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Multimedia & Contiguity Principles

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Information about Multimedia & Contiguity Principles
Education

Published on February 18, 2009

Author: craigmiller1

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This presentation details how to follow the Multimedia and Contiguity Principles when creating multimedia.
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Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Multimedia & Contiguity Principles Craig Miller EdTech 513 2/9/09 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Instructional Objectives 2 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Instructional Objectives • After viewing this slideshow, one should be able to explain the: • Chronological “Multimedia Principle” • Spatial “Contiguity Principle”. • Additionally, the learner should be able to identify flaws in poorly designed deliveries of Words and Pictures. 2 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Multimedia Presentation Defined 3 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Multimedia Presentation Defined • Any presentation containing Words (such as narration or onscreen text) and Pictures (such as illustrations, photos, animation, or video). • Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2008). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. 3 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Multimedia Principle 4 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Multimedia Principle • Learners develop a deeper understanding of content when Words and Pictures are presented simultaneously. • The words need not solely be delivered by text, but may also be delivered by voice. 4 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Word Only 5 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Word Only • This and all previous slides have been Word Only. • Word Only information requires an audience proficient at reading and following directions. • Additionally, Word Only information requires the learner to individually conceptualize the presented information. • Due to the subjectivity of individual internalization, the presenter can never be sure that all audience members understood the Word message as designed. 5 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Picture Only 6 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Picture Only • The following slide is Picture Only. • Picture Only information requires an audience that has prior knowledge of the subject. • When Pictures are presented without Words, the presenter may never be confident that each audience member understands the purpose of the image. 6 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

7 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

7 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Words & Pictures 8 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Words & Pictures • The following slide displays Words & Pictures at the same time. • By presenting multimedia simultaneously, the learner may avoid the need to go back and forth between the information presented on sequential slides, pages, windows, etc. 8 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Natural Carbon Cycle • The diagram to the right displays how nature contributes to the carbon cycle. • The arrow aiming down from the atmosphere represents the ONLY way CO2 is removed from the air. • EVERY OTHER arrow contributes CO2 to either the atmosphere or soil. 9 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Contiguity Principle 10 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Contiguity Principle • Learners develop a deeper understanding of content from words and pictures presented in close physical proximity to one other. • The following example separates the slide’s two main points with empty space & includes label lines for additional connective clarity. 10 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Natural Carbon Cycle The diagram below displays how nature contributes to the carbon cycle. • The arrow aiming down from the atmosphere represents the ONLY way CO2 is removed from the air. • EVERY OTHER arrow contributes CO2 either to the atmosphere or soil. 11 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

For Better Proximity Include the Words within the Picture itself! 12 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Rationale Summary 13 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Rationale Summary • If Words and Pictures are presented simultaneously and/or near each other, the learner may focus upon a deeper understanding of the content rather than taxing their working memory. • In other words, the learner may focus upon meaning rather than trying to remember the information previously presented. 13 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Did You Master The Principles? 1. CORRECTLY IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM: a) Does not possess Multimedia. b) Does not possess Contiguity 2. HOW COULD THIS PROBLEM BE REMEDIED? Source: http://about.ning.com/product.php 14 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Did You Master The Principles? ANSWER: b) Does not possess CONTIGUITY. The descriptions require scrolling far below the image. SOLUTION: Instead of “news”, use the sidebar to describe each of the features identified by the green numbered boxes. 15 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Did You Master The Principles? 1. CORRECTLY IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM: a) Does not possess Multimedia. b) Does not possess Contiguity 2. HOW COULD THIS PROBLEM BE REMEDIED? Source: http://support.apple.com/kb/TS1457 16 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Did You Master The Principles? ANSWER: a) Does not possess MULTIMEDIA. All instructions are clearly organized and hyperlinked to support pages; however, image support is not supplied. SOLUTION: A screenshot image showing the “X” icon in the menu bar would support the title. An additional screenshot should distinguish between a red vs. black “X”. 17 Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Now Go Forth and Mix Your Media! Tuesday, February 17, 2009

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