museum as power (a introduction about the history of museum)

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Published on March 18, 2009

Author: rnamonkey

Source: slideshare.net

Copyright © Wang Hongzhe

Tony Bennett history, theory, politics , 1995

Tony Bennett 福柯、公民身份和文化政策研究 四 等水烧开:文化研究与政治经济学 《文化研究简史》 英国公开大学社会学家 澳大利亚 格里菲斯大学 (Griffith University) 文化政策与媒介政策研究中心 (Centre for Cultural and Media Policy) 英国公开大学 霍尔的位置 文化政策 政府性( governmentality ) 公民形成( citizen-formation ) 回到威廉斯 文化之域就是社会管理之域

The birth of the museum: History, theory, politics Bennett argues that the public museum should be understood not just as a place of instruction but as a reformary of manners in which a wide range of regulated social routines and performances take place. 博物馆制度在 19 世纪中叶和后期在构成公民身份方面发挥的作用( 219-228 ) The author's focus in Part I is aimed less on investigating the mechanics of the birth and the development of the museum or on its typological precedents, than it is on how the modern state learned to use the museum, public demonstrations and public spaces as tools with which to exercise power and inculcate its view of national civilization. ( Robert A. Baron , Museum Management and Curatorship , 1996 )

博物館收藏的前身,各種稱呼的「珍奇陳列室」( studioli, cabinets des curieux, Wunderkammern, Kunstkammern ),無論作為王權的誇耀、貴族豪門的地位象徵、或是博學的工具,原來確實都是排他性強、限制嚴格、圈閉的社會空間。而自十八世紀後葉以來,不僅是藝術品,幾乎所有類型的收藏都逐漸打開大門,向愈來愈廣的公眾開放,到了十九世紀中葉,歡迎任何人(任何服裝儀容行為舉止適當的人)參觀的公共博物館已經成為歐洲各國的普遍原則。 從皇室貴族菁英階級獨享的封閉社會空間,到向人民開放的國家博物館,這個民主化過程的動力是歐洲的國族主義。 Private Public

如果以為這個符號學所製造的,僅是關於「物」或「客體」 (object) 的意義,那是仍未徹底領悟「博物館」所指涉的現代性。所有客體意義的排列與置換、展示與敘事,效果在於製造社會主體 (social subject) :無論是現代公民、國族認同、「西方」認同、或藝術前衛;無論這個製造主體的過程,被稱為教養、召喚、同化、教育或啟蒙。

Museum VS Prison 博物館雖然與現代監禁機構出現於同一個時代,由封閉而開放的軌跡卻正好相反。 功能替代和话语转换 监狱,从公开的惩戒到隔离的规训 博物馆,从私人到公共,从展示权力到生产公民 The exhibition of past barbarous regimes of punishment as a public critique of the forms for the display of power associated with the ancien regime Inveigle the general populace into complicity with power by placing them on this side of a power which it represented to it as its own 權力展示的場景改變了,不再是以懲罰威嚇的手段令人民屈服,博物館邀請公眾參觀,身為國家的公民,與權力站在同一邊,觀賞著代表他們自己的國族榮耀與權力。這是博物館創作神話的原初類型:國族神話。

新的分类原则与新的知识 博物館是「我們的文明」企圖永恆的神話宮殿。 Ancient hierarchies ,hidden resemblances. “ 永恒”的科学的诞生( geology, biology, archaeology, anthropology, history and art history ) 进化作为话语( arrange objects as parts of evolutionary sequences ) Form a totalizing order of things and peoples that was historicized through and through 北京大学塞克勒考古博物馆 Renaissance episteme Scientific taxonomy

核心 VS 边陲 从掠夺摧毁到征服支配(从文物的消灭到文物作为战利品) 边疆的想象 发现原始自然和原始社会(人类学作为科学的兴起) 大型叙事的证据 從漁獵採集經濟到城市工業經濟的社會演化尺度,使得同樣存活於現代的各民族,也被劃分等級,排出哪些屬於先進又哪些比其它更「原始」。這些民族學物件不會再復歸為卑微不起眼的物件,它們在博物館,為不同目的受不同分類,被當作「紀錄」、「歷史」或「證據」,依據不同的神話而展出,表達當前政治權力所需要的道德意義,或故事。 Modernist Primitivism Art (不对等性) 东方主义 是西方建構他所認為的「原始」或「東方」形式,作為自身的對照形象。無論態度是輕蔑還是崇拜,那是西方投射自身慾望的神話。 我们 VS 他者

Punish to look and learn As subjects of knowledge rather than as objects of administration Render power visible to the people, and to represent to them that power as their own An organic passage from the other classes into their own (the ruling classes) Coalesce the display of power to the populace and its display within the ruling classes The display of power and risks of disorder ( the tavern and the fair) Detach the display of power from the risk of disorder as prison Transform the crowd into an ordered self-regulating public Antidotes to the forms of behaviour associated with place of populace The relationship between Space and Vision ( The Eye of Power,Foucault ) 凝视作为一种惩戒,规训身体,自我检视 Gramsci Foucault Educator Reformer

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