Municipal Waste to Energy: Conversion

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Information about Municipal Waste to Energy: Conversion

Published on March 28, 2014

Author: mahendraprabhuk7



This was a relatively new topic in 2006, Now stands outdated.

Mahendra Prabhu Kuvettu V T U 5th Semester Department of Mechanical Engineering St. Joseph Engineering college Mangalore

PLASMA - ARC - GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL - SOLID - WASTE (MSW) A Revolutionary & Path-breaking technique of waste conversion into useful energy.


The Necessity For PLASMA - TECHNOLOGY Homes, institutions and industries across the world generate thousands of tons of waste daily. Just imagine the amount of accumulations in a span of one year! Developing countries like India have over 16% of world’s population and just 2% of land area.  There is an emerging shortage of land to be allocated for landfills near populous cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Chennai etc. There is rising scarcity of electricity generated versus growth in electricity supply capacity across the globe. Plasma arc technology is a non-conventional & renewable way of generated electricity from discarded waste sans pollution nor damaging the sensitive ecological balance of earth.

Analysis of PLASMA Tech. Plasma is beyond doubt the fourth state of matter! Consists of ionized gas particulate substances at extremely high temperatures. At such high temperatures gases attain resistance breakdown and capability to conduct electric current. Lightning is a very simple and natural illustration from nature.

Prominent charcteristics of PLASMA - ARC Most hazardous and toxic compounds are broken down to elemental constituents by high temperature. Organic compounds are readily gasified and melted. Conversion into fuel gases (hydrogen &carbon monoxide). Firm, hard and rigid residual materials including inorganic, heavy metals Are converted into reduced vitrified residue which again has many uses. Torch operates at 100kw to 200mw of electric power with high energy intensity of discharge. Can be directly operated on pre-existing landfills on a very proficient basis by drilling subterranean boreholes.

Electricity generation capacity versus power generated in KW. Conclusion- Trigeneration technology is simply the most efficient of all.

Feasibility conclusion: amazingly economically viable process. Output Inputs NOTATIONAL HEAT BALANCE CHART* * Image sourced from

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 MSW inclineration Coal Oil MSW plasma Natural gas Kgs of CO2/MWH Conclusion: plasma technology generate less pollutants than supplementary fuels like coal & oil. An Eco-Friendly process.

Finance & Accounting Human resources Corporate Board Production Management Marketing & PromotionInfrastructure management Research & Development Chairman Company’s Administrative Flowchart Initially a eco feasibility study is conducted. The main promoter is generally the head of the org. and selects an intellectual team. Every successful company need not be established with all these dept.’s at the initial stage esp. human resources. The R&D and technical know-how is sourced from an American NGO. Infrastructure is the initial machine cost, production mgmt. is the wages of the employees and f-a can be done by a local auditing firm.

Production mgmt Activities is 1.5cr. Finance & accounting Expenditure 1cr. Research & development Cost 1.25 cr. Promotional activities Cost 75 lakh. Infrastructural Development is 5.25 cr. Human resources Expenditure 25 lakh. Initial seed capital is 10 crores (approx.) Out of the initial seed capital 80% comes from a respected VC & rest from the promoters. Capital allocation.

Direct material cost Direct labour cost Direct expenses Prime cost Production overheads Factory cost Administrative overheads Distribution overheads Manufacturing cost Total cost Profit Company’s Financial Flowchart Brief analysis: The direct material cost will be zero since material/scarp is a domestic waste. Collection cost from various locales come under labour cost. Direct expenses involve machines & allies infra. Factory employees are production overhead cost. Administrative overhead include salaries of senior mgmt. The production of useful electricity from waste is manufacturing cost and distributing it among consumers involves distribution overhead costs. To the net production cost a decent profit margin can be added to make the business sustainable.

MSW plasma recycling statistics b/w 1960 and 2007 The dependence on plasma MSW technique of recycling is gaining popularity.

Waste-to-energy facility in highly developed Japan. Image sourced from MSW plant does not require a massive infrastructure!


CONCLUSION Plasma processing of MSW has unique and unparalleled capabilities incomparable with existing technologies. It is more cost-effective to take MSW to a plasma facility for energy production than to dump it into landfills. Plasma processing of MSW has the potential to supply ~5% of world electricity needs. This is equivalent to 25 big size nuclear power plants. Plasma technologies can create more renewable energy from solar, wind and geothermal energies combined. When fully developed plasma technologies may become cost- effective advantage to mine existing vast landfills for energy production. Significantly reduce the MSW waste disposal problem. Reduce inevitable need for massive landfills.

Thanks- a – Lot ! any QUERIES ? or SUGGESTIONS ! The End

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