muscles of mastication

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Information about muscles of mastication
Health & Medicine

Published on February 15, 2014

Author: AditiSingh45

Source: slideshare.net

Description

muscles of mastication, muscle physiology

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION - Aditi Singh (P.G I year) Dept Of Pediatric & Preventive Dentistry Seema Dental College & Hospital,Rishikesh

CLASSIFICATION HISTOLOGY GROSS ANATOMY EMBRYOLOGY INTRODUCTION DISEASES APPLIED ANATOMY

INTRODUCTION

Types of muscle tissue – The basis of the classifications is as follows: » DEPENDING UPON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF STRIATIONS. » DEPENDING UPON THE CONTROL AND » DEPENDING UPON THE FUNCTION.

DEPENDING UPON STRIATIONS STRIATED MUSCLE Skeletal and cardiac muscles NON-STRIATED MUSCLE Smooth muscles.

DEPENDING UPON THE CONTROL VOLUNTARY MUSCLE Skeletal muscles. INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE Cardiac and smooth muscles

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION SKELETALMUSCLES SMOOTH MUSCLES CARDIAC MUSCLES

MUSCLES ATTACHMENTS Fleshy Attachments • They have muscle cells ending close to the periosteum . Tendon Attachments • They are tough, flexible, cable like concentrations of the collagen fibers

Aponeuroses and Septa • They are flattened extensions of thin concentration. Raphae • Interdigitation of tendinous ends.

Forms of Striated muscles also vary according to situation and function. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Strap like (Flat) Sternohyoid Fusiform (Bellied) Digastrics Fan shaped (Triangular) Temporalis Unipennate (Feather like) Bipennate Temporalis Multipennate Masseter Sphincter (Circular) Orbicularis oris

Differences in design depends on 1. Surface of bone available for muscle attachment. 2. Speed of contraction. 3. Range of movement. 4. Force of contraction.

Actions of muscles Muscles move parts only by pulling them. Musculoskeletal apparatus is designed in opposing system. Agonists: They act together to pull in a given direction. Antagonists: They pull in the opposite direction to bring parts back to the original position.

EMBRYOLOGY

• The muscles of mastication develop from the mesenchyme of the mandibular arch. • Muscle differentiation : 7th week • Nerve Fibres : 8th week • Fetal Histologic Structures : 22nd week

TEMPORALIS : 8TH WEEK • ANTERIOR TO OTIC CAPSULE MASSETER : 8TH WEEK • BEGINS ATTACHMENT TO ZYGOMATIC ARCH MEDIAL & LATERAL PTERYGOID : 7TH WEEK • RELATED TO CARTILAGE OF CRANIAL BASE & CONDYLE

HISTOLOGY

18.05.2004 23

. CLASSIFICATION OF MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

SUPRAMANDIBULAR OR ELEVATORS OF THE MANDIBLE • • • • Temporalis Masseter Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid

Inframandibular or Depressors of the mandible Digastrics Geniohyoid Stylohyoid Mylohyoid

Other muscles which help in mastication Buccinator Depressor anguli oris Levator anguli oris Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus major Zygomaticus minor

SUPRAMANDIBULAR OR ELEVATORS OF MANDIBLE

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

TEMPORALIS

MASSETER

LATERAL PTERYGOID

MEDIAL PTERYGOID

INFRAMANDIBULAR OR DEPRESSORS OF MANDIBLE

DISEASES OF THE MUSCLES

• HYPOTONIA • MYOTONIA • HYPERTROPHY • MUSCLE DYSTROPHIES • MYASTHENIA

• Myasthenia: Myasthenia constitutes a group of disease where there is basic disorder of muscle excitability and contractility and include 1. Myasthenia gravis. 2. Familial periodic paralysis 3. Aldosteronism Etiology: • Etiology is defect in neuromuscular transmission. It appears that the fault is in acetylcholine mechanism, the motor end organ being normal.

Clinical features • Rapidly developing weakness in voluntarily muscles. • Difficulty in mastication • Deglutition, and dropping of the jaws. • Speech is slow and slurred. • Disturbance in taste sensation occurs in some patients.

• Diplopia and ptosis, along with the dropping of the face lend to the sorrowful appearance to the patient • Death frequently occurs from respiratory failure.

Treatment and prognosis • Drug of choice is physostigmine, an anti cholinesterase, No permanent cure for the disease is known.

APPLIED ANATOMY INFECTIONS OF SPECIFIC TISSUE SPACES • Tissues spaces or facial spaces, are potential spaces situated between planes of fascia which form natural pathways along which infection may spread, producing a cellulitis, or within which infection become localized with actual abscess formation.

CELLULITIS VS ABSCESS

TRISMUS • Trismus is limited opening of the joint. • Causes: Odontogenic Acute infectionPericoronitis, Lugwid’s, Submasseteric space and Infra temporal space. • Chronic infections- Tuberculous, osteomyelitis of ramus /body of mandible.

• • • • • • • Trauma Inflammation Myositis Ossificans Tetany Tetanus Psychomatic disorders: Trismus Hystericus Inferior alveolar block given into medial ptergyoid muscle leads to formation of hematoma which in turn gets fibrosed leading to trismus

BRUXISM

BRUXISM Its the clenching or grinding of the teeth when the individual is not chewing or swallowing. T/t : Regulate (Control the habit)

MYOFACIAL PAIN DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME- MPDS • MPDS is a pain disorder, in which unilateral pain is referred from the trigger points in myofacial structures, to the muscles of head and neck. • Pain is constant, dull ache in contract to the sudden sharp, shooting, intermittent pain of neuralgias (chronic pain).

TREATMENT FOR MPDS • REMOVE – EXTRACT • RESHAPE – GRIND • REPOSITION – ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY • RESTORE- ENDODONTIC THERAPY • REPLACE – PROSTHESIS • RECONSTRUCT- TMJ SURGERY • REGULATE – CONTROL HABIT AND SYMPTOMS

References • • • • • • Williams .P. et al Gray’s Anatomy -38th edition 1995. Chaurasia B.D. Head and Neck- II volume 4th edition. I B Singh , Human Embryology– 6th edition Mc Minn, Last’s Anatomy – 8th edition. Shafer et al, Text book of oral pathology- – 5th edition. Malik .N, Text book of oral and maxillofacial surgery1st edition. • Burkett, Text book of oral medicine- 4th edition • William R Proffit , Henry Fields, David Sarver.Contemporary Orthodontics 4th ed

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