Myanmar's Politics, Economy, and Government

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Information about Myanmar's Politics, Economy, and Government

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: polscieako



A presentation about, the politics, government, and economy and other basic facts of Myanmar (Burma)

MYANMAR (Republic of the Union of Myanmar)

FAST FACTS • population of over 60 million makes it the world's 24th most populous country • and, at 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi), • it is the world's 40th largest country and the second largest in Southeast Asia

Official Language & other languages • Burmese Language as its Official Language • other major languages spoken include Shan, Karen, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Rakhine.

Currency • Buermese Kyat (K) • 1K = .05 P

ETYMOLOGY • In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar“. • The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" .


Map Of Myanmar • India – Northwest • China – North • Bangladesh&Bay of Bengal– West • Laos&Thailand – East

Myanmar and its Cities • The country is divided into seven states and seven regions • And Naypyidaw as its capital.

Official Emblem

• The old flag of Myanmar (1974-2010)

This flag was proposed on 2006

And the official emblem of Myanmar

• The design of the flag has three horizontal stripes of yellow, green and red with a five-pointed white star in the middle. The three colours of the stripes are meant to symbolize solidarity, peace and tranquility, and courage and decisiveness. • Officials were told to lower the old flag in favour of the new one only shortly before 3:00 p.m. local time on 21 October 2010

Official State Seal • The coat of arms has two chinthe(mythical lions) facing opposite one another, and at its center is a map of Burma. The coat of arms is surrounded by traditional Burmese flower designs and a star at its top. The new State Seal was stipulated by Chapter XIII of the 2008 Constitution.

Myanmar’s National Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei (Till the end of the world, Burma)

History • Absorbed by Pagan Empire on the 10th century. • In the 12th and 13th centuries Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley. • Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone • 15th century - considered as the Golden Age for Burmese Culture. Burmese literature "grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse"

• In the beginning of 18th century when British Empire started to enforce its power in Lower Burma • 1824 - Britain officially colonized Burma, that led to social, economic, cultural, and administrative changes. • 1937 - Burma became a separately administered colony of Great Britain and Ba Maw the first Prime Minister and Premier of Burma. • 1940 - Aung San formed the Burma Independence Army in Japan. • 1942 - Burma occupied by the Empire of Japan.

• 1 August 1943 – Burma declared independent as State of Burma. • July 1945 – end of Japanese occupation. • 4 January 1948 – Declaration of Independence, and named Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President

Political Issue • On 2 March 1962 - the military led by General Ne Win took control of Burma through a coup d'état and the government has been under direct or indirect control by the military since then. (Burmese way to socialism. • Soviet-style nationalization and central planning. • Student protests in 1975, 1976 and 1977 were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force. • 1988 – 8888 Uprising and Saw Muang formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC).

• 1989 – SLORC declared Martial Law, and changed the country's official English name from the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar • 1990 – the government held free election for the first time. • 23 June 1997- Burma was admitted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). • 10 May 2008 - Burmese constitutional referendum of 2008

• November 2011- United States relaxed curbs on foreign aid to Burma. • August 2012 - Restrictions on media censorship were significantly eased.

Economic Issues • 2007 - an increase in the price of diesel and petrol led to a series of antigovernment protests. • May 2008 – Cyclone Nargis

Types of government • presidential republic with a bicameral legislature


Executive • The President is the head of state and head of government. • The current head of state, inaugurated as President on 30 March 2011, is Thein Sein

Legislative • the legislature, called the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, is bicameral and made up of two houses: The 224seat upper house Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities) and the 440-seat lower house Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives). The upper house consists of 224 members, of whom 168 are directly elected and 56 are appointed by the Burmese Armed Forces while the lower house consists of 440 members, of whom 330 are directly elected and 110 are appointed by the armed forces.

Judiciary • The highest court in the land is the Supreme Court, consisting of two (2) Chief Justices. • Burma's judicial system is limited. British-era laws and legal systems remain much intact, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial. • The judiciary is independent of the executive branch. • Burma does not accept compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction

Economy • The country is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. • The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology contributes to the growing problems of the economy. • The country lacks adequate infrastructure. • Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century. • 25% of the country's population has electricity.

Background • Under British administration, Burma was the second-wealthiest country in South-East Asia. It had been the world's largest exporter of rice. Burma also had a wealth of natural and labor resources. It produced 75% of the world's teak and had a highly literate population. The country was believed to be on the fast track to development. However, agricultural production fell dramatically during the 1930s as international rice prices declined, and did not recover for several decades.

• Burma is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2011, its GDP stood at US$53.14 billion and was estimated to be growing at an annual rate of 5.5%. Despite good economic growth it's believed that Burma's true economic potential won't be easily achieved due to the nation's lack of development, as of 2013 according to the Human Development Index (HDI) Burma still has one of the lowest human development in the world.

Agriculture • The major agricultural product is rice, which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight. Through collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute 52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19 million tons in 1996.


Natural Resources • Burma produces precious stones such as rubies, sapphires, pearls, and jade. Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world's rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of the country's gems. Burma's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (120 mi) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires

Tourism • to this day Myanmar remains one of the most mysterious and undiscovered destinations in the world. • Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country; however, fewer than 270,000 tourists entered the country in 2006 according to the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board


Climate • Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of rain annually. Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while average annual rainfall in the Dry Zone, which is located in central Burma, is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). Northern regions of the country are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Coastal and delta regions have an average maximum temperature of 32 °C (89.6 °F).


• Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuable teak in lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country, including areas of acacia, bamboo, ironwood and michelia champaca. • Typical jungle animals, particularly tigers, occur sparsely in Burma. In upper Burma, there are], wild buffalo, wild boars, deer, antelope, andelephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals. • The abundance of birds is notable with over 800 species


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