of educational theory. This does not mean to imply that the addition of one or two methods courses into the curriculum can solely accomplish all the challenges set forth in calls for reform. However, supplemental courses, like Wildcat Art, can act as agents for change in art teacher preparation programs. To understand Wildcat Art's complex orientation and potential rewards to The University of Arizona's preservice art education program, I looked to the literature to discover what had been done in related areas. Due to the relatively limited resource base in art education, I had to expand my investigation to include literature in general education. This proved to be an adequate source of information for my inquiry since many interests in general education research are broad-based and inclusive of teaching in the visual arts. In this review I use research in general literature to provide background and support in each content area, yet focus more specifically on art education research when possible. As listed earlier, the seven subjects of this review are: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach; (4) Organizational Skills; (5) Field Experiences; (6) Teacher Evaluation and (7) Strategies for Teaching Art. While the literature often overlaps from one area to another, I emphasize each as a separate unit in order to present a cohesive body of research. Classroom Management Many challenges present themselves to beginning teachers like those enrolled in Wildcat Art, but their greatest is classroom management (Arends, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

27 1991; Good and Brophy, 1987; Jones & Vesilind, 1995). This is because the classroom environment is made up of a variety of complicated, immediate and simultaneous interactions between the teacher, the students and instructional materials in the room. The complexity of teaching is often overwhelming for beginning teachers since their success and reputation as teachers depends on their ability to control their environment (Jones & Vesilind, 1995). A study conducted by Ellingson (1991) examined how teacher educators prepare their preservice teachers to meet the managerial demands of teaching. Through her research, Ellingson determined that educating preservice teachers about classroom management from a generic frame of reference, rather than one that was discipline specific, did not make a significant difference in their application of classroom management strategies during student teaching. In a related study, Stockrodd (1990) looked at six middle-school art teachers to determine what kind of instruction dominated art education at that level. While there were disparities among the teachers in the amount of time they spent in managerial, appraisal and substantive instruction, Stockrocki found that all six engaged in appraisal instruction the most. Appraisal instruction is defined as a process of monitoring student performance and give encouragement or suggestions for improvement (Sevigny, in Stockrocki, 1990). The second highest form of instruction was managerial in which teachers control both class functions and student behavior (Stockrocki, 1990). Finally, the teaching of art content, substantive instruction, was used the least. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

28 While vast amounts of research have been conducted on classroom management in general education, there is considerably less which is specific to art education. However, many of the strategies and suggestions m ade in general education are easily transferred to the specific needs of art teachers. This section is focused on a discussion of both preventative techniques teachers can employ to limit discipline issues in the classroom and proven strategies for how to stop discipline issues once they have begun. Preventive Techniques Concerns about classroom management have prompted research on how effective art educators organize their lessons and environments to limit management issues (Araca, 1990; Susi, 1989,1990a, 1990b, 1996). Susi (1989, 1990a, 1990b, 1996) has focused his research on the physical setting of the classroom. He (1990a) argued that because classroom environments are so familiar they are often overlooked as a resource that is easily manipulated to prevent potential problems. His studies on effective teachers' use of classroom space found that effective teachers use their space to encourage time on-task behavior. They did this by carefully planning their environment, reviewing their expectations and reinforcing correct procedures (Evertson, Emmer & Anderson; Evertson & Emmer in Susi, 1989). When planning the organization of a classroom space, Susi (1990a) encourages teachers to keep in mind that much like the creation of a work of art, the layout of a classroom for a given instructional function will most likely result from a process of experimentation that involves an awareness of the environmental variables involved, the behavior patterns of the students, and the nature of the activity taking place.... Well planned classroom spaces Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

29 tend to be dynamic, fluid environments that move and change in patterns that reflect the characteristics of a lesson (pp. 95 & 97). However, no single layout will meet the needs of all aspects of an art lesson (Susi, 1990a, 1990b). The teacher must find one that best meets his or her instructional needs. In a later work, Susi (1996) outlined six categories for improving student behavior and overall classroom management. These were: (1) thorough preparation for the school year; (2) careful planning of the classroom space; (3) constant monitoring of student behavior; (4) catching disruptions before they begin; (5) quickly eliminating disruptions when they occur and (6) using a pre-planned approach when dealing with misbehavior. Adherence to these guidelines can create behavior-minded teachers that anticipate potential problems and stop them before they start (Susi, 1996). General education research adds to this work on classroom space by presenting preventive strategies that effective teachers use during instruction. Preservice art teachers at The University of Arizona use the Arends (1991) text Learning to Teach to learn about basic classroom management strategies and research. Therefore, it seems pertinent to use this resource to identify the preventive techniques Wildcat Art participants were familiar with and knowledgeable about. Arends describes the following preventive strategies: (1) Establish rules and procedures for student movement, student talk and downtime; (2) teach the rules and make them routine; (3) pace lessons appropriately and maintain momentum; (4) plan for the opening and closing of class as well as transitions between activities; (5) use a cue or signaling Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

30 system to alert students of any changes in the activity and (6) promote student accountability.9 Other issues that affect classroom discipline are consistent use of positive reinforcement (Brophy & Good, 1987, Johnson, 1988a; Quick, 1993) and motivation (Arends, 1991; Brophy & Good, 1987; Johnson, 1988a). Each has its own set of strategies that when used correctly set up preventive environments. Through recognizing and reinforcing students for their good behavior, success on assignments and appropriate contributions to class discussions, teachers can set up positive classroom climates where students receive attention for their accomplishments rather than their inappropriate "attention-getting" behaviors (Brophy & Good, 1987). However, Brophy and Good warn that not all students are motivated by praise and that too much positive reinforcement can create situations in which children are motivated only if external rewards are promised. Another factor in the creation of preventive environments relies on how teachers motivate their students to engage in learning. Teachers can motivate students by creating activities that ensure student success (Brophy & Good, 1987), varying the instructional format or teaching environment (Brophy & Good, 1987; Quick, 1993) or making the learning meaningful to students by relating it to their daily lives (Brophy & Good, 1987; Johnson, 1988a). Teacher attitudes can also create atmospheres that discourage inappropriate behavior. To create preventive environments teachers must: (1) respect and care for their students; (2) be consistent in their behavior so that students see them as credible; (3) assume responsibility for their students’ 9 For further definition of each strategy see Arends (1991), pp. 164-170. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

31 knowledge acquisition; (4) value education and expect their students to feel the same way and (5) communicate these beliefs to their students and model them in their behavior (Brophy & Good, 1987). Reactionary Strategies Little has been written in art education regarding reactionary strategies to managerial issues.10 Therefore, I shall rely on what I found in general education research. Arends (1991) tackled issues of classroom management by presenting a variety of research findings on effective teaching. "This line of research [recitation] supports the image of the teacher as 'ringmaster' (Smith & Geoffrey, 1968), involved in monitoring classes through the exhibition of behaviors such as withitness [and] overlapping" (Jones & Vesilind, 1995, p. 314).11 Other reactionary strategies described by Arends (1991) are quick response time to inappropriate behavior (Quick, 1993) and the enforcement of logical consequences (Dreikurs in Arends, 1991). Arends also advocates Evertson and Emmer's guidelines for managing inappropriate behavior: (1) maintain eye contact with student until mis-behavior stops and appropriate behavior returns; (2) remind the student of the correct behavior or rule and have the student identify it as well and (3) impose the necessary consequences consistently. 10 Reactionary is defined as teacher responses to behavior once it has begun. 11 In 1970, Kounin (cited in Arends) defined eight different variables that teachers exhibited while managing groups. Two of these were: (1) withitness—the teacher's awareness of his or her environment to the extent that he or she is able to catch misbehavior quickly and correctly and (2) overlapping—the teacher’s ability to do more than one thing at a time (e.g. stopping misbehavior without disrupting the lesson's momentum). For more information on Kounin’s studies see: Kounin, J.S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

32 Brophy & Good (1987) recommend ignoring minor misbehavior. If it becomes impossible to do so, then a teacher should maintain eye contact with misbehaving student until he or she has understood the message. Another strategy Brophy & Good advocate is touching the disruptive student's shoulder and gesturing the appropriate behavior. Physical proximity is also known to be effective in eliminating minor misbehavior, as is use of a disruptive student's name during instruction to regain their attention (Brophy & Good, 1987; Quick, 1993). Additionally, Quick (1993) warrants the use of time-out and making a lesson out of the behavior as potential solutions for minor problems. In light of this research it is important to remember that while preservice students may have knowledge of these studies and their finding, they may not be able to recall them immediately. They need opportunities which enable them to try different techniques in order to determine those that work best for them (Quick, 1993). As the preservice art teachers in Wildcat Art went through the program, their managerial repertoire grew with their experience teaching and evaluating lessons. Curriculum and Lesson Planning The planning process as described in general education literature focused on how to plan effective lessons, while research in art education looked specifically at what to plan. Therefore, the review first looks broadly at general education findings then narrows its focus to discipline-based art education and its influence on instructional planning. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

33 How Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan? In the 1970’s Taylor12 (in Good & Brophy, 1987) found that when experienced teachers planned their lessons they focused first on the lesson's subject matter, then on the corresponding activities. Often their plans neglected to include specific objectives or tools for evaluation. In a later study, Borko and Niles (in Brophy & Good, 1987) found that preservice teachers could learn from Taylor's findings. Borko and Niles concluded that while experienced teachers may not need to, beginning teachers should write comprehensive lesson plans which include thoughtful objectives and multiple evaluation procedures in addition to content and related activities. Comprehensive planning for inexperienced teachers has also been recommended by Brophy and Good (1987). They found that initial planning helps beginning teachers identify their goals and examine their thought processes (Brophy and Good, 1987). Brophy and Good (1987) argue that over­ planning is necessary since it provides preservice teachers a feeling of confidence and builds a solid foundation for instruction. What Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan? Bemey (1990) stated that an art curriculum should reflect "the importance of the fine arts to learning, the centrality of art to the development of an individual's uniqueness within a unified society and the disciplinary nature of the study of art" (Parrott dted in Bemey, 1990, p. 31). These ideas correspond to the prevailing theory in art education known as discipline-based art education or DBAE. 12 Taylor's studies also discovered that most teacher's planned around their pupil’s needs, interests and abilities (cited in Good & Brophy, 1987). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

34 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) In 1979, the National Art Education Association (NAEA) defined a quality art teacher preparation program as one that stresses an appreciative component, including criticism, a studio component and an art history component (Rogers & Brogdon, 1990). These guidelines organized ideas that had been surfacing in art education literature since the sixties. Five years after the NAEA came out with its report, Greer (1984) wrote Discipline-Based Art Education: Approaching Art as a Subject of Study. It was in this landm ark work that Greer brought together art education's disparate ideas into a coherent theory he titled discipline-based art education (DBAE). A discipline-based approach to the organization of a visual arts curriculum includes content from the disciplines of aesthetics, criticism, art history, and production (Clark, Day and Greer, 1987; Greer, 1984). In a discipline-based approach, "...the four disciplines are taught interactively to build an increasingly developed understanding and enlightened appreciation of works of art" (Greer, 1987, p. 227). As its premise, discipline-based art education, as a part of general education, aims to develop mature students who are comfortable and familiar with major aspects of the disciplines of art and who are able to express ideas with art media, who read about and criticize art, who are aware of art history, and who have a basic understanding of issues in aesthetics. The general goal of DBAE is a developed understanding of the visual arts for all students (Clark, Day, & Greer, 1987, p. 138). In a later article Greer (1987) briefly defined each discipline. He wrote that study in aesthetics leads students to reflect on their "experiences and understandings of art" (Greer, 1987, p. 229), while criticism examines the meaning of works of art and makes value judgments based on those Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

35 conclusions. Art historical investigations encourage pupils to relate works of art to larger historical, social and cultural phenomena. Finally, activities in production allow students to develop their expressive skill in the various art media. Despite its accepted integration into preservice preparation programs and professional practice, DBAE has met considerable resistance from scholars in the field. Moorman (1989) summarized many of these criticisms in her article The Great Art Education Debate, but specifically she raised questions regarding DBAE's exclusion of non-western, decorative and folk arts and its decidedly male outlook. In addition, Moorman brought forth an argument originated by Philip Yenawine against aesthetic scanning, a largely advocated approach to teaching the discipline of art criticism. Yenawine argued that "you can scan a Constable, but you can't scan Islamic art—or any of the decorative traditions. And a term like 'expressive qualities' is not very useful if you're talking about a Botticelli or any art which has nothing to do with personal expression" (dted in Moorman, 1989, p. 130). In response to these and other attacks aimed at DBAE, its original premise has altered considerably since its first definition by Greer (1984). DBAE now: seems to define art more broadly, includes art of other cultures, seems to no longer promote only the 100 canons of art made by dead white Euro-American makes, seems to embrace the 'popular arts' as worthy of serious consideration, no longer equates aesthetics with aesthetic experiences and responses, realizes the limitations of aesthetic scanning, acknowledges that art has social content as well as form, and is tolerant of contributions of feminist scholars. (Greer, 1987, p. 94). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

36 DBAE: Effects on Teacher Training With the development of a new paradigm for art education, the former philosophy for teaching art has gradually disbanded. Over the past ten years, DBAE has established itself as the dominant theory in the field. This has persuaded colleges and universities to re-evaluate their teacher preparation curriculum to include the tenets of DBAE (Feinstein, 1989; Rogers & Brogdon, 1990). They have had to add courses in aesthetics and criticism, as well as expand their art history and studio offerings to ensure that their preservice teachers will have the knowledge necessary to enforce a discipline-based curriculum in their schools. A discipline-based curriculum in higher education has proved to be a duel challenge for institutions in that (1) colleges and universities must re­ structure their programs to find time, funding, and knowledgeable faculty to teach courses in each of the four disciplines and (2) those courses must offer both content and teaching strategies specific to that discipline. Feinstein (1989) best describes the complexities of the latter in her statement "we cannot presume that students can take a course in aesthetics, for example, and by themselves figure out how to teach it to youngsters" (p. 8). If we assume that institutions can meet these conditions, then it seems necessary to provide students an opportunity to put their knowledge into practice. Even though the discipline-based theory is well established in higher education, it has yet to become the dominant practice in public schools. Part of this problem may lie in preservice teachers' assumptions about what art looks like in the classroom. Another contributor may be that up until the current decade the curriculum of most fine art departments was Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

37 dictated by a "creative self-expression" approach to art education (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987). This theory, fueled by modernist ideology, placed its emphasis on activities which develop a child's assumed inherent creativity (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987). The remnants of a creative self-expression based curriculum can still be seen in that many preservice programs in art education focus the bulk of certification and degree requirements on broad based studio experiences with intense study in two or three studio areas. With much of their own art education from a creative self-expression model, many preservice teachers a

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