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MultiView: Improving Trust in Group Video Conferencing through Spatial Faithfulness

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Information about MultiView: Improving Trust in Group Video Conferencing through Spatial...

Published on May 15, 2007

Author: nguyendt

Source: slideshare.net

Description

CHI07 Presentation on the MultiView Project and Trust. Presented in San Jose. Best Paper Award Winner. David Nguyen and John Canny
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MultiView : Improving Trust in Group Video Conferencing through Spatial Faithfulness David Nguyen John Canny UC Berkeley ACM SIGCHI 2007 San Jose, CA April 28 – May 3

Perspective Invariance

Perspective Invariance

Perspective Invariance Mona Lisa (the painting) Your viewing position Your Perspective/ Leonardo DaVinci’s Perspective

Perspective Invariance and Group Video Conferencing 2 1 3 C L R 2 1 3

2 1 3

2 1 3

Perspective Invariance and Group Video Conferencing 2 1 3 C L R 2 1 3

2 1 3

2 1 3

The Apprentice…

Donald Accidentally Fires Entire Staff Video Conference System to Blame You’re Fired!

 

Effects of Video Conferencing Turn Taking (Vertegaal et al., 2000) Cooperation (Bradner and Mark, 2002) Persuasion (Bradner and Mark, 2002) Deception (Bradner and Mark, 2002) Trust (Bos et al., 2002)

Turn Taking

(Vertegaal et al., 2000)

Cooperation

(Bradner and Mark, 2002)

Persuasion

(Bradner and Mark, 2002)

Deception

(Bradner and Mark, 2002)

Trust

(Bos et al., 2002)

Research Question How do spatial distortions affect trust formation between two meeting groups? Before that, we need a spatially faithful video conferencing system.

Our Approach

Our Approach

Our Approach Gen 1 Gen 2 Gen 3 Gen 4

MultiView: Spatially Faithful Group Video Conferencing Cameras Projectors MultiView Display

1 3 2 L R C 1 3 2

1 3 2

1 3 2

1 3 2 L R C 1 3 2

1 3 2

1 3 2

Research Question How do spatial distortions affect trust formation between two meeting groups?

Trust Measure: DayTrader (Bos et al, 2002) Daytrader is a measure of trust. Daytrader is an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) Game with Noise There were >30 rounds. In each round, groups were given 60 credits They chose how much to invest cooperatively and how much to keep individually Cooperative investments had a fluctuating market (average 50%) and split evenly, regardless of initial cooperative investment by each team (teams only knew their earnings) Every 5 rounds, a bonus is split between the two teams. The higher a team’s earning, the bigger their share of the bonus 0 60 0 60 A B 60 105 60 90 90 45 45 105 Team A Investment Team B Investment

Daytrader is a measure of trust.

Daytrader is an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) Game with Noise

There were >30 rounds. In each round, groups were given 60 credits

They chose how much to invest cooperatively and how much to keep individually

Cooperative investments had a fluctuating market (average 50%) and split evenly, regardless of initial cooperative investment by each team (teams only knew their earnings)

Every 5 rounds, a bonus is split between the two teams. The higher a team’s earning, the bigger their share of the bonus

Does meeting through standard video conferencing affect trust formation when compared to face-to-face? Can we improve trust formation patterns by using a spatially faithful video conferencing system such as MultiView?

Experimental Conditions Face to Face MultiView Standard Video Conferencing

Experimental Design N = 169 participants 110 females, and 59 males 156 students (20), 13 staff members (39) Formed 29 groups of 2 and 37 groups of 3 Groups were randomly formed

N = 169 participants

110 females, and 59 males

156 students (20), 13 staff members (39)

Formed 29 groups of 2 and 37 groups of 3

Groups were randomly formed

Results: Overview

Results: Overall Trust Face-to-Face vs. non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Directional Video Conferencing vs. Non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Face-to-Face vs. Directional Video Conferencing, p>0.05 2600.09 2627.64 1928.28

Results: Overall Trust Face-to-Face vs. non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Directional Video Conferencing vs. Non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Face-to-Face vs. Directional Video Conferencing, p>0.05 4.424 4.388 3.562

Results: Overview

Results: Fragile Trust Face-to-Face vs. non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Directional Video Conferencing vs. Non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Face-to-Face vs. Directional Video Conferencing, p>0.05 -1.968 -2.348 -4.520

Ability to Build Trust… … not always good!

Conclusions Does meeting through standard video conferencing affect trust formation when compared to face-to-face? YES! Can we improve trust formation patterns by using a spatially faithful video conferencing system such as MultiView? YES!

Acknowledgements Nathan Bos

Questions? Developed a spatially faithful video conferencing system Extended existing trust measure to support group-to-group experimentation Experimentally compared trust formation patterns between groups meeting face-to-face, through standard video conferencing, and through spatially faithful video conferencing. Shown that spatial fidelity plays key role in trust formation between two groups meeting over video conferencing.

Developed a spatially faithful video conferencing system

Extended existing trust measure to support group-to-group experimentation

Experimentally compared trust formation patterns between groups meeting face-to-face, through standard video conferencing, and through spatially faithful video conferencing.

Shown that spatial fidelity plays key role in trust formation between two groups meeting over video conferencing.

Prior Work: (Bos et al, 2002) Trust Formation and CMC Face-to-Face Video Audio Text

Results: Overall Trust

Results: Delayed Trust

Results: Fragile Trust Face-to-Face vs. non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Directional Video Conferencing vs. Non-Directional Video Conferencing, p<0.05 Face-to-Face vs. Directional Video Conferencing, p>0.05

Construction Retroreflective Layer Reflects image back in direction of source Vertical Diffuser Diffuses image vertically to accommodate varying viewing heights Antireflective/Antiglare Reduces distracting glares due to glossy surface and front projection setup

Retroreflective Layer

Reflects image back in direction of source

Vertical Diffuser

Diffuses image vertically to accommodate varying viewing heights

Antireflective/Antiglare Reduces distracting glares due to glossy surface and front projection setup

MultiView Directional Display Big, Bright, High Resolution Display Each view is provided by a projector The projected image is reflected directly back in the direction of the projector The image can be seen at varying heights only behind the projector

Big, Bright, High Resolution Display

Each view is provided by a projector

The projected image is reflected directly back in the direction of the projector

The image can be seen at varying heights only behind the projector

Illuminance vs. Viewing Angle JND Power Half Width = 7.5 o (15”) 0 O α -20 O

JND Power Half Width = 7.5 o (15”)

Planned Comparisons When doing pair wise comparison you can… Perform and omnibus ANOVA followed by pair-wise comparisons technique with proper adjustments Or, if you have specific comparisons driven by theory or prior data, you can use Planned Comparisons without any adjustment

When doing pair wise comparison you can…

Perform and omnibus ANOVA followed by pair-wise comparisons technique with proper adjustments

Or, if you have specific comparisons driven by theory or prior data, you can use Planned Comparisons without any adjustment

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