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Published on March 16, 2008

Author: Panfilo

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多媒體導論:基本觀念:  多媒體導論:基本觀念 Chien-Chang Chen Hsuan Chuang University Definition:  Definition What is Multimedia? Multimedia can have a many definitions: Multimedia means that computer information can be represented through audio, video, and animation in addition to traditional media (i.e., text, graphics drawings, images). Definition:  Definition Medium(pl. media) Something in a middle position mass communication such as newspaper,magazine or television (傳媒) An intervening substance though which something is transmitted or carried on (介質) Something gives our senses access to further form of information Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1702—The first English daily newspaper, The Daily Courant, begins publication. 1834—Charles Babbage(巴貝奇) conceives the first automatic digital computer, the Analytical Engine(分析機). A working model is not built until 1991. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1837—Samuel Morse debuts the telegraph (電報). The invention revolutionizes the transmission of information. 1837—Louis Daguerre invents the daguerreotype (銀版照相法), the first practical form of photographic reproduction. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1858—Europe and North America are briefly linked by a transatlantic telegraph cable; by 1866, the system is up to stay. News that once took months to travel now takes seconds. 1876—Alexander Graham Bell makes the first phone call. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1877—Thomas Alva Edison invents the Phonograph. He also cuts the first recording, a soulful rendition of “Mary had a Little Lamb.” 1879—How about a light? Edison invents the incandescent light bulb. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1880—While tabulating the 1880 U.S. census (人口普查), statistician Herman Hollerith invents an electromechanical machine that reads holes in perforated cards. In 1896 he founds the Tabulating Machine Company, which later becomes International Business Machines Corporation. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1881—Development of the halftone process makes it possible to reproduce photographs in books and newspapers. 1888—Now everyone gets the picture: George Eastman introduces the Kodak camera and roll film. 1895—Louis and Auguste Lumiére make La Sortie des ouvriers de l'usine Lumiére à Lyon (Workers Leaving the Lumiére Factory in Lyon), considered the first motion picture. Also during this time, Georges Méliès invents stop motion animation. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1903—The fax machine is invented by German scientist Arthur Korn. 1914—The teletype (電傳打字機) is introduced. Journalism is no longer predicated on the knowledge of Morse Code. 1915—Transcontinental (橫貫大陸的) telephone service is established between New York and San Francisco. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1926—American Telephone & Telegraph's Vitaphone system allows synchronization of sound and film. Warner Brothers releases Don Juan (唐璜), the first full-length motion picture to incorporate recorded music and sound effects. 1927—Telephone service is established between London and New York. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1927—Philo Farnsworth transmits the first electronic TV picture. Bell Telephone Laboratories tests wireless TV broadcasts. 1928—Walt Disney debuts Steamboat Willie, the second short starring a mouse named Mickey, and the first cartoon to use synchronized sound. Disney writes the soundtrack with future Warner Brothers composer Carl Stalling. 1935—Germany begins airing regular public TV broadcasts. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1938—Speaking of strange visitors from other planets, Superman makes his debut. The Man of Steel (along with Batman and numerous other champions) will first help popularize comic books, and then punch their way into the cultural mainstream. Face it: most of us know more about Jor-El (喬艾爾) and Lara (拉娜) (超人雙親) than we do about George Washington's parents. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1939—“Who‘s on first?” Major league baseball debuts on television, as the Brooklyn Dodgers take on the Cincinnati Reds at Ebbets Field. However, the first televised baseball game is actually broadcast several months earlier, as Princeton defeats Columbia. Due to the use of a single stationary camera, viewers can only see the action around home plate (本壘). Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1940—Walt Disney releases Fantasia, often regarded as the high-water mark (頂點) of animation. 1941—Both NBC and CBS launch commercial television stations in New York City. 1948—The transistor is invented at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1948—Columbia Records introduces the 33 1/3 RPM vinyl record (also known as the long-playing record, or LP, 黑膠唱片). 1949—RCA counters with the 45 RPM record (also known as the single, 單曲唱片). Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1953—Ian Fleming introduces superspy James Bond in Casino Royale (皇家夜總會:007首部曲 ). In 1962, 007 will make the transition from literature to the big screen, becoming the most successful fictional character ever. For our purposes, the Bond movies represent the establishment of film as a mass-marketable commodity, launching everything from toys and cologne (古龍香水) to current-day product tie-ins (置入性行銷) such as Omega watches and BMW automobiles. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1956—The Picturephone is first tested at Bell Telephone Laboratories. 1959—Debut of the integrated circuit. 1962—Telstar(美國電話電報公司於1962年首度發射的通信衛星), the first communications satellite (based on an idea by writer Arthur C. Clarke) is launched into orbit. The first satellite telecast soon follows, including part of a baseball game between the Chicago Cubs and the Philadelphia Phillies. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1962–1970—The Beatles revolutionize the way music is recorded in the studio, using increasingly complex sound and tape effects. The innovations are not only sonic (聲音的): their many films and promotional clips, especially Help! (directed by Richard Lester) and Magical Mystery Tour (directed by the band) virtually invent the modern music video. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1965—IBM introduces the word processor. 1969—The U.S. effort to land a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth pays off handsomely. Technology spinoffs (附帶的利益) include laptop computers (膝上型電腦), small solid-state lasers (which lead to Compact Discs), cordless power tools, solar power cells, liquid crystals. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1969—Yellow Submarine is released, featuring the eponymous Tang-colored submersible. The animated film blends a variety of artistic styles with the music of the Beatles. 1969—ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet, is established by the U.S. Department of Defense. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1971—Computer engineer Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail message: most likely, it “was QWERTYIOP or something similar.” Tomlinson also designates @ as the locator symbol for electronic addresses. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1974—MITS releases the first successful personal computer. The Altair is named for a planet from the Star Trek television series (or is the planet later named for the computer?). It uses Intel Corporation's 8080 microprocessor, also developed in 1974. The PC will not really catch on until the advent of the Apple II. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1975—Bill Gates and Paul Allen adapt BASIC to run on the Altair 8800, and sell the interpreter to MITS. It's the first computer language program written for the PC. By the end of November, the duo's new company has a name: Micro-soft. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1976—Personal computing's other two wunderkinder, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs form Apple (the name is licensed from the Beatles). 1977—The Apple II changes everything. It's the first PC to use color graphics. 1979—The first commercial cellular phone system begins operation in Tokyo. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1981—MTV debuts. 1981—IBM releases its first PC. 1982—Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan becomes the first film to utilize an all-digital computer graphic sequence. 1983—The Compact Disc is introduced. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1983—The Internet as we know it is created on January 1st when a standard networking protocol (TCP/IP) is adopted by all ARPANET users. 1984—Apple unveils the Macintosh during Superbowl XVIII. The now-classic commercial (directed by an Orwell-inspired Ridley Scott) is a thinly-veiled broadside at IBM. The Mac also introduces the general public to the mouse. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1985—Microsoft Windows version 1.0 hits the streets. 1986—The Academic American Encyclopedia becomes the first CD-ROM encyclopedia. 1988—Macromind (now Macromedia) releases Director, a multimedia authoring tool. 1989—British physicist Tim Berners-Lee proposes a global hypertext system, the World Wide Web. During the next few years, he will develop the standards for URL, HTML, and HTTP. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1991—The World Wide Web makes its debut on the Internet. 1991—James Cameron releases Terminator 2: Judgment Day(魔鬼終結者2 1991). The film sets a new standard for the use of computer-generated special effects. 1991—The MP3 digital audio compression format is invented at the Fraunhofer Institute, a German research lab. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1992—MS Windows version 3.1 is released. 1992—Hypertext markup language (HTML), debuts, giving anyone with an interest the tools to build their own Web page. 1993—Mosaic, the first graphical Web browser, is released. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1994—Broderbund releases Myst(迷霧之島), the first successful interactive 3-D computer game. To date, it has sold more than seven million copies. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1995—Disney releases Toy Story, the first feature-length movie totally comprised by computer graphics. The 77-minute film takes four years to make, and 800,000 machine hours to render. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1996—Affordable digital cameras (another spin-off from the U.S. space program) become widely available. 1996—DVD video is introduced; full-length movies are now distributed on a single CD. The DVD format also promises to transform the music, gaming and computer industries. Great Moments In Multimedia History:  Great Moments In Multimedia History 1999—Napster debuts, allowing users to download (and share) their favorite MP3s. The service puts peer-to-peer computing on the map, enabling individual computers to interact with each other, instead of downloading from a centralized server. Napster also becomes the focal point in a battle royal over copyright and intellectual property in the wired age. 2001—The revolution will be downloaded: Apple introduces iTunes (January) and the iPod (October). Definition:  Definition A good general definition is: Multimedia is the field concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (Video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally. A Multimedia Application is an Application which uses a collection of multiple media sources e.g. text, graphics, images, sound/audio, animation and/or video. Hypermedia can be considered as one of the multimedia applications. Definition:  Definition Digital multimedia is any combination of two or more media, represented in a digital form Digital multimedia is presented via a single interface, or manipulated by a single computer program Multimedia has a wide range of application, from entertainment to education and business Definition:  Definition What is Multimedia (Multiple-Media) A combination of text, graphics, images, video and audio to enrich its content and enhance communication Models:  Models Two models in use for combining elements of different media types: Paged-based: text, images, and video are laid out in a two-dimensional arrangement, likes books and magazines Time-based: controls may be provided to start and stop playback, like video clips and sounds Models:  Models The most widely-used multimedia technology on the Web is Flash HyperText & HyperMedia :  HyperText & HyperMedia What is HyperText and HyperMedia? Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts. The term was invented by Ted Nelson around 1965. Hypertext is therefore usually non-linear (as indicated below). HyperText & HyperMedia:  HyperText & HyperMedia HyperMedia is not constrained to be text-based. It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media - sound and video. Apparently, Ted Nelson was also the first to use this term. HyperText & HyperMedia:  HyperText & HyperMedia Definition of HyperMedia The World Wide Web (WWW) is the best example of hypermedia applications. Multimedia Systems:  Multimedia Systems A Multimedia System is a system capable of processing multimedia data and applications. A Multimedia System is characterised by the processing, storage, generation, manipulation and rendition of Multimedia information. Characteristics of a Multimedia System :  Characteristics of a Multimedia System A Multimedia system has four basic characteristics: Multimedia systems must be computer controlled. Multimedia systems are integrated. The information they handle must be represented digitally. The interface to the final presentation of media is usually interactive. Components of a Multimedia System :  Components of a Multimedia System Now let us consider the Components (Hardware and Software) required for a multimedia system: Capture devices -- Video Camera, Video Recorder, Audio Microphone, Keyboards, mice, graphics tablets, 3D input devices, tactile sensors, VR devices. Digitising/Sampling Hardware Storage Devices -- Hard disks, CD-ROMs, Jaz/Zip drives, DVD, etc Communication Networks -- Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, ATM, Intranets, Internets. Computer Systems -- Multimedia Desktop machines, Workstations, MPEG/VIDEO/DSP Hardware Display Devices -- CD-quality speakers, HDTV,SVGA, Hi-Res monitors, Colour printers etc. Applications :  Applications Examples of Multimedia Applications include: World Wide Web Hypermedia courseware Video conferencing Video-on-demand Interactive TV Groupware Home shopping Games Virtual reality Digital video editing and production systems Multimedia Database systems

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