Myths and realities about men, women and forest use: a global comparative study

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Published on October 14, 2014

Author: CIFOR

Source: slideshare.net

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In this IUFRO 2014 presentation, CIFOR scientists challenge perceptions about men, women, and forest product use.

This presentation was a part of a session which focused on challenges, opportunities, and outcomes of securing women’s participation in forest governance, linking them with issues and experiences in climate change adaptation and mitigation.

1. Myths and realities about men, women and forest use: A global comparative study Terry Sunderland, Ramadhani Achdiawan, Arild Angelsen, Ronnie Babigumira, Amy Ickowitz, Fiona Paumgarten, Victoria Reyes-García, Gerald Shively THINKING beyond the canopy IUFRO World Forestry Congress Salt Lake City 6th October 2014

2. THINKING beyond the canopy Introduction  Many of the claims often made in the literature on gender and forest products are based on case studies  However, it is unclear how generalizable they actually are  We investigated whether several commonly held views on gender and forest use are supported by the global PEN dataset

3. THINKING beyond the canopy PEN is… Large, tropics-wide collection of detailed & high-quality & comparable data by PhD students on the poverty-forest (environment) nexus, coordinated by CIFOR, with numerous partners It is the most comprehensive analysis of poverty-forest linkages undertaken to date

4. Features of PEN  Approach: a network • PhD students: Long fieldwork & student engagement • Supported by senior resource persons • Mutual benefits  Capacity building • Majority of partners from developing countries  State-of-the-art methods • Quality data – short recall • Comparable methods THINKING beyond the canopy

5. PEN: the numbers..  24 countries  38 PEN studies  239 households in the average study  364 villages or communities surveyed  >8,000 households surveyed  40,950 household visits by PEN enumerators  2,313 data fields (variables) in the average study  294,150 questionnaire pages filled out and entered  456,546 data cells (numbers) in the average study  17,348,734 data cells in the PEN global data base! THINKING beyond the canopy

6. The PEN data set THINKING beyond the canopy

7. crops forest wages livestock business environment Income sources in the PEN dataset 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 income shares other Source: CIFOR-PEN dataset ~22% ~6.4% T = 27.5% => Clearly supports “high env. income” hypothesis – …much more than some of us had thought! 

8. Is the harvesting of forest products mainly undertaken by women? Share of income from unprocessed forest products by region and gender THINKING beyond the canopy

9. Pen and gender analysis  We disaggregated forest activities and income by gender using descriptive and regression analysis  Dependent variable: share of hh forest product income collected by women THINKING beyond the canopy

10. Is the harvesting of forest products mainly undertaken by women?  Our data do not support this claim  For unprocessed products, this claim only holds in Sub-Saharan Africa  For processed products, it does not hold in any geographical location THINKING beyond the canopy

11. Do women collect primarily for subsistence and men for sale? THINKING beyond the canopy

12. Do women collect for primarily for subsistence and men for sale? • Both women and men collect predominantly for subsistence use, but … • Men´s sale share is higher than women´s • However, in Sub- Saharan Africa, the share is almost equal THINKING beyond the canopy

13. Do women collect a greater share of forest products from lands under common property tenure regimes than men? THINKING beyond the canopy

14. Do women collect a greater share of forest products from lands under common property tenure regimes than men? THINKING beyond the canopy  The vast majority of products for both genders is collected under state property tenure regimes  In the global sample, the proportion collected by men and women from common property is about the same  The conventional claim holds for Latin America and Asia, but not for Africa

15. Summary of PEN gender findings  There is large regional variation in both the shares of forest products collected by women  Even after controlling for most of the factors discussed in the literature as well as differences in level of market integration, women in Africa collect a much larger share of forest products than women in Asia and Latin America  Many of the claims that originate from the gender and forest literature do not hold using the PEN global data sample  Men play a much more important and diverse role in the contribution of forest products to rural livelihoods than is often reported THINKING beyond the canopy

16. Conclusions/Reflections  Deeper understanding of gendered patterns of income generation are important for designing policies aimed at improving HH welfare in general, but especially those aimed at improving the livelihoods of women  Culture, ethnicity, wealth and other variables are important!  Interesting methodological issue: what we can learn from case studies vs. global data  This kind of study helps us to see overall patterns, but..  To understand the stories behind the patterns, case studies can be useful, but not as stand-alone reference points THINKING beyond the canopy

17. Read more…  Special Issue of World Development including all of the PEN-related research findings  PEN website:http ://www.cifor.org/pen/ THINKING beyond the canopy

18. THINKING beyond the canopy http://www.cifor.org

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