Published on February 5, 2014
Question 3 in Paper 2 and Chapter 3 in textbook Combination of short and long questions (20 marks) MEDIA COMMUNICATION AND ADVERTISING
3.1 : See page 37 THE MAIN MASS MEDIA 2
3.1 THE MAIN MASS MEDIA (P.37) Printed media (newspapers, magazines) Audio media (radio) Audio-visual (television and cinema) Electronic media (computers, IT services) Public library (collection of facilities) Outdoor media (posters, leaflets, big screen video facilities at sport meetings, outdoor concerts) 3
3.2.1 NEWSPAPERS (P.37) ADVANTAGES Written record Carries more weight than spoken word Message have a more permanent impact on audience Important for advertising DISADVANTAGES Local character (particular geographical community) But: within this area you can cater for specific audiences in that area! Sale of newspapers have gone down – why? People are lazy to read Influence of electronic media 5
3.2.2 MAGAZINES (P.38) ADVANTAGES They fill the gap between newspapers and books Inexpensive Accessible Easy to browse through Less time-consuming to read as books Content specialised according to interests of readers DISADVANTAGES Heavily dependent on advertising for survival Lost battle against television Specialised magazines still stay popular e.g. You 6
3.2.3 CINEMA (P.38) ADVANTAGE Audiovisual impact of sound and colour DISADVANTAGE Television had a negative impact on cinema audiences Producers sell films to TV companies Audiences are now more younger, sophisticated, more intellectual When last were you in a cinema? 7
3.2.5 TELEVISION (P.39) ADVANTAGES Dramatic and intimate Instantaneous image of events in world World’s major source of news and information Relatively cheap entertainment and relaxation Great value to handicapped, the ill, the elderly DISADVANTAGES Violent events or films Effect of these violence on children? Poor quality programmes Create undiscerning viewers – mediocre audience Lack of culturally uplifting and educational programmes 8
3.2.6 ELECTRONIC MEDIA (P.39) ADVANTAGES Instant transmission of international and local messages All information of printed media available on single CD Rom (National Geographic) etc. DISADVANTAGES The National Geographic Society has recently released a CD-ROM collection, THE COMPLETE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, which contains 108 years (1888 through 1996) of the magazine on 30 compact disks. Breakdown in transmission can affect users Lead to breakdown in business Confidentiality breach 10
3.2.7 PUBLIC LIBRARY (P.39) ADVANTAGES All of the advantages as listed above Is conducive to study, education, relaxation DISADVANTAGES Inadequate funds Seldom equipped to meet needs of all users Centre of town, far from people in suburbs or far away. Transport? Electronic books? Media? Are they changing the way we use libraries? 12
3.2.8 OUTDOOR MEDIA (P.40) ADVANTAGES Cost-effectiveness Ability to reach vast audiences Geographically adaptable B-class DISADVANTAGES Negative aesthetical effect on environment Message has to be given in short period of time 13
3.3 COMMUNICATION PROCESS (P.40) Mass communication occurs when a sender employs a particular medium or channel to transmit a specific message simultaneously to a vast number of receivers who are physically remote, each of whom receives the message individually and whose feedback is indirect and delayed. 14
3.3 PROCESS – EXPLANATIONS (P.41) Sender: “mouthpiece” of large organised group like a political reporter of a newspaper Receiver: “individual”. People receive the message individually Channel or medium: Like newspaper, tv, radio Message: deliberate, mass-orientated. Media act as gatekeepers to water down original message Feedback: delayed, indirect. A letter, telephone call 15
3.4 FUNCTIONS OF THE MASS MEDIA (P.41) To inform To interpret To educate To entertain To advertise To render a service To be a carrier of culture To be a moral watchdog of society 16
3.5 LANGUAGE USED BY MASS MEDIA (P.42) The language used depends on … Target audience Children, housewives, businesspeople, groups in different regions Purpose of a specific report Transmit data Persuading to buy something 17
ELEMENTS OF STYLE (LANGUAGE) P.43 Clichés, generalisations, pseudo-scientific statements. “According to informed sources”, “Experts agree”, “Reliable information” (journalese) Irony Rhetoric Who Clever questions says South Africans are a peace loving nation? word-play “Champions for a day” 18
ELEMENTS OF STYLE (LANGUAGE) P.43 Puns: More than one meaning – words with different meanings 19
ELEMENTS OF STYLE (LANGUAGE) P.43 Sarcasm Tool of propaganda. Deliberate and unconcealed ridiculing and even insulting of news reporter’s target Alliteration Words which start with similar sounds used close to each other creating a rhythm for maximum effect 20
3.6 MANIPULATIVE REPORTING (P.44) Occurs when a newspaper, radio or tv report is subtly twisted or slanted by means of subjective expressions or expressive photographs in order to create or reinforce either a positive or a negative emotion or attitude in the receivers of the message. Media should be Objective and impartial But interpretation (moral watchdog and carrier of culture) can change the way they see the info 21
This much is clear: Trayvon Martin was shot and killed by George Zimmerman in Sanford, Florida, on the rainy evening of February 26, 2012. Trayvon Martin was a 17-year-old African American teenager. Zimmerman, 28 years old, is a man of multiethnic heritage who was patrolling his gated community in Florida. Martin had been walking back from a 7-Eleven where he had bought a bag of Skittles and an iced tea and was unarmed when he was shot by Zimmerman's semiautomatic. He can be heard begging for his life on the police dispatch recording of the incident. Martin's only crime was, as Zimmerman described to police dispatch, "This guy looks like he is up to no good. He is on drugs or something." Martin was wearing a hoodie at the time of his death, with the hood pulled up to keep out the rain. Zimmerman's trial began on June 10, 2013, in Sanford, Florida. He had requested a "Stand Your Ground" hearing, but in March 2013, his defense elected to bypass the hearing so that his case would be tried before a jury. On Saturday, July 13, 2013, the jury found Zimmerman not guilty of second-degree murder and of manslaughter. The six women in the jury delivered their verdict after more than sixteen hours of deliberations. "Only in America can a dead black boy go on trial for his own murder," said Syreeta McFadden, in reaction to the verdict. 23
3.6.1 TECHNIQUES OF MANIPULATIVE REPORTING (P.45) Selective reporting (mentioning only some facts and omitting the rest) “Loading” reports emotionally Reporting out of context Taking photographs for publication from certain angles 24
3.7 PROPAGANDA (P.48) The extreme form of manipulative reporting. Originally had a favourable connotation. During WW1, the word propaganda gained its traditional meaning: Deliberate attempt on the part of an individual or group to manipulate, often by concealed or underhand means, the minds of others for their own ulterior ends. 25
3.7.1 ELEMENTS OF PROPAGANDA (P.49) ETHOS Credibility of the sender LOGOS Logical content of the message PATHOS Emotions or feelings of the receiver of the message 26
3.7.2 TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED BY PROPAGANDISTS (P.49) Stereotyping and name-calling Stereotyped in terms of groups of which they are members. Substitution of names People or ideas get a derogatory or more favourable connotation. “Boers”, “Freedom Fighters) Selection of facts Card-stacking 28
3.7.2 TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED BY PROPAGANDISTS (P.50) Generalisation “All of us”, Climbing on the bandwagon Appeal to authority or use of testimonials Well-known person’s testimony is used Pinpointing the enemy Scapegoat is identified Repetition Assertion (selection) Lying 30
3.8 ADVERTISING (P.52) Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. PURPOSE OF ADVERTISING To inform To remind To persuade 31
3.9 REQUIREMENTS FOR PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING (P.52-59) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B-Class The AIDA formula Knowledge of your target audience Knowledge of the product Clear understanding of purpose the company has in mind with advertisement Feedback from the consumer Understanding potential consumer’s psychological needs (Maslow) 32
3.9.1 AIDA FORMULA (P.53) Attention Punchlines, Interest Supplying hard facts, qualities emphasised Desire Identify jingles, to take notice of … psychological needs and “fulfil” them Action Get to buy now, sale only till Saturday etc. 33
3.9.2 TARGET AUDIENCE (P.55) Should understand the market segment where they want to sell products or service. Market research helps by getting: Demographic information Psychographic information Helps to reveal perception of specific target audience. 34
3.9.2 KNOW THE TARGET AUDIENCE (P.55) Cultures and subcultures (enculturation) Nationality subcultures Religious subcultures Geographical subcultures Ethnic subcultures Social class Social mobility, conformity/non-conformity and reference groups 35
3.9.3 KNOWLEDGE OF THE PRODUCT (P.57) What quality the product or service possesses In what respect is the product or service better than the competitors In what phase of life cycle is the product? 36
3.9.4 CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF PURPOSE COMPANY HAS WITH ADVERTISEMENT (P.58) What market segment? What information regarding product has to be conveyed? What reaction is required by market segment? 37
3.9.5 FEEDBACK FROM THE CUSTOMER (P.58) Questionnaires “Before” and “after” tests Observe changes in consumers’ behaviour Study of voluntary comments Study of and campaign against cognitive dissonance (blocking out of competitive advertisements by seeking out advertisements of purchased brand) 38
3.9.6 UNDERSTAND MASLOW (P.59) Motivational theory.First 4 are physical needs 39
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