Published on March 5, 2009
Behaviorism : Behaviorism Created by: Cheryl Behm Nora O'Neill Cheryl Patzer Shawna Perlman Heidi Roome Slide 2: Behaviorism Principles of the Theory Implications for Learning Key Philosophers and Educators The Learner’s Role The Teacher’s Role Applied Behaviorism Slide 3: Principles of Behaviorism Associative learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Stimulus = Response http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html Slide 4: Principles of Behaviorism Law and Effect Response feels good = repetition Response uncomfortable = aversion Law of Contiguity We learn by doing http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/ethorndike.shtml Slide 5: Implications for Learning Learning and the Behaviorist Theory Learning Theorists Visualized Slide 6: Implications for Learning Designed by Instructor Objectives to be met Stated as behaviors exemplified Measurable Quizzes, Tests, Skills check-off & NCLEX! Slide 7: Key Philosophers and Educators Pavlov Watson Thorndike Guthrie B.F. Skinner Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Associations drive learning : Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Associations drive learning Slide 9: Watson Stimulus – Response Model of conditioning Thorndike “Law of Effect” = positive reinforcement Guthrie “Law of Contiguity” = learning occurs through doing Behaviorism in Action! : Behaviorism in Action! Conditioning Stimulus 4 Response Positive Reinforcement Practice Repetition Slide 11: B. F. Skinner “Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.” Slide 12: B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Behavior 4Desired Response 4 Reinforcement = Repetition Types of reinforcement Continuous Fixed Ratio Fixed Interval Schedule Variable Schedules: best example = gambling Slide 13: The Role of the Learner Recipient of Teaching External Motivation Reward and Punishment driven Behavior- driven measurements “Black Box” – only observed behavior is measureable Slide 14: The Ideal Learner is Cooperative Malleable Other-directed Responsive Prior knowledge and internal states of learner are not emphasized Slide 15: The Role of the Teacher Leader/Motivator Active role – sets the pace Provides stimuli Presents content in small sections Provides reinforcement Feedback reinforces proper stimuli-response Applied Behaviorism Method - Memorization of our ABC’s : Applied Behaviorism Method - Memorization of our ABC’s Repetition Breaks it into small parts Practice Positive Reinforcement Format – a song Slide 17: Method of Application in Nursing Education Anatomy Class Memorization Small sections building into a larger whole Repetition/Practice Reinforcement (+/-) through grades Slide 18: Method of Application in Nursing Education Clinical Skill Acquisition Skills Lab Practice Skill Check-off (Reinforcement – pass or fail) Slide 19: Assessment in Nursing Education Quizzes and Tests Predominantly Multiple-choice format ATI @end of semester NCLEX for licensure Pyschomotor Skills check-off Practice, Perform & Evaluation Prompt Feedback Slide 20: Albert Bandura "To succeed, one cannot afford to be a realist." ~ Albert Bandura ~Address before the American Psychological Association, 1998 (Pajares, F.. 2004) “The Bridge between Behaviorism and Cognitive Learning Theories” (Boeree, G. C. 1998, 2006) Slide 21: References a2zpsychology.com. (2002-2006). Edwin R. Guthrie (1886-1959). Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://www.a2zpsychology.com/great_psychologists/edwin_r_guthrie.htm Boeree, G. C., Dr. (1998, 2006). B.F. Skinner 1904-1990. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html Boeree, G. C., Dr. (1998, 2006) ALBERT BANDURA 1925 – present. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html Jacobson, C., D., - MindMapping is a registered trademark of the Mindjet and the Buzan Centre (2000-2008). Study Aids for Visual Learners – Level Three: Learning Theorists-Behaviorists, Cognitive and Miscellaneous. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from http://carolyn.jlcarroll.net/BehvCognit.html Slide 22: References Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2009, March). Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) at Learning- Theories.com. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from http://www.learning-theories.com/classical- conditioning-pavlov.html Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2009, March). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning- Theories.com. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html McLeod, S.A. (2007). Simply Psychology: Behaviorim [On-line] UK. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/behaviourism.html McLeod, S.A. (2007). Simply Psychology: BF Skinner: Operant Conditioning [On-line] UK. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/operant-conditioning.html Slide 23: References Mergel, B. (1998). Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from http://www2.yk.psu.edu/~jlg18/506/Instructional%20Design%20by%20Mengal.pdf On Purpose Associates (1998-2008). Behaviorism. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from http://www.funderstanding.com/content/behaviorism Pajares, F. (2004). Albert Bandura: Biographical sketch. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html Plucker, J., Dr. (2007). Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) Psychologist. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/ethorndike.shtml Van Wagner, K., About.com: Psychology (2005-2009). B. F. Skinner Biography (1904-1990). Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm Slide 24: References Van Wagner, K. About. Com: Psychology (2005-2009) What is Behaviorism? Retrieved February 27, 2009 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm Van Wagner, K. About.com: Psychology (2005-2009). Introduction to Operant Conditioning. Retrieved February 27, 2009 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm Van Wagner, K. About.com: Psychology (2005-2009). Learning Study Guide. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/learning_sg.htm Watson, E. (May 1999). John B. Watson (1878-1958). Retrieved March 1, 2009 from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm Slide 25: Associative learning “Learning occurs through associations made between events” http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html Back to Principles of Behaviorism Slide 26: Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus = unconditioned response Unconditioned stimulus + conditioned stimulus = conditioned response http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html Back to Principles of Behaviorism Slide 27: Operant Conditioning Behavior + reinforcing stimulus = increase in the behavior http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html Back to Principles of Behaviorism
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