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myths of creation gods

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Published on April 16, 2008

Author: Davide

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Classical Mythology:  Classical Mythology PowerPoint Outlines Slide2:  Part One The Myths of Creation The Gods Slide3:  Chapter 1: Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology The Problem of Defining Myth The Meaning of “myth” Mythos: “tale” or “story” True myth or myth proper Saga or legend Folktale Myth, Sage or Legend, and folktale Myth: primarily concerned with the gods and the relations with mortals Saga or Legend: containing a kernel of historical truth and focusing upon the adventures of a hero Folktale: including elements of elements of the fantastic and magical Myth and Truth Myth and Religion Mircea Eliade Myth and Etiology Aitia: cause or reason for a fact, ritual practice, institution Rationalism, Metaphor, and Allegory Euhemerism: rationalization of myth attributed to Euhemerus (ca. 300 B. C.) Allegory: a sustained metaphor Allegorical nature Myths: explanations of meteorological and cosmological phenomena; Max Müller Slide4:  Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology Myth and Psychology Freud Oedipus Complex Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannos Electra Complex Dreams and “dream-work” Jung Collective Unconscious Archetypes Myth and Society Myth an d Ritual J. G. Frazer The Golden Bough Jane Harrison Robert Graves Myth as Social Charters Bronislav Malinowski Anthropologist Tobriand islanders Myths as “charters” of social customs and beliefs Slide5:  Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology The Structuralists Claude Lévi-Strauss Binary structure Negotiation and resolution of opposites Vladamir Propp Russian folklorist Analysis of recurrent pattern 31 motifemes : functions or units of action Walter Burkert Patterns of motifemes broken down to five: 1. The girl leaves home. 2. The girl is secluded. 3. She becomes pregnant by god. 4. She suffers. 5. She is rescued and gives birth to a son. Synthesis of structuralist and historical viewpoints “Historical dimension” of myth Four theses 1. Myth belongs to the more general class of tradition tales. 2. The identity of a traditional tale is to be found in a structure of sense within the tale itself. 3. Tale structures, as a sequence of motifemes, are founded on basic biological or cultural progams of actions. 4. Myth is a traditional tale with secondary, partial reference to something of collective importance. Comparative Study and Classical Mythology Oral and Literary Myth Joseph Campbell Slide6:  Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology Feminism, Homosexuality, and Mythology Feminism Women in Greek society 1.Women were citizens of their communities, unlike non-citizens and slaves-a very meaningful distinction. They did not have the right to vote. No woman anywhere won this democratic right until 1920. 2. The role of women in religious rituals was fundamental; and they participated in many festivals of their own, from which men were excluded. 3. Women’s education was dependent on her future role in society, her status or class, and her individual needs (as was that of a man). 4. The cloistered, illiterate, and oppressed creatures often adduced as representative of the status of women in antiquity are at variance with the testimony of all the sources, literary, artistic, and archaeological. The Theme of Rape Homosexuality Some Conclusions and a Definition of Classical Myth A classic myth is a story that, through its classical form, has attained a kind of immortality because its inherent archetypal beauty, profundity, and power have inspired rewarding renewal and transformation by successive generations. Slide7:  Chapter 2: Historical Background of Greek Mythology Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890), founder of modern archaeology Excavations at Troy, Tiryns, and Mycenae Sir Arthur Evans Cnossus in Crete (1899) Minoan Sketch Of Early Greece and The Aegean Stone Age Paleolithic Period (before 70,000 B. C.) Neolithic Period (ca. 6000-3000 B. C.) Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 B. C.) Early Minoan Early Cycladic Early Helladic Middle Bronze Age (2000-1600 B. C.) Middle Minoan Middle Cycladic Middle Helladic Late Bronze Age (1600-1100 B. C.) Late Minoan Late Cycladic Late Helladic (Mycenaean) Paleolithic Age: inhabited, but knowledge is scanty Neolithic Age Migration for east and north of Greece Agricultural communities Female “fetishes” Slide8:  Historical Background of Greek Mythology Minoan Civilization King Minos Zenith during Late Bronze Age (1600-1100 B. C.) Palace complexes Cnossus and Phaestus Historical/mythological traditions Minos Theseus Minotaur Labyrinth (Labrys) Bull motif End of Cretan dominance (1400 B. C.) Eruption of Thera (modern Santorini) Myth of Atlantis (Plato’s Critias and Timaeus) The Mycenaean Age Invasion from north and possibly east First Greek speakers Mycenae, “rich in gold” Cyclopean walls Lion Gate Shaft graves Tholos tombs Carl Blegen (1887-1971) Nestor’s Pylos Megaron Sky-god (Zeus) Linear B Rich horde of tablets at Pylos Michael Ventris and John Chadwick (1952) Linear A Paean Potnia Slide9:  Historical Background of Greek Mythology Troy and the Trojan War Schliemann and Wilhelm Dörpfeld: campaigns at Troy (1871-1894) Blegen’s work at Troy (1932-1938) Since 1988: under direction of Manfred Korfmann 9 Settlements on hill of Hisarlik Troy I (ca. 2920-2450) Troy II (ca. 2600-2450 B. C.: Schliemann’s “Treasure of Priam” Troy VIII (ca. 700-85 B. C.) Troy IX (85-ca. A. D. 500) Troy VI and Troy VIIa Continuity of culture Evidence of human settlements linked to the Trojan War Different stages of conflict Signs of devastation hasty burials long-weapons, piles of stones Date of destruction of VIIa (1250-1150 B. C.) Tradition date for Trojan War (1184 B. C.) Upper citadel and lower Area of habitation Commercial ties between Mycenaean Greece and Troy Troy’s position on the Hellespont Economic causes of conflict plausible Hittite texts “Wilusa” and Ilios Appaliunas and Apollo Confirmation of Homeric Geography Mycenaean cemetery on site of original coastline Slide10:  Historical Background of Greek Mythology End of Mycenaean Age and Homer Unsettled Conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean Destruction of Mycenaean Centers The Dorians The “Sea Peoples” The Dark Age Decline in population Loss of literacy Impoverished material culture The Emergence of the Iliad and the Odyssey (eighth century B. C.) Oral tradition “Homer” Asia Minor (or one of the coastal islands) Epic dialect Traces of every period from Bronze Age to eighth century B. C. Invention of a True Alphabet Phoenician script Writing and its relationship to the production of Homer’s epics Slide11:  Chapter 3: Myths of Creation Parallels between Greco-Roman and Near Eastern Myths Homer Incomplete account of genesis Hesiod (ca. 700) First literary account of genesis among the Greeks (Theogony andWorks and Days) Invocation to the Muses Chaos (yawning void) Gaia/Gaea/Ge or Earth Tartarus (place beneath the earth) Eros (the procreative urge; love) Erebus (gloom of Tartarus) Night Aether (the upper atmosphere) Day Creation Account in Ovid’s Metamorphoses Chaos as crude, unformed mass of elements Empedocles Four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) Hieros Gamos (“sacred marriage”) Gaia and Uranus Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnomosyne, Phoebe, Tethys, and Cronus Cyclopes Hecatonchires Slide12:  Myths of Creation Oceanus and the Oceanids Hyperion and Helius, Gods of the Sun Phaëthon, son of Helius Clymene Selene, Goddess of the Moon Endymion Mt. Latomus in Caria The Endymion sarcophagus Apollo, Sun-god and Artemis, Moon-Goddess Eos (Aurora), Goddess of the Dawn Tithonus Castration of Uranus Birth of Aphrodite (foam or “aphros”) Cytherea Cyprogenes Cyprian Philommedes A Second Hieros Gamos: Cronus and Rhea Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus Slide13:  Myths of Creation The Birth of Zeus Mt. Dicte Cybele Rhea-Cybele Curetes Amalthea Amalgamation of Mycenaean and Minoan Elements Mythological Interpretations MaxMüller Feminist criticism Lévi-Strauss Freudian interpretations Jungian archetypes Additional Reading Hesiod’s Theogony 1-115 Slide14:  Chapter 4: Zeus’ Rise to Power: The Creation of Mortals The Titanomachy: Zeus Defeats his Father, Cronus Zeus grows to maturity Cronus disgorges Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon Zeus’ allies: his brothers and sisters, the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes Zeus’ opponents: the Titans (especially Atlas) with the exception of Themis and her son Prometheus Zeus on Mt. Olympus against Cronus on Mt. Othrys Titans imprisoned in Tartarus and Atlas condemned to hold up the sky. The Gigantomachy Gaia produces the Gegeneis (“earthborn”) Giants imprisoned in volcanic regions, e. g. Enceladus under Mt. Aetna in Sicily Typhoeus (or Typhaon or Typhon) Otus and Ephialtes pile up Oympus, Ossa, and Pelion. Confusion of Traditions about the Titanomachy and Gigantomachy Historical Underpinnings of Myths Process of conquest and amalgamation, when Greeks invade Greece (2000 B. C.) Creation of Mortals Traditions involving Zeus Prometheus, creator of man Ovid’s account The Four or Five Ages Gold, silver, bronze, iron Hesiod’s inclusion of an Age of Heroes between bronze and iron The characteristics of the ages Aidos and Nemesis Slide15:  Zeus’s Rise to Power Prometheus Against Zeus Iapetus and Clymene Epimetheus The trick of the sacrifice The theft of fire in a hollow fennel stalk The punishment of Prometheus Heracles ends Prometheus’ suffering Creation of Pandora Hephaestus’ creation Athena’s role Pandora (“all gifts”) Pandora’s jar Hermes’ role Epimetheus “Hope alone remained within.” Interpretation of the Myths of Prometheus and Pandora Ritual of sacrifice Origin of fire “Culture god” or “culture hero” “Divine trickster” The nature of gods and men The nature of evil The position of woman The role of hope Slide16:  Zeus’ Rise to Power Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound Strength (Kratos) and Force (Bia) Characterization of Hephaestus Zeus as tyrant Prometheus’ gifts to mankind Chorus of Oceanids The Story of Io Hera’s jealousy Argus Panoptes (“all-seeing”) Hermes Argeiphontes (“slayer of Argus”) Peacock Egypt and the birth of Epaphus The role of Io in Prometheus Bound Promise of Heracles’ release Prometheus’ secret about Thetis Zeus and Lycaon and the Wickedness of Mortals The tyrant Lycaon Transformation into a wolf The Flood Deucalion, son of Prometheus Pyrrha, daughter or Epimetheus The “bones” of the mother Hellen, eponymous ancestor of the Greeks Slide17:  Zeus’s Rise to Power Succession Myths and Other Motifs Near Eastern Parallels to Hesiod’s Account The Succession Myth as Archetype Enuma Elish (When on High); Babylonian Marduk Tiamat Kingship in Heaven Kumarbi Anu Persistence and Diffusion of the Flood Motif Character and Career of Zeus Circumstances of birth Infancy in seclusion “Divine Child” Close to nature and world of animals Obstacles and adversaries Ultimately victorious Parallels In Myths of Greece and the Ancient Near East Five basic myths Creation Succession Flood Descent to Underworld Hero-king Gilgamesh Two periods of contact with Greece: 13th and 14th centuries; 8th and 7th centuries B. C. Sumer and Akkad Ur Cuneiform Ziggurats Slide18:  Zeus’ Rise to Power Babylon and King Hammurabi (1800 B. C.) Establishment of the Assyrian Empire Capital at Nineveh Hurrians Hittites in Anatolia Capital at Hattusas (Boghaz-Köy) Babylonian Enuma Elish Apsu and Tiamat Anu and Ea or Enki (earth-god) Birth of Marduk Enlil Comparison of Typhoeus with Tiamat Babylonian Atrahasis Atrahasis (extra wise) Tyranny of Enlil Atrahasis survives flood Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh, ruler of Sumerian city of Uruk (ca. 2700 B. C.) Ut-napishtim Similarities with Odysseus, Heracles, and the Iliad Enkidu Ishtar The Bull of Heaven Akkadian Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld Inanna/Ishtar Dumuzi (Tammuz) Slide19:  Chapter 5: The Twelve Olympians: Zeus, Hera, and Their Children Zeus’ Establishment As Supreme God Zeus--sky Poseidon--sea Hades--underworld Pantheon of Gods Zeus (Jupiter) Hera (Juno) Poseidon (Neptune) Hades (Pluto) Hestia (Vesta) Hephaestus (Vulcan) Ares (Mars) Apollo Artemis (Diana) Demeter (Ceres) Aphrodite (Venus) Athena (Minerva) Hermes (Mercury) Dionysus (Bacchus) Canonical twelve (with removal of Hades and Hestia) Hestia, Goddess of the Hearth and Its Fire A goddess of chastity Hearth/sacred fire Hestia (“hearth”) Familytribe city state Transmission of fire First-born of Cronus and Rhea Slide20:  The Twelve Olympians Zeus Amorous nature Image of father, husband, and lover Justice and virtue Moral order of the universe The cloud-gatherer “Bright” Thunder/lightening Aegis/eagle/oak Tales of Zeus’ subordination Zeus and Hera Hieros Gamos Hera:consort and queen Stern, vengeful Women/marriage/childbirth Peacock Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia Elis Olympic Games, 776 B. C. Connection with Heracles Pelops and Hippodamia Temple of Zeus West pediment: Lapiths and Centaurs East pediment: race of Pelops and Oenomaüs Metopes: Twelve Labors of Heracles Cult Image of Zeus carved by Pheidias Oracles at Olympia and Dodona Whispering oaks of Dodona Slide21:  The Twelve Olympians Children of Zeus and Hera Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth Hebe: cupbearer of gods Ganymede Hephaestus, divine artisan God of fire and forge Lame Return of Hephaestus Consort of Aphrodite Adultery with Ares Ares, God of War Cult partner: Aphrodite Thrace Eros Brutality of war Other Children of Zeus The Nine Muses Mnemosyne (“memory”) Patrons of literature and the arts Pieria/Mt. Helicon “Reminders” Calliope (epic) Clio (history or lyre playing) Euterpe (lyric or tragedy and flute playing) Melpomene (tragedy or lyre playing) Terpsichore (choral dancing or flute playing) Erato (love poetry or hymns to gods and lyre playing) Polyhymnia (sacred music or dancing) Urania (astronomy) Thalia (comedy) Slide22:  The Twelve Olympians The Three Fates Zeus and Themis Moirai (Greek) or Parcae (Latin) Clotho (Spinner) Lachesis (Apportioner) Atropos (Inflexible) Luck or Fortune (Tyche) Necessity (Ananke) Slide23:  Chapter 6: The Nature of the Gods Anthropomorphism Human form and character Idealization Mt. Olympus Olympian/chthonian Ambrosia/nectar/ichor Divine Hierarchy Zeus Olympian gods (and important chthonian gods) Wondrous, terrifying beings Nymphs Demigods Heroes Zeus and Monotheism Sovereignty of Zeus Moral order of universe Suppliants, hospitality, oaths Monotheistic cast View of Zeus in Religious poets and Philosophers Stern Zeus of Hesiod Xenophanes Aeschylus’ Agamemnon Polytheistic cast in Judeo-Christian religion Slide24:  The Nature of the Gods Greek Humanism Protagoras: “Man is the measure of all things.” Sophocles’ Antigone Achilles in the Underworld (Homer’s Odyssey) Idealistic optimism/realistic pessimism Myth Religion and Philosophy Greeks were not a people of a religious “book.” Place of Homer Priests and Priestesses Legendary History of Herodotus History of the Persian Wars Story of Solon, Croesus, and Cyrus Herodotus as Mythhistorian Influence of Homer and Tragedy Atys (Ate [“ruin” or “destruction”]); links with Attis and Adonis Adrastus (“the one who cannot escape”); links with Nemesis or Adrasteia (Necessity) Slide25:  Chapter 7: Poseidon, Sea Deities, Group Divinities, and Monsters Pontus (Sea) Oceanus and TethysOceanids Pontus and GeNereus (an old man of the sea) Nereus and Doris (an Oceanid)Nereids Three Important Nereids Thetis Prophecy of Thetis’ son Marriage of Peleus and Thetis Achilles Galatea Polyphemus (a cyclops) Acis, son of Faunus and Symaethis Amphitrite Consort of Poseidon Triton Conch shell Proteus Attendent of Poseidon (sometimes his son) Seer Ability to change shape Old man of the sea Appearance and character of Poseidon Stern, rough, unkempt Trident “Earthshaker” Male fertility of the earth; stallion and bull Slide26:  Poseidon Scylla and Charybdis Scylla, daughter of Phorcys and Hecate Relationship with Poseidon or Glaucus Transformation at the hands of Amphitrite or Circe Straits of Messina Charybdis, daughter of Poseidon and Ge Whirlpool Progeny of Pontus and Ge Iris (“rainbow”) and Harpies (“snatchers”) Graeae (“aged ones”) Gorgons (Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa) Perseus Pegasus and Chrysaor (he of the golden sword) Ladon, guardian of the tree in the garden of the Hesperides (“daughters of evening”) Children of Chrysaor and Callirhoë Geryon and Echidna, Children of Echidna and Typhon Orthus, Cerberus, the Lernaean Hydra, and the Chimaera Children of Echidna and Orthus The Theban Sphinx and the Nemean Lion, Slide27:  Chapter 8: Athena Birth of Athena Zeus and Metis (“wisdom”) In full battle array Prowess in battle, strategy and tactics of war, goddess of the citadel, masculine virginity Sculpture of the Parthenon Athena Parthenos (“virgin”) Athenian Acropolis (447 B. C.-438 B. C.) Victory over Persians East pediment Birth of Athena West pediment Contest with Poseidon over the control of Athens Doric frieze (metopes) Lapiths and Centaurs Sack of Troy Gigantomachy Greeks and Amazons Ionic frieze Panathenaea; ceremonial robe (peplos) Statue of Athena Parthenos by Pheidias Pallas Athena Tritogeneia Tritogeneia: lake Triton or Tritonis; association with Triton Pallas, daughter of Triton Palladium Pallas (“maiden”) Parthenos (“virgin”) Kore (“girl”) Athena and Arachne Patron of spinning and weaving Slide28:  Athena Character and Appearance of Athena Weaving as symbol of cunning and human resourcefulness Fates as weavers Arete (“excellence”) of a women Military, political, domestic arts Wisdom/counsel Horses, ships, chariots The double flute and Marsyas In Athens worshipped with Hephaestus Warrior, aegis, Nike (“victory”) Glaukopis meaning gray-eyed, bright-eyed, or keen eyed? Owl, snake, olive tree Unapproachable virginity Relationships with heroes Slide29:  Chapter 9: Aphrodite and Eros Aphrodite and castration of Uranus Aphros (“foam”) Cytherea, Cypris Zeus and Dione Aphrodite Urania (Celestial) and Aphrodite Pandemos (Common) The Nature and Appearance of Aphrodite Beauty, love, marriage Importance of Praxiteles’ work Attendants of Aphrodite Charites (“graces”) Horae (“hours” or “seasons”) Phallic Priapus Aphrodite and Hermes, Dionysus, Pan, or Zeus Fertility Pygmalion Offense of Cyprian women, who became the first prostitutes Galatea Slide30:  Aphrodite and Eros Aphrodite and Adonis Phoenician Astarte Paphos, son of Pygmalion and Galatea Cinyras and Myrrha Birth of Adonis Death of Adonis Great Mother Death and resurrection of male consort Variant: Persephone and the chest Cybele and Attis Phrygian Great Mother Bisexual Castrationalmond tree NanaAttis Galli/Corybantes Aphrodite and Anchises Fear of emasculation Aeneas Eros Slide31:  Aphrodite and Eros The Symposium of Plato House of Agathon Speeches on Eros Aristophanes’ comic and profound myth Love as a search for completeness Socrates’ Speech Diotima, a woman from Mantinea Eros as intermediary Poros (“resourcefulness”) Penia (“poverty”) Pursuit of the beautiful and the good Interpretations Cupid and Psyche Apuleius (second century A. D.) Metamorphoses (orThe Golden Ass) Elements of folktale, fairytale, and romance Platonic interpretation Sappho’s Aphrodite Lesbos Devotion to Aphrodite Slide32:  Chapter 10: Artemis Character and Appearance of Artemis Beautiful, virginal, huntress The Birth of Artemis and Apollo Zeus and Leto Delos Goddess of childbirth Death of young girls Niobe and Her Children Hybris Transformation to stone Actaeon Callisto an d Arcas Great Bear (Arctus, or Ursa Major, or the Wain [hamaxa]) Bear Warden (Arctophylax, or Arcturus, or Boötes) Little Bear (Ursa Minor) Orion Merope, daughter of Oenopion Pleiades, daughters of Atlas and Pleione, an Oceanid Sirius (Dog Star) Origins of Artemis Fertility connections Diana or Artemis of Ephesus Slide33:  Artemis Artemis, Selene, and Hecate Moon-Goddess Chthonian characteristics Trivia, goddess of the crossroads Nocturnal, occult forces Artemis versus Aphrodite: Euripides’ Hippolytus Hippolytus, devotee of Artemis Phaedra Phaedra’s nurse Theseus Goddesses as psychological forces The misogyny of Hippolytus Sophronein (“to be temperate”) Misandry, Artemis, and the Amazons Lesbian themes Other Dramatic Versions Euripides’ two versions; (Hippolytus Stephanephoros) Seneca’s (d. A. D. 65) Phaedra Jean Racine’s Phèdra (1677) Eugene O’Neill’s Desire Under the Elms (1924) Robinson Jeffers’ The Cretan Women (1954) Mary Renault’s The Bull from the Sea Additional Reading Scenes from Euripides’ Hippolytus Slide34:  Chapter 11: Apollo The Birth of Apollo Zeus and Leto The Homeric Hymn to Apollo To Delian Apollo Apollo and Delph Pythian Apollo, god of Delphi Crisa under Mt. Parnassus Slaying of Pytho Pytho (“I rot.”) Ge-Themis Omphalos (“navel”) Cretan sailors and the connection with the dolphin Apollo Delphinius Panhellenic Sanctuary Pythian games The Oracle and the Pythia at Delphi The Pythia, priestess of Apollo Tripod Oracular utterancesEpic meter (dactylic hexameter) Castalian Spring Apollo Loxias Socrates and the Delphic Oracle Slide35:  Apollo The Cumaean Sibyl Sibyl and Sibylla Aeneas in the Underworld, Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 6 Sibylline Books Apollo and Cassandra Apollo and Marpessa Idas Apollo and Cyrene Aristaeus Apollo and Daphne Daphne (“laurel”) Apollo and Hyacinthus Apollo, Coronis, and Ascelpius God of medicine Raven, Apollo’s bird Asclepius trained by Chiron Machaon and Hygeia or Hygieia (“health”), children of Asclepius Asclepius and Hippolytus Euripides’ Alcestis Apollo and the Cyclopes Servitude to Admetus, king of Pherae Thanatos (“death”) Heracles Slide36:  Apollo Apollo’s Musical Contest with Marsyas Apollo’s Musical Contest with Pan King Midas of Phrygia Mt. Tmolus The Nature of Apollo Violence and restraint Good shepherd/sun-god Apollonian/Dionysian Slide37:  Chapter 12: Hermes The Birth and Childhood of Hermes Zeus and Maia, one of the Pleiades Argeïphontes (“slayer of Argus”) Mt. Cyllene/Arcadia Invention of lyre Theft of cattle Confrontation between Apollo and Hermes Reconciliation mediated by Zeusgift of lyre to Apollo The Nature of Hermes and His Worship Cleverness God of thieves, merchants, youths Divine trickster Pastoral/musical Divine messenger Traveler’s hat (petasus) Sandals (ttalaria) Herald’s staff (caduceus) Guide of souls (psychopompos) God of boundaries or the transgression of boundaries Herms: boundary markers/fertility Mutilation of the Herms (415 B. C) Hermes Trismegistus and the Hermetica Hermaphroditus and Salmacis Slide38:  Chapter 13: Dionysus, Pan, Echo, and Narcissus The Birth, Childhood, and Origins of Dionysus Dionysus (Bacchus) Semele, daughter of Cadmus Nymphs of Nysa Ino, sister of Semele Origins in Thrace/Phrygia The Bacchae of Euripides God of vegetationthe vine/grape/wine Agave, sister of Semele Pentheus, son of Agave Cadmus, grandfather of Pentheus and retired king Tiresias, priest of traditional religion Pentheus as adversary of god Pentheus as sacrificial victim Cadmus and Harmoniaserpents Harry Partch’s Revelation in the Courthouse Park, an American Bacchae Other Opponents of Dionysus Daughters of Proetus, king of Tiryns Melampus, a famous seer Daughters of MinyasBats Hippasus Lycurgus of Thrace Slide39:  Dionysus The Nature of Dionysus, His Retinue, and His Religion Ecstatic spiritual release through music and dance Entheos: Possession by god Sparagmos: rending of animal Omophagia: eating of raw flesh Ritual communion Thiasus : sacred band of the god Bacchae or Maenads Satyrs Thyrsus: wand wreathed with ivy and topped with pine cone Sileni; Papposileni (“older sileni”); Silenus and King Midas Connection with Great Mother; Rhea and Cybele Union with Ariadne Variant of Dionysus’ birth Zeus and Persephone Zagreus Role of the Titans Creation of human beings Slide40:  Dionysus Dionysus and Icarius and Erigone Dionysus’ Gift to Midas of the Golden Touch Pactolus Dionysus and the Pirates The Dionysiaca of Nonnus Pan Syrinx (“panpipe”) Echo “Panic” Son of Hermes and Dryope Echo and Narcissus Narcissism Freud Slide41:  Chapter 14: Demeter and the Eleusinian Mysteries The Myth of Demeter and Persephone Abduction by Hades Hecate and Helius Demeter’s grief, anger and retaliation Demeter comes to Eleusis and the palace of Celeus. The Maiden Well Queen Metaneira Iambe Demeter breaks her fast. Demeter Nurses Demphoön. Hades and Persephone and her eating of the pomegranate Demeter’s ecstatic reunion with Persephone Demeter restores fertility and establishes the Mysteries. The Interpretation of the Hymn Death and rebirth of vegetation Spiritual metaphor or allegory Kore (“girl”) Hades (Pluto or Dis among the Romans) Triptolemus Slide42:  Demeter Eleusinian Mysteries Special position of Athens Initiates Secrecy of rites Mystery religions Connection with Orpheus Rituals Nine day interval Fasting Torches Jests Kykeon: drink of barley and water Resting at the Maiden Well Revelation of divinity Stages of initiaion Lesser Mysteries: preliminary to initiation Greater Mysteries: full initiation Participation in the highest mysteries Hierophant (“one who shows the sacred thing”) Hiera (“sacred things”) Procession Iacchus and Dionysus Stages of Greater Mysteries Dramatic enactment of myth Revelation of sacred objects Utterance of certain words The Final revelation: the hiera The role of Dionysus The role of Orpheus Mystery religions and state cult Archon Basileus: Athenian religious official Triumph of Matriarchy Slide43:  Chapter 15: Views of the Afterlife: The Realm of Hades Homer’s Book of the Dead (the Odyssey, Book 11) Tiresias Anticlea Heroes Agamemnon Achilles Ajax Heroines Tormented sinners Heracles Difficulties of interpretation Position of heroes Elpenor Place for extraordinary sinners Plato’s Myth of Er The Republic Vision of Er Ardiaeus Cycle of one thousand years Chain of being Necessity (Ananke) Harmony of the spheres The Fates or Moirai Lachesis, Clotho, and Atropos Choice of souls River of Forgetfulness (Lethe) Pythagorean/Orphic elements Plato’s Phaedo Slide44:  Views of the Afterlife Vergil’s Book of the Dead (the Aeneid, Book 6) Aeneas Cumaean Sibyl Golden Bough Burial of Misenus Tree of empty dreams Fabulous creatures Charon Cerberus Untimely Dead Mourning Fields Dido, queen of Carthage Field of renowned heroes Deïphobus Tartarus Tityus Sisyphus Titans Otis and Ephialtes Salmoneus Theseus and Perithoüs Phlegyas Ixion Elysian Fields/Elysium Anchises Vision of illustrious Romans Gates of Ivory and Horn Slide45:  Views of the Afterlife Traditional Elements of Hades’ Realm Tartarus or Erebus Elysium or Elysian Fields Islands of the Blessed Three Judges: Minos, Rhadamanthys (or Rhadamanthus), and Aeacus Rivers: Styx (River of Hate), Acheron (River of Woe), Lethe (River of Forgetfulness), Cocytus (River of Wailing), Pyriphlegethon or Phlegethon (River of Fire) Charon and his fare Hermes Psychopompus Cerberus Hades, king of Underworld (Pluto or Dis) Orcus (“the place that confines”) Chthonian Tityus Ixion Danaïds Sisyphus Tantalus Hecate Furies (Erinyes): Allecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone; avengers of blood guilt, especially within the family Orestes The Eumenides (“kindly ones”) The Universality of Greek and Roman Concepts The Italian poet Dante (1265-1321) The Inferno Vergil as guide Slide46:  Chapter 16: Orpheus and Orphism: Mystery Religions in Roman Times Orpheus and Eurydice Variant tradition Vergil’s Georgics, Book 4 Aristaeus Life of Orpheus, Religious Poet and Musician Origins in Thrace His mother was one of the Muses, usually Calliope. His father is either Oeagrus, a river-god, or Apollo. Orpheus falls in love with Eurydice, a Dryad. Orpheus as an Argonaut Musaeus, Orpheus’ son or pupil Death of Orpheus Women of Thrace/Maenads Survival of head and lyre in Lesbos Apollonian and Dionysian elements Orphic Hymns Slide47:  Orpheus The Orphic Bible Chronus (Time) as first principleAether, Chaos, and Erebus Adrasteia (Necessity) The Cosmic EggPhanes, known by many names, including ErosNight Phanes and NightGaea (Earth) and Uranus (Heaven)TitansCronusZeus Zeus swallows Phanes and all creation. Zeus becomes the One, the beginning and end. Zeus and PersephoneDionysus (Zagreus) Tenets of Belief Purity of soul Corruption o f body Original sin Transmigration of soul Purification Apotheosis Union with divine spirit Connections with mystery religions Slide48:  Orpheus Mystery Religions in Roman Times Syncretism : harmonizing of different cults and myths into some sort of unity Mysteries of Demeter at Eleusis Mysteries of Cybele and Attis Taurobolium: shedding of the blood of the bull Mysteries of the Cabiri of Samothrace Theoi Megaloi (“great gods”) Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux Mysteries of Mithras (Mithra) Persian god of light and truth Mithraea or underground chapels Tauroctony (“slaying of the bull”) Officers, soldiers, and sailors Initiation o f men Communal meal Mysteries of Atargatis or Dea Syria, the Syrian Goddess Consort Tammuz or Dushara Marriage to Hadad, thunder-god Association with Syrian Baal, Greek Zeus, and Roman Jupiter Mysteries of Isis Goddess of rertility Osiris dismembered by Seth Horus The Sistrum or rattle The Situla or breast-shaped container for milk Jug of Nile water Associated with Serapis Apuleius’ Metamorphoses (or The Golden Ass) Lucius initiated into the Mysteries of Isis Isis connected with Cybele, Athena, Aphrodite, Artemis, Demeter, Persephone, and Hera

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