Published on February 5, 2014
N4: INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND SOCIAL INTERACTION Question 3 in paper Page 32-45
Watch the “Dove” clip and talk about self-image …
2.1 A HEALTHY SELF-IMAGE: BASIS FOR SOUND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Self-image: is a continuous interpretation and evaluation of his physical, psychological and social qualities, as observed by him on the basis of his daily experiences. As such man’s self-image is an expression of what he thinks he is and not necessarily what he really is.
2.1.1 ELEMENTS OF THE SELF-IMAGE P.32 The way a person perceives himself (i.e. what he thinks of himself) The way a person interprets others’ perception of him (i.e) what he thinks others think of him The way a person would like to be (his ideal selfimage) 1: Low self-image 2: Realistic self-image 3: The way she would like to be – Ideal self-image
2.1.2 DIMENSIONS OF THE SELF-IMAGE P.32 Physical dimension 1. Dexterity (skills) dimension 2. Individual’s evaluation of his level of intelligence Psychological dimension 5. Evaluation of technical and social skills against meaningful people in a person’s life Intellectual dimension 3. 4. Individual’s experience of his own body. Your view of yourself (introvert vs extrovert) Sexual dimension How popular an individual believes himself/herself to be among members of the opposite sex Extent to which an individual believes he/she complies with the traditional behavioural stereotypes for males and females, as prescribed by society
220.127.116.11 COPING WITH IMBALANCES IN THE SELF-IMAGE P.34 Often imbalance exists between an individual’s actual self-image (the way he thinks he is) and his ideal self-image (the way he would like to be). If a girl wants to be more pretty then she can then compensate for this imbalance by concentrating on other dimensions, like enhancing her intellectual dimension. In this way she maintains a positive selfimage.
2.1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD AND A POOR SELF-IMAGE Single most noticeable difference between someone with a good self-image and someone with a poor self-image is the presence or absence of self-esteem. Lack of self-esteem: individual constantly has negative views about himself (poor self-image) Summary on page 35 explains differences. NB! Someone with a good self-image will reflect MOST of the characteristics listed most of the time, but not necessarily all of them. (left) Same can be said about a poor self-image (right)
2.1.4 IMPROVEMENT OF THE SELF-IMAGE P.34 Self-image is formed throughout life and by different situations and experiences in life. An individual’s self-image is dynamic and of a developing nature. One can improve them. The following THREE requirements can help to improve one’s self-image. Self-knowledge (about your strengths and weaknesses) A realistic self-ideal (perception of the way one would like to be) Self-esteem (reasonably consistent positive views about oneself. An unconditional acceptance of the person by meaningful others – parents, peer groups, other adults.
2.1.5 PRACTICAL GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING YOUR SELF-IMAGE P.35 Be realistic about your abilities – recognise your strengths and weaknesses; and set your goals accordingly. Tackle tasks you can cope with and make sure you complete them. Encourage yourself to achieve success. Develop the “I can do it” attitude. Do not say negative things about yourself – think positively. Be proud of your achievements. Accept compliments from others graciously. Analyse and evaluate all criticism.
2.1.6 HUMAN NEEDS: MASLOW’S HIERARCHY P.37
2.1.6 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY Physiological needs: Biological survival of the human being – food, water, oxygen, sleep. Security: need for stability (predictable routine), order, protection, freedom from fear. Affiliation needs: Need to give and receive love, as well as need to be accepted by and belong to a certain group. Need for esteem and self-esteem: individual’s need to evaluate himself positively. Need for self-actualisation: express growth needs. You have a need to utilise your talent, abilities and potential.
2.1.6 MASLOW – HOW EMPLOYERS HELP Physiological needs: providing adequate lunchhours, regular tea-breaks and holiday and sick leave facilities. Security needs: Employers take care of security needs of employees by providing a safe working environment, etc. Affiliation needs: Arranging welcoming functions for new employees as well as regular social functions for employees and their families. Need for esteem and self-esteem: presenting incentive awards, creating opportunities for promotion, and by public recognition of work done. Need for self-actualisation: provide opportunity for advanced study and in-service training. Social involvement in community affairs (such as fighting cancer or adult basic education).
2.2 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REFERENCE GROUPS P.39 Primary reference groups: with whom the individual has direct contact. Secondary reference groups: with whom the individual has indirect contact with other people.
2.3 BARRIERS IN INTERPERSONAL COMM AND SOCIAL INTERACTION External (physical barriers): factors outside sender like lighting, ventilation, noise Internal barriers Physiological: physical condition interferes Psychological: personality and emotions interfere
BARRIERS TO INTERPERSONAL COMM AND SOCIAL INTERACTION – PAGE 2 Perceptual barriers Background, Education and training, Intelligence, Occupation, Needs, Interests, Persona lity, Attitude, Age, Sex, Race, Religion Prejudice and stereotyping: passing judgement before a proper trial or enquiry Ethnocentricity: cultural relativity – one culture judges another's values and norms according to own culture’s values and norms. Semantic barriers: Sender and receiver attach different meanings to a particular word or expression. Example: vague expressions, jargon and slang
18.104.22.168 INTERACTION BETWEEN VARIOUS COMMUNICATION BARRIERS P.44 Communication barriers do not operate in isolation They often overlap and result in a more serious barrier. A physiological barrier like a stutter can lead to a psychological barrier, e.g. being withdrawn. This can lead to perceptual barriers, since the stutterer’s need might differ from those of his colleagues.
2.3.3 GATE-KEEPING P.44 Sometimes fear of known or unknown consequences causes people to create communication barriers deliberately. This process is known as gate-keeping. If you did not complete an assignment, you may want to avoid to see your lecturer – not until the work is done. (Also see page 44 for more examples)
2.3.4 OVERCOMING COMM BARRIERS Speak clearly and audibly Use simple, unambiguous language Be tactful and practise empathy. Be sensitive towards culture, age, background, intelligencelevel, needs, interests. Be sincere Be a good listener Allow your conversation partner to air his opinions. Be fair, constructive and tactful when offering criticism Accept constructive criticism gracefully.
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